An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Year 6 Number 153 October 14th 2005
9010 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
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Omar and Marina
In SHARE 153
1.- The Evolution of Accelerative Learning from Lozanov to the present.
2.- Web Research: Ten Tips for the Techno-Challenged.
3.- Responsabilidad Civil de los Profesores.
4.- Common Sense.
5.- Cursos de Capacitación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires.
sobre Los Discursos Posmodernos de la Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa De La
7.- Urutesol Convention in Colonia.
8.- Fullbright Scholarships.
9.- Primer Encuentro Metropolitano de Formadores de Docentes
10.- Online Courses for Teachers of English.
11.- Course on Authentic Assessment.
12.- Seminario: ¿Qué Hacemos con la Violencia Escolar?
13.- Teechers: A Classroom Comedy.
14.- Omar´s next presentations.
1.- THE EVOLUTION OF ACCELERATIVE LEARNING FROM LOZANOV TO THE PRESENT
Dr. Uschi Felix has generously offered to SHARE this article with all of us.
By Uschi Felix (PhD)
So many different versions of Suggestopedia exist that it is difficult to arrive at a description of its structure which would cover all possible variations. A number of adaptations are known around the world today such as Superlearning, SALT (Suggestive Accelerative Learning and Teaching), Psychopädie, LIND (Learning in New Dimensions), Optimalearning and Holistic Learning. Elements have been included or omitted over the years, some according to sound research findings, some simply at a personal whim or more often for better commercial viability. This has resulted in confusion about the exact structure and content of a suggestopedic course.
When interpreting research results, it is important to know precisely what form of experimental treatment was used, since the inclusion of visualisation techniques (SALT) or synchronised breathing (Superlearning), for example, may have an effect not otherwise associated with Suggestopedia. Unfortunately not all studies give a detailed description of the treatment used. Furthermore, terms, especially Superlearning and Suggestopedia, tend to be used as synonyms even though there exist clear distinctions between the two approaches.
One important element missing in the research is a precise description of the evolution of Suggestopedia since its inception by Lozanov in the 1960s to the present day. Bancroft (1978a,b), Gassner-Roberts (1986a,1986b) and Strudel (1986) point out different versions of Suggestopedia and Bayuk (1983) discusses the possible dangers involved in the confusion of one method with another. Although both Baur (1980) and Philipov (1981) refer to early and later versions of Suggestopedia, neither elaborates further.
The aim of this chapter is to present an analysis of the changes that have been made, as well as to provide a detailed description of three versions of Suggestopedia referred to in the literature. These are the two major versions Superlearning and SALT, both North American adaptations, and Psychopädie, a European version. We will endeavour to isolate distinguishing elements between these versions and Lozanov's Suggestopedia, highlight individual contributions in terms of innovation, discuss these in the light of the relevant research and finally, determine whether or not these constitute a beneficial contribution to Suggestopedia.
Suggestopedia has undergone a number of changes since it was first experimentally used by Lozanov in the early 1960s. Why some changes were made is not entirely clear. Lozanov (1978) claims, for example, that research was carried out on the suitability of certain types of music without giving any further details. Although he elaborates a little in a paper given to American researchers in 1977 (in Hinkelmann 1986), no data is available on this research in the West.
Until recently Lozanov himself never gave a clear description of a suggestopedic class. His main publication in English Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedy (1978), based on his Ph.D. thesis published in Bulgaria seven years earlier, is poorly organised and somewhat vague when it comes to a description of what actually happens in a suggestopedic classroom. This resulted in harsh criticism by linguists such as Scovel (1979) who based their review of suggestopedic language teaching solely on this publication. Bancroft (1976) suggests that there may have been a deliberate attempt to make the method inaccessible to the West and that certain items, especially those referring to Yoga, may have been removed for political reasons prior to publication. Barzakov (in Ostrander & Schroeder 1979) confirms the notion of secrecy surrounding Suggestopedia in Bulgaria.
Confusion about the method became even more acute with the publication of Superlearning (Ostrander & Schroeder 1979). This book gave an account of Lozanov's method that consisted partly of an early version which Lozanov stopped using in the 1970s, and partly of elements that were allegedly observed in classes in Bulgaria, but never officially acknowledged by Lozanov. Furthermore, the book elaborated on Lozanov's method by advocating self-study courses using audio cassettes for instruction. The result of this was that teachers went out to practice what they thought was Suggestopedia, often using Superlearning and Suggestopedia interchangeably as a label for their method. This was particularly true for commercial courses which will be further discussed below.
In the 1980s numerous articles appeared, particularly in Western Europe, claiming to describe Suggestopedia. However, no two articles can be found that give an identical account of the structure and content of the method. If we compare Suggestopädie alias Superlearning - Lernen wie ein Kind (Nuber 1986), and Superlearning und Suggestopädie als Superlernmethoden im Fremdsprachenunterricht (Brenn 1986), for example, it becomes obvious that Nuber is describing the American adaptation called LIND while Brenn is clearly describing Superlearning.
In order to throw some light on the confusion, which still exists today, we will make an attempt to trace the development of Lozanov's Suggestopedia from its first official model to the latest model first described by Lozanov and Gateva in 1984. Since the changes were made largely within the phase referred to as the suggestopedic session, we will concentrate on this phase here, and give a description of the entire suggestopedic cycle with the final model below.
First Model. The first description in English of what is involved in a suggestopedic session can be found in the report of the research committee working on a project in 1965 (Lozanov 1978:25):
The suggestopedic session consists of an active and a passive part. During the active part the teacher reads the unfamiliar words and phrases three times (with their Bulgarian translation), using a special kind of intonation. The students listen intently following the words and phrases on a printed program. During the passive part the students relax in a 'passive' state of distraction without concentrating their attention on anything in particular. The words and phrases are read again with special intonation by the teacher.
The special intonation referred to means that a word or short phrase was presented three times, first in a normal speaking voice, second in a soft voice and third in a loud voice. At what stage the translation was given is not clear from this account, nor is it mentioned at any other stage in the book. Ostrander and Schroeder (1979) report that it was given first, before the intoned target language material.
When exactly music was introduced to the programme is also not entirely clear. Lozanov (1978:268) speaking of the "numerous experimental variants" of the suggestopedic session, mentions that "In the beginning the passive part was accompanied by pre-classical or classical music playing in the background." The passive part was therefore termed the concert session. The active part was not accompanied by music at this stage, but emphasis was given to a dramatic performance of the materials by the teacher using gestures, mimicry, body language, voice intonation — in short, all possible artistic means available. During this part, students were completely alert, following either their text or the teacher's performance or both. Before the passive part students were given relaxation exercises.
Which form the relaxation took is also vague in Lozanov's (1978) own account. The only concrete reference to be found is: "With this variant (the concert session) students used to be trained in muscle relaxation." (p.268) Presumably this relaxation took the form of Yoga exercises and breathing which would explain why later versions such as Superlearning put such a heavy emphasis on rhythmical breathing. Ostrander and Schroeder (1979) report that at this stage students were trained in relaxation techniques for four days before beginning a suggestopedic course.
Second Model. In the early 1970s specific relaxation was no longer regarded as necessary since, according to Lozanov (1978:268), the state of pseudo-passivity achieved in the concert part of the session was "sufficient for attaining concentrative psychorelaxation even without resorting to exercises in muscle relaxation and rhythmical breathing." We do not know the reasons for this change.
Music gained more prominence in the mid 1970s. The concert session now included two parts, an active concert in which materials were presented with music of the classical period, such as Mozart's Concerto no 7 in D Major for Violin and Orchestra, and a passive concert with pieces from the baroque period such as Corelli's Concerto Grosso, op.6. During the active concert, materials were still presented in the lively fashion described above; during the passive concert materials were read more quietly. Although Lozanov (1978) includes a music list, he gives no specific instructions as to how the pieces are to be used. Ostrander and Schroeder (1979:83) report that, for the passive concerts, only slow movements of the baroque period were used. They were strung together to create an half hour concert and usually finished with a faster movement to allow students to come out of the reverie state in a pleasant way.
Three level intonation was still used for presenting materials in the passive concert, but the voice level was changed with each new word or phrase and repetition disappeared. For example, instead of presenting Guten Tag three times, it was now only presented once in a soft speaking voice, then the next phrase Wie geht's was presented in a normal voice and Danke gut in a loud voice (see Baur 1980 and Jänicke 1982). While Jänicke's account suggests that translations were no longer given, Baur reports that translations were given "softly and neutrally" before the special intonation of each phrase which supports Ostrander and Schroeder's claim (Baur may, however, be referring to the Russian model).
Third Model. By the late 1970s the three level intonation as practised above had been dropped (Schmid 1978). The reason for this remains unclear. Lozanov's (1978:269) explanation leads one to believe that he may have wanted to avoid a comparison with hypnosis. Baur (1980) points out that the only criterion for breaking up the text into segments for presentation was that a certain number of syllables was not to be exceeded and therefore little consideration to the natural syntax and semantics was given in the unnatural intonation of language segments. He speculates that the change towards a more natural reading of the materials may have been the result of trying to rectify this problem. During the active concert the music now guides the reading in terms of rhythm and volume. During the passive concert the material is presented in its natural structure of intonation.
Lozanov and Gateva (1984,1988) also specify that entire musical pieces should be used now, which supports Ostrander and Schroeder's claim that pieces were used only in parts before. Again no specific reasons for the change are given by Lozanov. Gassner-Roberts (1988a) speculates that the inclusion of all movements of a classical or baroque piece with its distinctly different tempi substitutes for the three level intonation, by raising and lowering the students' activation level in a more natural way.
The full suggestopedic cycle, in its latest Lozanov version, has the following structure:
No specific relaxation exercises are given to prepare students for the class. Preparation is related to the setup of the room and to giving students information about what to expect in the course of the teaching. The behaviour of the teacher suggests at this stage, as well as throughout the course, that learning will be enjoyable and easier than students may have thought. Emphasis is given to making students comfortable and confident in their abilities. The room is well lit and airy, equipped with comfortable chairs and decorated with posters containing elaborations of the material to be taught. This material is not referred to at the beginning of the course, serving simply as a peripheral stimulus. In language teaching the posters might contain conjugation tables or pronouns, or other explanations of grammar. The posters are richly illustrated using many colours and designs. Before teaching starts, students choose new identities from the target culture.
During this session the materials for the first cycle are handed out to the students. (In the early version students did not have materials at this time — Schmid 1978, Baur 1982). For language teaching they are usually organised in dialogue form, with some explanations of vocabulary and grammar. However, other materials, such as prose texts, songs, poems or grammar, are also presented from time to time. The target language text is given on the left hand side with the translation given on the right hand side. Materials are clearly laid out with wide margins so that texts can be followed easily by the students. If a textbook is used then the translations are given on loose sheets attached to the right hand pages of the book. Lozanov and Gateva's (1984,1988) Italian course, for example, gives the Bulgarian translations on loose strips of paper corresponding line by line with the text in the target language.
The first part of this session is called the introduction or decoding. Here the teacher introduces the text to the students using gestures, mimicry and body language, describing characters and settings in the story. Students may repeat the text aloud if they wish but they are not encouraged to read as a group. The text is treated globally; at this stage little detailed information about separate items is given. Students are able to understand the text immediately by glancing at the translations which reduces anxiety about handling rather large chunks of materials. These may consist of 300 to 700 lexical items in one sitting in the first session of an intensive course of 3.5 hours duration and up to 300 in the sessions that follow the completion of the first cycle. The teacher's gestures further reinforce understanding, and help with memorisation.
After the entire text has been introduced, the concert session follows. The method book which accompanies Lozanov and Gateva's (1984, 1988) Italian course contains detailed instructions of how materials should be presented during the active and passive concert.
The Active Concert. The room is well lit. The students sit calmly in their chairs. They have their texts in front of them. The teacher who is standing reads the text in the target language while an entire piece of classical music is playing in the background. The music is taken from the Vienna Classical period (e.g. works by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven), and from the standard romantic repertoire (e.g. Tchaikovsky's Concerto for Violin and Orchestra, in D major, op. 35). This music is rich in harmony and melody. The teacher calmly waits until the introductory part of the musical piece is finished and then begins the reading, adapting voice modulation and volume according to the rhythms and phrasing of the music. The voice virtually acts as an additional instrument of the orchestra, underlining the musical phrase. Especially important lexical items may be marked by a distinct change in intonation. The teacher looks at the students frequently and uses gestures to illustrate the text. The teacher's diction is clear and each word distinctly shaped phonetically. The students follow the text, glancing at the translations during breaks in the music, at which time the teacher does not read. At the end of the active concert there is a short break when students may get up and stretch, but not talk.
The Passive Concert. The room remains well lit. The students are again calmly seated in their chairs. The teacher, too, is now seated. The students have no texts to refer to. The music is taken from the pre-classical (baroque) period, such as works by Bach, Handel and Vivaldi (e.g. Vivaldi's Concerti for Flute and Orchestra). The character of the music is such that it creates an atmosphere of contemplation and introspection and a removal from everyday problems and conflicts. Only the materials which have been decoded and presented in the active concert are read here; no new materials may be introduced. The teacher waits until the music has begun to captivate the audience before the reading begins. The speed now is that of everyday speech with clear diction. There are no unnatural pauses during the reading. When reading a dialogue the voice is slightly changed to indicate a change in character. The students may choose whether they want to direct their attention towards the music or the reading. When the text is finished, the teacher waits for the musical piece to end, then quietly gets up and immediately leaves the room. The quiet atmosphere at the end of this session prevails. The passive concert always ends the lesson for the day.
3. Review and Elaboration
The first revision of the materials takes place on the next day. However, students are encouraged to read the text again before going to bed and on waking. It is emphasised that they should not learn the text but simply glance through it. Lozanov stresses that the material must be read on the next day or at least within 48 hours after the passive concert. He also stresses that materials must not be practised between the two concerts or immediately after the passive concert. Practice takes place during the review and elaboration sessions in the form of creative communicative exercises. These may include sketches, songs and games. Emphasis is put on meaningful communication. First, however, materials are simply re-read without elaborations. The text is then gradually expanded in terms of vocabulary and/or grammar. The review and elaboration session is usually about twice as long as the previous sessions, and may be extended until the material is believed to have been assimilated. (This may take an entire week if 700 lexical items have been presented). When this stage is reached, the cycle starts anew.
According to Lozanov (1978) a first suggestopedic language course is taught over 24 days with four 45 minute sessions daily. It can also be taught in 10 days with the equivalent hours of daily teaching. Approximately 2000 lexical items are presented during such a course. Lozanov does not specifically recommend any distribution for teaching and claims that the suggestopedic cycle can be tailored to normal school or university time tables if block teaching is not possible, without any loss in effectiveness. (Lozanov:321)
For school children Lozanov recommends a slightly different procedure during the concert session. While the active concert is almost as above with concessions made to the children's reading ability in terms of speed and understanding, the passive, or in this case pseudo-passive, concert is quite different from that for adults. The same music as for the active concert is used for the reading while the children draw on a subject of their choice. The drawings are displayed and used in the elaboration sessions. Again, Lozanov gives no specific reasons for these recommendations. The music selections for children are different from the ones for adults, however, although works are largely taken from the same composers (e.g. Handel's Watermusic, Vivaldi's Four Seasons).
While the above represents Lozanov's latest version of Suggestopedia, several adaptations retaining the same name exist throughout Western and Eastern Europe, most notably the Russian model (see Baur 1980) and the version practised in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR model is particularly interesting since changes that were made to Lozanov's model were the result of published research findings. Research was carried out at the Institute for Mnemology at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig. The music research, to some of which we have access, led to a different selection of musical pieces for the concert session. The choice of music was arrived at by measuring psycho-physiological responses to certain types of music with the use of polarity profiles completed by the students (Lehmann 1982). The music recommended as a result of this research consists mainly of slow movements of orchestral works by Mozart and Haydn which are strung together to form one piece. Baroque pieces are no longer part of the repertoire. The concert session may start with an introductory adagio by Boildieu, for example, and it always ends with an allegro, e.g. by Haydn. The same collection of music (Lehmann & Gassner-Roberts 1988) may be used in every concert session.
According to Gassner-Roberts (1988a:3) in the GDR model the active and passive concerts have been combined into one musical séance. Three level intonation (normal, whisper, loud) is still used. Students have their text in front of them, accompanied by a full translation at the beginning and a partial translation later in the course. The teacher waits until the end of the first adagio in order to give students time to 'tune in' to the music before beginning to read a page or a specific section of the text with the next adagio. The students follow their text with their eyes. At the end of that section the teacher says "Eyes closed" and re-reads the same text while the music continues. At the end of this the teacher says "Eyes open" and reads the next section which is then repeated with the students' eyes closed as before. This cycle continues until all the material has been presented. The teacher then says " You have learned … lexical items in the séances so far". After waiting for the end of the last adagio, the teacher turns on the allegro and the students open their eyes. They leave the room at the end of the music.
Gassner-Roberts (1988a) further reports that while she has experimented with several versions of the concert session over a number of years in the teaching of German to university students, the GDR version was most readily accepted by the students. Although everyone had liked the passive concerts before, the active concerts were sometimes rejected by the students as being artificial and strange. Furthermore, some students, particularly those interested in music, found themselves analysing the different musical pieces presented during the concert session. In the GDR version the students hear the same music throughout the course which means that they become familiar with it and therefore no longer focus special attention on it.
To describe Superlearning accurately as a method is not easy. There are problems in organising the material since Superlearning is often used simply as a synonym for either Suggestopedia or SALT or for a combination of both. Hinkelmann (1986) deplores the fact that the only attempt made at a distinction between the two is the labelling of Superlearning as the commercial product of the more scientifically valid and serious Suggestopedia. While this distinction may hold true when comparing Superlearning courses which boldly advertise their product with the help of unsubstantiated claims (such as those pointed out by Gassner-Roberts 1987 and Schiffler 1987), this is not always the case with well researched Suggestopedia courses. Undoubtedly there are good and bad examples of all versions of Accelerative Learning. The concern in this chapter is not to compare the different versions in terms of their efficacy, but to identify distinguishing features between each version in order to clarify what has so far been a confused situation for users and researchers alike.
The term Superlearning was introduced by two American researchers (Ostrander & Schroeder 1979). They define it thus:
Superlearning … refers to an eclectic system for accelerated learning of factual data resulting from westernized, modernized techniques for developing supermemory. Superlearning is also used generally to refer to all the learning systems that work holistically to develop reserves of mind and body. (p.24)
We've used the same background sources Lozanov drew from (such as Raja Yoga) and also others he does not mention. We've drawn from Lozanov's own highly creative work. Finally, we've tried to draw from the experience of those who've gotten rapid-learning results in North America. (p.69)
This definition suggests that Superlearning was designed using some elements of Suggestopedia and some elements of the American version which became SALT. Superlearning differs from Lozanov's Suggestopedia in several ways.
Relaxation. Although Ostrander and Schroeder were aware of the fact that Lozanov had dropped specific relaxation from his programme, they were in agreement with the Western rationale for retaining relaxation and for using special visualisation techniques, and therefore included both in Superlearning. Since these elements were introduced by the American researchers responsible for SALT, they will be discussed in the relevant section below.
Synchronisation. Following Bancroft's (1976) observations, Ostrander and Schroeder (1979) interpreted Lozanov's method as including synchronisation of the students' breathing and the presentation of materials. There is no evidence of this in any of Lozanov's publications, yet Bancroft (1976) felt that this was the vital element withheld from explanations about the method when visiting Bulgaria.
It is possible that Bancroft observed classes during the period when Lozanov was experimenting with presenting materials at different intervals. Jänicke (1982) and Baur (1980) report such experiments, although no exact data is given. Apparently Lozanov experimented with presenting words via tape recordings in one second, five second and ten second intervals and found significant differences in retention rate. Reports of the magnitude of these differences vary, however. Ostrander and Schroeder (1979) report that in the one second condition students learnt about 20% of the words, in the five second condition 30%, and in the ten second condition 40%, while Baur (1980) writes that the ten second condition increased retention rate by 10% when compared to the other two. Jänicke (1982) reports that twice as many words were retained in the five second condition and three times as many in the ten second condition when compared to the control groups. Ostrander and Schroeder and Baur do not mention control groups; it is therefore possible that either different experiments were quoted or that the one second condition functioned as the control. Only Baur gives an exact source for the study, Lozanov's Suggestologija, 1971:244, which is not officially available in English. This is just a small example of the inconsistency of reports about research on Suggestopedia. More will be discussed in chapter 4.
On the basis of Bancroft's observations in Bulgaria, Ostrander and Schroeder (1979:115) placed a great deal of importance on correct rhythmical presentation of materials in Superlearning. They suggest the following cycle for the presentation of materials and the students' breathing: "All the materials spoken are precisely timed on an 8-second cycle so breathing will naturally fall into a rhythmic pattern of: hold 4; out 2; in 2." This means that the material to be learnt is presented in small chunks during the four seconds in which the students hold their breath.
Students are extensively coached in the correct breathing procedure and encouraged to practise several cadences of this breathing before a concert session. Ostrander and Schroeder point out that some students, especially children, have difficulties learning or sustaining the rhythmical breathing; they suggest therefore that taped material could contain a metronome 'tick' to aid with timing. It is not clear why materials are presented in an eight second cycle. Ostrander and Schroeder claim that this was the precise cycle observed by Bancroft in Bulgaria. However, if Lozanov had found the best results with presenting words every ten seconds, why would he have used a rhythm in which words are presented every four seconds? Bancroft (1978a) speculates that he may have switched to this presentation because of the rhythms of the baroque music but does not give any further explanation.
Research on synchronisation is minimal and does not consistently show that it is beneficial to the students' learning. Bordon and Schuster (1976) found a significantly positive effect on retention of vocabulary, while Renigers (1981) speculates in his conclusions that the students' efforts to concentrate on synchronisation may have hampered their relaxation and consequently their performance. For similar reasons almost all practitioners have now dropped synchronisation from their programmes. Renigers' (1981) speculations are supported by Fassihiyan (1981) who reports unfavourable results in Iranian experiments based on Yoga exercises and rhythmic breathing when comparing these to experiments based on music in Canada (Racle 1975). Ostrander and Schroeder (1979) give Shaffer (1979) as one of their sources for the efficacy of breathing techniques in Superlearning. Shaffer claims that the Yoga breathing techniques are the most responsible for rapid learning. He asserts that Lozanov himself was "totally unaware of the key mechanisms responsible for accelerated learning in his method" (p.180) and offers the following scientific explanation of the 'Lozanov Effect':
It is asserted that the Lozanov effect achieves memory and learning enhancement by lowering the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood through voluntary hyperventilation, thereby raising the pH level of the body fluids and thus increasing the excitability of the nerve cells. In this way, it is maintained, learning and memory consolidation occur faster than by ordinary means. (p.180)
No empirical evidence of how this effect is achieved in Suggestopedia or Superlearning is given. The assertion that breathing is the single most important element in improved learning is strongly refuted by the fact that the majority of studies which report such improvement (see chapter 4) do not use synchronised breathing. Schiffler (1986b) indicates his intentions to investigate the effectiveness of synchronisation following his findings of a positive effect of music as a variable in the intensive language learning environment.
Self-instruction. Superlearning is presented as a self-study procedure where materials can be prepared on audio tapes. This is the greatest element of distinction between Lozanov's Suggestopedia and Superlearning. Three very important aspects of Suggestopedia are ignored: the vital role of the teacher, the extensive review and elaboration periods and group dynamics. In Superlearning students are being told that all they need is a tape-recording and a set of instructions in order to accelerate their learning by astounding rates. (Claims made are discussed in chapter 4). The focal part of the method is the supermemory session, which corresponds to the first model of the suggestopedic session described above. The decoding and activation of the materials are left to the students themselves. The passive state of the student is promoted while the active state is largely ignored. Emphasis is given to lowering body rhythms through relaxation and breathing, yet little consideration is given to the fact that, especially in language learning, students need to engage in meaningful communication in order to assimilate the materials given in the concert sessions in terms of functional use.
The structure of a Superlearning programme, as described by Ostrander and Schroeder (1979) is as follows:
In order to prepare for the supermemory session, students are encouraged to practise relaxation, either in the form of Jacobson's (1938) progressive relaxation exercises or through visualisation. Many examples are given. They are further instructed to practise the correct breathing procedure and to give themselves affirmations such as Learning and remembering are easy for me.
Before beginning the supermemory session students are instructed to 'review' the materials they wish to learn as vividly as possible. It is suggested that they try to do this in the form of a game, a play or a dialogue. It is difficult to work out how this is done when the materials are completely unknown to the students but no further suggestions are given.
Then follows the supermemory session. In the first part, students are instructed to read silently through the materials while the materials are recited either by a person present or on tape. (Extensive instructions for the preparation of tapes are given). In the second part, students are asked to close their eyes and listen to the materials again, this time with the slow baroque movements playing in the background. In contrast to Lozanov's instructions above, students are told to pay attention to what is being said, to breathe in synchronisation with the presentation of the materials, and to visualise the materials. The combination of attention on three complex processes is far removed from Lozanov's original intentions of 'concert pseudo-passivity'. How effective imagery would be in this context, when students are already concentrating on their breathing, is also questionable. Schuster and Wardel (1978) found that imagery as a variable of instruction for vocabulary learning was very effective on its own, but less effective when coupled with other variables.
3. Review and Elaboration
This is the part that is conspicuously missing from Superlearning. Students are simply instructed to give themselves a quiz after the supermemory session and to 'use' the materials they have studied within the next few days.
From the point of view of language learning Superlearning in this form has more in common with audio-lingual courses than with Suggestopedia. The addition of music, relaxation and imagery may produce a more efficient and enjoyable audio-lingual course, although no comparative studies are known to this author. The addition of synchronised breathing, however, may hamper students' learning. Superlearning in this form cannot be compared to Suggestopedia which can in essence be described as creative communicative teaching with the addition of music and suggestion.
Linguists, notably Baur (1984:292) have criticised Superlearning for the following:
[1. Language learning is characterised by the learning of vocabulary and/or idiomatic phrases; the productive-creative and practical aspects of language and speaking are not considered.
2. Language competence is tested through translation (mostly from foreign to mother tongue) of single words; which language skills the learners have actually mastered, remains completely unclear.
3. It is suggested to the learners that all they have to do is relax and that they will be able to acquire the productive use of the foreign language by simply remaining passive. It is completely ignored that language learning is coupled with communication and has to be an active process; otherwise only receptive skills are trained (provided that the language materials are suitable).]
While Baur's criticism is perfectly valid when referring to Superlearning as described above, it does not hold true when referring to Suggestopedia, although some linguists (Scovel 1979, Brown 1987) appear not to distinguish between the two. Scovel (1979), reviewing Lozanov's Suggestology and Outlines of Suggestopedy, believes that "suggestopedy ...is an attempt to teach memorisation techniques and is not devoted to the far more comprehensive enterprise of language acquisition". (p.260) Given the nature of Lozanov's presentation of Suggestopedia in this book, it is not surprising that Scovel came to this conclusion. Lozanov does speak predominantly of hypermnesia, and he does not describe in detail the entire suggestopedic cycle which includes the extensive review and elaboration session described above. Lozanov is not a linguist, and in this publication he was concerned with the effect of suggestion as related to hypermnesia. To make a valid criticism of Suggestopedia used for language teaching, it is more appropriate to look at courses designed by linguists. The Lozanov cycle described above was designed in collaboration with Novakov and Gateva, both notable linguists, and it includes elements that specifically address the complexity of language learning, long before the advent of Communicative Teaching and the Natural Approach which are generally well received by linguists and with which Suggestopedia has much in common.
Following the publication of Superlearning, two things happened. Teachers began using Superlearning in the classroom, and commercial courses, largely following the structure above, were offered. For the former, the model had to be expanded and tended to include Lozanov's review and elaboration sessions. In this form, the method became a combination of Suggestopedia, Superlearning and SALT. A typical example of this is Dröbner (1986). From now on labels were used almost at random, and if the treatment in experimental studies was not described in detail, it was impossible to know which elements had been included. It followed from this that Suggestopedia was sometimes judged by courses which had little in common with Lozanov's model.
The appearance of high profile commercial Superlearning courses contributed to the confusion. Furthermore, many courses of this nature use sensationalist research reports for advertising — such as the claim that language learning can be increased 50 times and more (a claim that Lozanov himself never made but that is attributed to him as a consequence of the confusion) — even though sound scientific data on Accelerative Learning which disputes such claims has become available. This practice did not enhance the credibility of Suggestopedia in the eyes of applied linguists. These courses are generally self-study courses produced on cassettes accompanied by a textbook. They enjoy varying degrees of success depending on how well they are designed and produced. While some courses are very poor in terms of content and structure, there are also some good ones.
An example of the latter is a course produced by a psychologist and a linguist in West Germany (Kelly & Hinkelmann 1986). An attempt has been made to include the entire suggestopedic cycle, synchronisation has been dropped and students' arousal level is monitored by alternating active and passive states guided by the appropriate musical backing. Materials are organised in dialogue form, with vocabulary lists and exercises following every chapter. A brief grammatical overview and a small dictionary for travelling purposes are also provided in the textbook. Students are informed about the nature of Superlearning in the introduction. It is suggested that students will learn in a relaxed atmosphere in which learning blocks are impossible. Research in which Superlearning students learnt three times as much as students in traditional courses (Dröbner 1986) is referred to. The term Superlearning is used as a synonym for both Suggestopedia and SALT. The course follows this structure:
An audio cassette with relaxation exercises is provided. These range from systematic muscle relaxation to visualisation exercises such as mind-calming described below in the SALT section. They are accompanied by music such as the second movement from Beethoven's Emperor Concerto and Pachelbel's Canon finishing with a short piece of the faster third movement from the Emperor Concerto accompanied by wake-up suggestions.
Materials are presented in two concert sessions. For the first concert the students are instructed to remain relaxed but to follow the text in their book. No translations are given during the reading and the target language is read rather slowly. This session is accompanied by the slow movement of Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony. Before the next session begins the visualisation exercise given on the preparation tape is repeated.
For the second concert students are instructed to remain completely passive and to enjoy the simultaneous presentation of music and language as if they were at a concert or at the opera. This session is accompanied by Bach's Air and the reading this time includes the translation of the materials which are now presented in short phrases and at normal speed. This session finishes with the same piece of music and wake-up suggestions that were given at the end of the preparation tape. In an accompanying brochure the suggestion is given that during these learning concerts a passive knowledge of the materials is acquired (Hinkelmann 1988:6).
3. Review and Elaboration
The students are now encouraged to practise these materials in a communicative fashion, presumably with a partner. A variety of language games are provided for this purpose.
The designers of this course have attempted to include a more substantial activation period of the materials than was suggested by Ostrander and Schroeder (1979). How effective these practice sessions are, however, when students are left to their own devices, cannot be ascertained. Although this course may well be more effective and more interesting than a traditional audio-lingual course, it is far removed from Lozanov's Suggestopedia. The main difference between the two is still the physical presence of the teacher in Suggestopedia. It is the teacher who provides the suggestive atmosphere, creates positive group dynamics, guides the direction of the elaboration exercises and provides constant positive feedback. And even if students were able to conduct their own review and elaboration periods adequately, the cassette course still lacks the coherence of the Lozanov cycle and the positive reinforcement that is gained by the students witnessing each other's progress.
The main difference between Suggestopedia and Superlearning when used in the classroom is the latter's use of relaxation and visualisation exercises and the inclusion of synchronisation of students' breathing with the presentation of materials. It does not appear from the research that synchronisation is a beneficial addition to Suggestopedia, which is reflected in the fact that most practitioners of Superlearning and SALT have excluded this element from their teaching. The supposed benefits of visualisation will be discussed in the SALT section below. Since all Western versions of Suggestopedia include some form of relaxation, the effect of relaxation will be explored in chapter 3.
This version of Suggestopedia was developed by a group of American teachers and college professors (Schuster, Benitez-Bordon & Gritton 1976, Schuster & Gritton 1985). Their first version in the mid 1970s followed essentially Lozanov's second model but retained Yoga breathing and exercises and, following Bancroft's (1976) suggestions, included synchronised breathing during the concert sessions. The Americans believed that specific relaxation was beneficial to students in the Western world, especially in the school environment where students can be hyperactive, badly disciplined and lacking in concentration. While Lozanov (1978) claimed that in Suggestopedia relaxation is naturally produced in the concert sessions and therefore does not need special attention, the Americans reintroduced relaxation, both physical and mental. They believed that the cultural differences between Bulgaria and America (pointed out at length by Barzakov 1982 and Bayuk 1983) were such that Lozanov's model needed to be adapted for American conditions. This adaptation was mainly reflected in the introduction of relaxation and visualisation techniques.
In their second version, therefore, the Americans favoured a technique called mind-calming over Yoga breathing and exercises, although some practitioners (Held 1978) used both. Synchronisation was eventually dropped by most practitioners but not by all. The reasons for dropping synchronisation were largely the same as those mentioned above. Prichard and Taylor (1976), for example, report that some learning disabled children had difficulties relaxing while concentrating on the synchronised breathing.
Mind-calming consists essentially of visualisation exercises related or unrelated to the subject taught. Its purpose is to focus the students' concentration and attention on the task, to create a positive learning environment and to clear students' minds of all irrelevant information to do with their personal lives (Schuster 1976a). Stricherz (1979) who compared the effectiveness of several physical and mental relaxation techniques, reports that the technique similar to mind-calming as described here "affected blood pressure the least, but provided the greatest self-reported sense of relaxation and well-being". (p.189) This suggests that although physical relaxation may be more effective on a physiological basis, mind-calming may produce greater psychological effects.
How visualisation can be used to affect the psychological state of the students is extensively outlined in Schuster and Gritton (1985). Nervous or hyperactive students might be calmed through a "walk in the forest", tired students given new energy through "soaking up the sun on the beach" and negative students made more cheerful and positive through recalling a positive learning experience from their past.
Schuster (1976a) describes this last technique of restimulation as a Gestalt procedure which involves not only visualisation but also the students' emotions. He claims that this element alone may be effective in increased learning in SALT but gives no further details. He may be referring to early experiments such as Gritton and Benitez-Bordon (1976) who taught mathematics, science and spelling to school children in large classes using restimulation and other forms of mind-calming only. Since there was no control group, Gritton and Benitez-Bordon (1976) report the results on a naturalistic basis: students worked better, were more interested in the subject, were more confident and had fewer discipline problems. Gritton as the teacher felt more relaxed which renewed his interest in teaching. Achievement was not tested experimentally but he reports that "the children went from saying that they could not spell five words a day to fifty" (p.333).
Mind-calming can also be used for subject specific activities. Herr (1981) suggests an interesting visualisation technique related to language learning. Here the students are encouraged to imagine themselves in the environment of the language they are studying, hearing the sounds, seeing the language written on signs, literally experiencing the language. With some imagination this could be transferred to other subjects. Similar techniques have been successfully demonstrated by Swart (1987) in the teaching of a Shakespeare text.
Visualisation during mind-calming can also be used for goal oriented purposes, such as students seeing themselves as having successfully completed the course, or at various successful stages along the course. It can further be used to reduce anxiety before tests by students calmly completing the test in their imagination. These techniques are extensively used in Sports psychology. Setterlind, Uneståhl and Kaill (1986) developed a systematic relaxation training for youth, based on visualisation of this kind which was introduced to all Swedish schools and is now in the process of evaluation. Some results are reported in chapter 3.
Experimental research on the effects of mind-calming in education is not extensive but suggests a positive effect on learning and behaviour. Stricherz and Stein (1980) investigated the effect of four different relaxation techniques on students' ability to recognise words which had been presented audio-visually after induction to the different conditions. 112 adult students were the subjects in this well controlled experiment. The results showed a significant difference in the number of words recognised favouring the cognitive mind expansion procedure (similar to mind-calming) over the control group. No significant differences were found between any of the other conditions.
Galyean (1980) investigated the effect of guided imagery activity on various behaviours of low achieving students at a minority school in Los Angeles. Three independent observers recorded various positive and negative behaviours of students in two Spanish classes taught by the same teacher. Treatment in the experimental class consisted of visualisation sessions lasting five to seven minutes at the beginning of each class. Students were encouraged to a) focus on their inner strength, b) view themselves as potentially successful learners, and c) view the teacher and the others as helpers in their quest for success. Results after three months and 12 observations showed significantly fewer occurrences of negative and disruptive behaviour in the experimental class. It must be pointed out, however, that subjects were not assigned at random, and that the behavioral compatibility of the two classes was not checked before the introduction of the treatment. While Galyean herself realises these limitations, she was satisfied with the classes' compatibility on the basis of teacher reports prior to the experiment.
The positive effect of visualisation in the learning environment has further been shown by Kosslyn (1980,1983) and its powerful use in verbal learning by Paivio (1971). Although in SALT visualisation is rarely used for mnemonic purposes as in Paivio and Desrochers (1979), the range of uses is enormous and only limited by the expertise, enthusiasm and imagination of the teacher and the students.
The SALT version described by Schuster and Gritton (1985) is structured as follows:
This session starts with simple physical relaxation and stretching exercises followed by mind-calming exercises. The visualisation during the latter often takes the form of recalling a pleasant learning experience in the past. The session may include positive learning suggestions related to the ease of learning or to goal setting.
This session is almost the same as that in Lozanov's third model. It begins with a review of previously learnt material, followed by a preview of the material to be studied. The two concert sessions, using Lozanov's early music suggestions, namely classical pieces for the active concert and slow baroque movements for the passive concert, conclude this session.
3. Review and Elaboration
This session follows to a large extent the format suggested by Lozanov's cycle above, but it may include self-corrected quizzes and a mind-calming session at the end of the class.
While this is the predominant version of SALT there are slightly altered versions within SALT. Some practitioners insert a mind-calming session immediately before the concert sessions and others practise the material between concert sessions.
SALT appears to be a sensible adaptation of Suggestopedia in the Western world. The chief difference between the two approaches is the retention of physical relaxation in the former and the inclusion of mind-calming for mental relaxation during the preparation session. Although research on the effects of mind-calming is limited, there is some indication of its benefits in terms of positively affecting the psychological state of the students as well as improving students' performance in recognition tasks. Mind-calming may therefore well be a valuable contribution to Suggestopedia which is reflected in the fact that it has been adopted by many practitioners of other versions of Accelerative Learning around the world.
This version of Suggestopedia was developed in West Germany by Baur (1984) who looked at the method as an applied linguist. While previous versions had been used for teaching various subjects, Psychopädie was specifically designed for language teaching.
Baur rejects the long periods of purely receptive states in which students taught with Superlearning, SALT and Suggestopedia find themselves. He believes, in sharp contrast to Krashen (1982), that language learning has to be an active process right from the start. With suggestopedic teaching students may remain passive for the entire first day of an intensive language course, which would correspond to Krashen's (1982) 'silent period'. Baur has his students reproducing materials after the first twenty minutes of the course. He argues that if active periods are included in the presentation sessions, students will find the transition to the activation periods more natural. He further points out that during the long passive periods, rational-analytical learning strategies may be activated which could hinder communication considerably (Baur 1984:295).
While these observations may be justified from a linguistic point of view, the following criticism of Suggestopedia by Baur (1984:294) seems surprising:
[The language input is exclusively conducted via listening, reading and musical-emotional backing. Because language perception in communication is very strongly related to non-verbal elements such as eye contact, mimicry, gestures, proximity, as well as other factors of situational perception and proprioceptive processes, Suggestopedia (as well as other methods of language teaching) does not take into account important factors of acquisition.]
Baur speaks of the students' Wahrnehmung [perception] rather than of the production of language items. Even though the students in Suggestopedia remain physically passive during the presentation stages, they do not exclusively perceive and receive the language via reading and listening. Lozanov (1978) makes it abundantly clear that communication takes place on more than one level, namely verbal and non-verbal and that the teacher needs to use every possible device, such as mimicry and gestures, in order to make materials more accessible to the students. Baur's criticism, therefore, is more appropriate regarding the Superlearning courses produced on cassettes where such elements cannot be included.
Baur is, however, justified in claiming that the students are not physically involved in what he terms Gestik during the long receptive periods in intensive suggestopedic courses. He not only believes that the students need to practise the materials earlier than Lozanov suggests, but that they also need to reproduce the non-verbal elements included in the presentation of the materials. He emphasises (Baur & Grzybek 1984:70) that the term Gestik has to be broad since gestures are inevitably linked with other non-verbal and/or paraverbal communication. In order to investigate the efficacy of Gestik in the suggestopedic presentation phases, Baur and Grzybek (1984) carried out a study in which 60 lexical items of Russian were presented to 203 volunteer adult students who knew no Russian. The presentation phases were largely based on Lozanov's first model:
Presentation of materials took place in three different conditions as follows:
Phases three and four of the presentation cycle remained as above and were identical for all groups. Subjects were given a 20 item multiple choice test immediately after the sessions and one week later. Students did not know that they were going to be re-tested. Baur and Grzybek were particularly interested in the results after one week since items had to be recalled from long-term memory. The results showed the following:
These trends were highly significant for all within-group tests. Between groups the difference between the first and second condition, as well as between the second and third condition was significant. The difference between the first and third condition was highly significant.
In order to integrate these findings and to provide a more balanced model in terms of the alternation of active and passive states in Suggestopedia, Baur (1984) developed the following structure for his Psychopädie cycle (information is included to give some idea about the distribution of time for the individual phases in an intensive language course):
Before the course begins students are informed about the nature of the course and introduced to the relaxation techniques used. Baur does not specify the time involved.
(a) Introduction Phase. The first 20 minutes of the course are spent decoding the new materials in a lively manner integrating non-verbal elements to bring the text alive. This part is identical to the beginning of Lozanov's presentation session, although the short duration suggests that fewer lexical items are introduced here. Baur (1984:309) stresses that the role of the teacher's use of Kinesik, Gestik and Mimik is not to convey the meaning of the text, since its translation is given, but to activate the interest of the learner and to superimpose on the text characteristics which are perceived via a multitude of channels and are stored as secondary associations which aids in the retention of the materials.
(b) Reproduction Phase. The next 90 minutes are spent with active reproduction of the text by the students through interactive exercises. This phase does not exist in this position in any other model of Accelerative Learning; the exercises described here, such as role play and introductions, are part of the review and elaboration sessions in all the above models. In a sense Baur distributes the activities for review and elaboration over two sessions. In this session the learners are to be made familiar with the text so that items used in the activation session are easily recognised. They are given the opportunity to develop their playful-creative fantasy, to lose their fear of speaking, to realise that it can be fun to operate in the target language, and with the integration of physical activities overcome their passive involvement in the learning process.
(c) Analytical Phase. This 40 minute session is largely based on the second model of Lozanov's active concert session. Baur (1984:313) points out that here the cognitive-analytical abilities of the learners are activated through the reading of the text, the recognition of word and syllable divisions, the comparison of mother tongue and target language structures, and the comparison of phonetics and spelling.
(d) Associative Phase. This session of 30 minutes is largely based on the first model of Lozanov's passive concert session. Before this session the students have a relaxation period with physical exercises and visualisation exercises. The placement of a relaxation session here, although different from the models discussed above (except Lozanov's first model), is supported by some other practitioners of Accelerative Learning. Stockwell (1985), for instance, feels that students, especially in intensive courses, do not need relaxation at the beginning of the course but at this stage. Baur (1984:315) points out that here the logical-analytical processes of the left hemisphere, which were predominant in the phase before, give way to right hemisphere dominated processes. Now the materials are again perceived globally with the superimposition of the musical structures.
Baur stresses that before this session at least one night of rest should be given to consolidate the materials. The next four to six hours are spent with the activation of materials in playful communicative situations. Emphasis is put on the development of spontaneous speaking, although writing skills and grammar are also included. Baur (1984:319) believes that because materials were already presented in a playful fashion during the reproduction phase, the transfer from input to activation and functional use is more natural than in Suggestopedia.
Psychopädie appears to be a well designed adaptation of Suggestopedia for intensive language teaching. Baur, too, points out that his model can be adapted for different learning environments, provided that the relationship of time and phases is held constant. The main difference between this model and Lozanov's model is the inclusion of a reproduction phase before the concert sessions. In the Lozanov model as in Superlearning and SALT the students remain in a receptive state right up to the review and elaboration sessions. Baur's model by contrast provides a more even alternation between receptive and active states which may well be more attractive to the students. However, the receptive phases in Suggestopedia are generally not seen as unpleasant, especially by adult students. Baur's model may also be attractive from the teachers' point of view. Intensive courses, in particular, tend to be very demanding on teachers in these prolonged "performance" sessions.
In terms of structure all Baur does is reshuffle Lozanov's model by taking some time devoted in Suggestopedia to elaboration and practice and using it for similar purposes in the presentation stages. Although Baur and Grzybek (1984) have given some empirical evidence for the efficacy of students reproducing non-verbal elements in the presentation phase, this study on its own does not give sufficient support to the rationale of including a reproductive phase in the presentation sessions. Lozanov's and more recent researchers' use of non-verbal elements in the review and elaboration sessions, and indeed throughout the suggestopedic cycle, may well prove equally as efficient. In order to prove the superiority of a reproductive phase it would be more appropriate to compare the results after teaching with the entire cycles of both models.
Suggestopedia has undergone a variety of changes over the two decades of its existence. Some changes, mainly those to the concert session, were made by Lozanov himself, others were made by exponents adapting the method for their own environment. The latest version of the suggestopedic cycle includes a preparation session, decoding of the materials to be learnt, an active and a passive concert session in which materials are read with the backing of entire classical or baroque pieces respectively, and extensive review and elaboration sessions.
In Eastern Europe the method differs the least fom this model and it is still referred to as Suggestopedia. Researchers in the German Democratic Republic, however, have reduced the two concert sessions to one and made changes to Lozanov's music selection. Music from the baroque period which is still predominant in Lozanov's selection is no longer used in the GDR as a result of research which showed more favourable student responses for the Vienna classical period.
The two major versions of Suggestopedia in the West are Superlearning and SALT, both originating in North America. Another version developed by a linguist in West Germany is called Psychopädie. The originators of these versions have also made changes to Lozanov's Suggestopedia. The chief contribution of Superlearning is the inclusion of synchronisation of breathing and presentation of words during the passive concert session. The limited research does not consistently show this element to have a positive effect on the retention of materials. However, the literature suggests consistently that this element may be cumbersome for the students to handle which is reflected in the fact that synchronisation has been dropped by most practitioners. Superlearning also advocated self-study courses produced on audio-tapes, a system which was adopted by commercial enterprises around the world. Although good examples of such courses exist, vital elements such as the teacher's presence, group dynamics and the communicative interaction between students cannot be included in such courses.
The most important contribution of SALT is the inclusion of mind-calming during the presentation phase. Although research, here too, is not extensive, the literature shows a positive trend towards improved learning and improved behaviour as well as other positive psychological effects being associated with mind-calming. This may therefore well be a positive addition to Suggestopedia which is reflected in the fact that most Western practitioners have adopted mind-calming in their programme.
The contribution of Psychopädie to Suggestopedia is the insertion of a reproductive phase before the concert sessions. The rationale for this was to break up the long passive states in which suggestopedic students in intensive courses find themselves. Although there is no empirical evidence as yet which supports the efficacy of such a phase, it may well be attractive to students and teachers alike to have a more balanced programme in terms of students' arousal level. Some practitioners already use this phase in their programme, most notably the GDR researchers.
Although there are distinct differences between the four versions of Accelerative Learning discussed in this chapter, caution must be exercised when interpreting research results if the treatment is not described in detail. Labels are sometimes used interchangeably, and elements generally associated with a particular version may no longer be used. This has led to some confusion about the exact content of an Accelerative Learning course. However, all four versions consistently use the same three elements. These are music, relaxation and suggestion. While in the West special attention is given to relaxation in the form of progressive relaxation or mind-calming either during the preparation phase or before the concert session, practitioners in the East no longer practice relaxation explicitly. According to Lozanov (1978), however, relaxation is still produced through other suggestive means, such as music, teacher behaviour and classroom atmosphere. Since music, relaxation and suggestion are also used in most other adaptations of Suggestopedia not discussed here, we can assume that these elements are generally seen as the most important in the approach..
© by Uschi Felix PhD
2.- WEB RESEARCH: TEN TIPS FOR THE TECHNO-CHALLENGED
Our dear SHARER Guillermo Ramirez Robles from Lima,Perú has sent us this article to SHARE with all of you.
Web Research: Ten Tips for the Techno-Challenged
By Michael Simkins, Ed.D.
You're in charge and supposed to know everything when it comes to technology. But shhhhh, you don't. Not to worry. Here's your chance to secretly learn a few key, time-saving facts about Internet research.
First, some assumptions: You use Internet Explorer 6.0 (or later) or Netscape 7.2 (or later) as your Web browser of choice. If you use an earlier version of either, it's time to upgrade! If you use Opera, Safari, Firefox, or some other browser of the avant-garde, you probably are not techno-incompetent, though you may still learn something here. You use some version of Microsoft Word (whether you want to or not), and you know the difference between a click and a double-click. You already use somebody's Internet search tool (Google? Yahoo?) to find information. (If you do not, write to me, and I will tutor you over the phone-really!) Finally, you know that there are always differences in the specific ways things work depending on your operating system, your version of software, and the settings on your particular computer. The suggestions below may need to be adapted a bit to your circumstances, but the general ideas should apply in most situations. That said, let's go!
1. Keywords: No matter which search tool you're using, you have to type something in the little box. A keyword (or words) is the something. In this age of frenzied multitasking, it's easy to just type in the first words that come to mind. Don't. Internet search tools scan text for the words you enter. Try to think of unique words-words that would appear in the text of the documents you're looking for and not in others. Try synonyms-if you're looking for something to do with evaluation, also try "testing" and "assessment." To expand your results, try the shortest version of your keyword-e.g., for "assessment" try "assess." Finally, try permutations-if you're looking for data-driven decision-making, try it with and without the hyphens.
2. Advanced Search: On their home page, most Internet search tools provide a single box for you to enter search terms but also offer a link to an "advanced search" option. The advanced search has a number of boxes you may fill in, such as "must contain the following words" or "limit search to the following domain." The latter is an especially helpful way to search for information on a single Web site that does not have its own search option or has one that doesn't work very well. Ironically, a search tool's "advanced search" page may better enable the beginner searcher to find what he/she is looking for in far less time than using the supposedly "simple" approach.
3. Boolean: No, Boolean is not an extraterrestrial language. It's the logic that underlies most, if not all, search engines. By using the terms AND, OR, and NOT, along with a few well placed parentheses, you can dramatically improve the accuracy of your searches. For example, I wanted to know if there was research out there about the relationship between student e-mail use and student achievement. Knowing that the term e-mail has not been standardized, I entered my search phrase as "(e-mail OR email) AND student AND achievement." The parentheses tell the search engine I'm looking for either the term "email" or "e-mail," and the rest of the string says that documents must also contain both the words "student" and "achievement." The State University of New York at Albany has an excellent primer on Boolean at library.albany.edu/internet/boolean.html
4. Portals: In Internet parlance, a portal is a Web site that pre-selects and organizes links to information that exists on other sites. The best portals have done some of the research work for you. For example, the TICAL site (www.portical.org)-sponsored by the California and Arkansas departments of education-maintains a database of 400+ online resources specifically for K-12 school administrators with an interest in educational technology. Each entry in the database has been screened, selected, and annotated by a practicing school administrator. Topics include technology planning, integrating technology in standards-based curriculum, and professional development. Another excellent portal is CARET (caret.iste.org). It offers succinct reviews of research related to technology and education along with links to the relevant studies. If you're looking for broader research, try Google's new Scholar site (scholar.google.com). It's still being developed, but it's already a very useful tool if you are looking for scholarly literature, peer-reviewed papers, books, technical reports, and the like on academic topics.
5. Commercial Search Tools: There are a number of software products available that can help you in various ways. Grokker (www.groxis.com) is a particularly interesting example. While you enter search terms in a box, just as you would in an online search tool, your results do not appear as a long list of links with a line or two of gibberish next to them. Instead, Grokker organizes your results by themes and topics in a colorful graphic display. As you move your cursor over the various nodes and regions, additional information appears. With a few clicks, you can "zoom in" on a specific area of interest. WebFerret (www.ferretsoft.com) and Agent (www.copernic.com) are two other examples. Grokker offers a trial version. The others have free "basic" versions but charge for premium features.
6. Bookmarks/Favorites: Web browsers have a built-in way to keep a list of links to which you might want to return. Explorer calls these "favorites"; in Netscape, they're "bookmarks." Same difference. You probably already know about these and may even use them. But if you want to leave techno-incompetence behind, take a few minutes to learn how to get the most out of these features. In particular, learn how to add a folder to your "links" or "personal toolbar." As you are researching a specific topic, save good sites in this folder. Then you'll have all your references in one place instead of littered throughout a long, unorganized list. Another handy feature is "renaming" a bookmark. Often, the automatic title or label that your browser will give to a bookmark is three inches long and/or meaningless. Your browser has a simple way you can change the label to something meaningful to you; the link will still go to the site you want. If you're a Windows person, you may be able to do this by simply right-clicking on the bookmark and choosing "rename" from among the options. Regardless, your browser's Help menu has the guidance for how to master the bookmark/favorites feature.
7. Dragging: No, I'm not suggesting a foray into cross-dressing. I am encouraging you to try dragging URL's from one place to another. Depending on how your have your browser's preferences set, you no doubt have an address bar somewhere around the top of your browser screen. It's the box that shows the complete Web address of the page you're viewing or where you can type in the address of a page you want to visit. At the very left of the box, just before the letters of the address, you'll see a small icon. In Explorer, it's a little "e" superimposed on a piece of paper. In Netscape, it resembles a traditional bookmark. Or, the default icon may have been overriden by a logo of the site you're visting. No matter what the icon, if you click-and-hold on it, you can drag it somewhere. For example, if you have made a special folder on your personal toolbar, you can drag the icon there and voila! The bookmark will have been added to the folder. Or, if you arrange your windows so that you can see part of your desktop or part of another document, drag the icon there and see what happens. It's magic! And it can be so much faster than copying and pasting long URLs.
8. Annotation: When you bookmark a site, add a note to remind yourself later why you thought the site was so great and how you might use it. Netscape enables you to do this in the "description" field. Explorer may offer such a utility, but I haven't been able to find it! A browser-independent approach is to simply open a Word document and create a two-column table with several empty rows. Arrange your screen so you can see both your browser and your Word document. When you find a site that's a keeper, drag it into column one (see #7 above). Then write yourself a note in column two. And don't forget to save the Word document!
9. Saving Pages: Sometimes you may want to keep a whole page, not just a link to it. This allows you to view the page even if you're not connected to the Internet. It also allows you to "fix" content for later reference even if the live page changes or goes away. When you're viewing a page you want to save, click on your File menu. Among the choices should be Save or Save as. I like Save As when it's available because it usually gives me more control over what happens next. Typically, you'll get a box with options such as where to put the file and what to name it. Be sure to put the saved file where you will be able to find it, and give it a name that's meaningful to you. If you're an Explorer user, there's another way to save pages. If you use Add Favorite on the Favorites menu, check the box by "Make available offline." When you add the favorite, you'll be prompted for a bit more information. Just accept the default values and click ahead. A copy of the page will be automatically saved on your hard drive.
10. Sharing Pages: Often, you'll want to share pages you've found with colleagues, staff, or friends. There are many ways to do this. Here are just two. When you're viewing a page you want to share, click on the File menu and look for something like "Send page" or "Send link." Click it and see what happens. More magic. Assuming you're using the same computer from which you send and receive your e-mail, a fresh e-mail will open with your link already included. Exporting is a second option. If you're using Explorer and you've collected a number of links in a special folder (see #6 above), click the File menu and choose Import/Export. Follow the directions and choose to export only the folder with the favorites you want to share. Choose a location that's easy to find, such as your desktop. You'll end up with a file called something akin to "bookmarks.html." Open it and you'll see your list of favorites, all ready to be clicked. You can share this file by sending it to someone as an e-mail attachment, copying it onto a diskette, or moving it to a shared space on your network. Netscape users can also export bookmarks, but apparently only in an all-or-nothing fashion. To find the export feature, click Bookmarks, Manage Bookmarks, Tools.
So there you have them: 10 craft secrets that can boost you into the ranks of the supersearchers. Now, the only obstacle in your way is that darn filtering software the district installed. Oh well, nothing to be done about that!
About Michael Simkins, Ed.D.
A former school principal and director of a nationally-recognized educational technology project, Michael Simkins is now creative director of the Technology Information Center for Administrative Leadership (TICAL).
Copyright © 2005 CMP Media LLC
3.- RESPONSABILIDAD CIVIL DE LOS PROFESORES
following is an excerpt from Despacho informativo lunes 13 de junio de 2005
Secretaría de Extensión Universitaria, Cultura y Comunicación Social del
Rectorado de la
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional
La Voz Del
Título: Crecen las demandas contra los docentes
La avalancha de denuncias que llegan a tribunales contra docentes, el desconocimiento de los maestros sobre sus responsabilidades “no pedagógicas” y el crecimiento de las intimidaciones y agresiones de padres a profesores está marcando en los últimos tiempos una cultura escolar distinta.
Sin embargo, no son muchos los docentes que saben que su actuación u omisión puede ocasionarles sanciones civiles o penales. Con el objetivo de conocer cuáles son las responsabilidades de los docentes la Escuela Superior de Comercio Manuel Belgrano ofreció un curso de capacitación.
“La responsabilidad del docente nace por el simple hecho de tener menores a cargo”, explicó Horacio Guerrero, uno de los abogados responsables del seminario junto con María Cristina Zordán.
Pese a que la reforma al Código Civil indica que la responsabilidad por el daño que sufra un alumno dentro de la escuela se traslada a los dueños de los establecimientos educativos públicos o privados (esto es, el Estado o los propietarios de los colegios particulares), el docente “responde subsidiariamente por un hecho ocasionado”.
Accidentes, actos violentos, abusos, malos tratos y otras situaciones conflictivas comprometen a los maestros.
Si bien no es posible prever qué sanciones caben para cada caso, es preciso estar alerta ya que las demandas judiciales en contra de los docentes hoy se están multiplicando.
“El docente puede tener responsabilidad civil o penal por un hecho. En la penal se busca la sanción a la persona que causó el daño. La civil, busca la reparación del daño al estado anterior”, explica Zordán.
Un ejemplo: si los padres de un alumno inician una demanda civil porque su hijo se accidentó en la clase de educación física, el juez puede determinar que se repare el daño mediante el pago de una suma de dinero. Si, por caso, un niño se cae de un barranco en una excursión escolar, el docente puede sufrir una imputación (y condena) penal por no haber previsto el riesgo.
Además de educar y contener, entre otras cosas, las responsabilidades de los docentes son múltiples. Según Guerrero y Zordán, los docentes deben conocer de qué se trata para prevenir situaciones que pongan en riesgo a los alumnos y a ellos mismos.
¿Qué situaciones pueden presentarse en una escuela? Por un lado, casos de violencia. De manera preventiva, los docentes pueden observar situaciones conflictivas o “curiosas” en sus alumnos. Pero, claro, no pueden evitar que un estudiante concurra con un arma a la escuela. ¿Qué hacer cuando eso ocurre?
“Primero hay que desalojar el lugar, aislar a la persona con el arma, no ponerla más nerviosa de lo que está, tratar de contenerla, de hacerle entender que se lo va a ayudar, no culparlo ni retarlo. Disminuir la tensión”, advierte Zordán. “Luego –sigue– es preciso llamar a la Policía para que se haga cargo de la situación y comunicarse con los padres”.
El docente puede incurrir en “omisión de auxilio” si un alumno se descompone o se golpea y la escuela no llama al servicio de emergencia. Incurre en abandono de persona si, por error, se cierra el colegio con un alumno adentro (hecho que sucedió el año pasado en un jardín de infantes en Buenos Aires).
Los maestros también pueden ser considerados responsables de accidentes relacionados con el estado de los edificios y el mobiliario. “El maestro debe fijarse si los muebles están en buen estado. Ante cualquier anomalía tiene que avisar al personal jerárquico. Siempre por escrito”, afirma Guerrero. Esto es: que el pizarrón esté amurado, que no haya tubos fluorescentes pendiendo sobre la cabeza de los estudiantes, que los enchufes estén tapados, etcétera.
“Les enseñamos a agudizar la vista sobre los elementos riesgosos. Si hay un enchufe que hace falso contacto y un chico se electrocuta, pueden acusar al docente de no haber informado o pegado un cartón hasta que el problema se solucione”, grafica Zordán.
Según los letrados, el docente, responsable del alumno desde que ingresa a la escuela, debería solicitar a un auxiliar docente o a un preceptor que acompañe al alumno hasta la puerta del baño en horario de clase para evitar cualquier inconveniente.
Sin embargo, la posibilidad real de contar con personal para realizar esta tarea suele ser limitada en muchas escuelas. “Decimos lo que debe ser. Lo que es, es otra cosa”, resume Zordán.
Por otra parte, si los docentes constatan que un niño es maltratado o que desertó de la escuela por cuestiones familiares, tienen la obligación de hacer la denuncia a un juzgado de menores. “No hace falta concurrir. Con un simple llamado telefónico y sin identificarse se puede hacer la denuncia”, indicó Guerrero.
En relación a los padres que no concurren a la escuela pese a reiterados llamados de las autoridades educativas, los abogados sugieren hacer constar la situación en un acta por escrito, firmada por dos docentes y el directivo, cada vez que esto suceda. Ello en prevención de eventuales situaciones problemáticas.
© 2005 by La Voz del Interior
4.- COMMON SENSE
Our dear SHARER Ana I. Vieyra Urquiza wants to SHARE this reflection with all of us:
The sad passing of Common Sense
Today we mourn the passing of a beloved old friend, Common Sense, who has been with us for many years. No one knows for sure how old he was since his birth records were long ago lost in bureaucratic red tape.
He will be remembered as having cultivated such valuable lessons as knowing when to come in out of the rain, why the early bird gets the worm, life isn't always fair, and maybe it was my fault.
Common Sense lived by simple, sound financial policies (don't spend more than you earn) and reliable parenting strategies (adults, not children, are in charge). His health began to deteriorate rapidly when well intentioned but overbearing regulations were set in place.
Reports of a six-year-old boy charged with sexual harassment for kissing a classmate; teens suspended from school for using mouthwash after lunch; and a teacher fired for reprimanding an unruly student, only worsened his condition.
Common Sense lost ground when parents attacked teachers for doing the job they failed to do in disciplining their unruly children
It declined even further when schools were required to get parental consent to administer Panadol, sun lotion or a sticky plaster to a student; but, could not inform the parents when a student became pregnant and wanted to have an abortion.
Common Sense lost the will to live as the Ten Commandments became contraband; churches became businesses; and criminals received better treatment than their victims.
Common Sense took a beating when you couldn't defend yourself from a burglar in your own home and the burglar can sue you for assault.
Common Sense finally gave up the will to live, after a woman failed to realise that a steaming cup of coffee was hot. She spilled a little in her lap, and was promptly awarded a huge settlement.
Common Sense was preceded in death by his parents, Truth and Trust; his wife, Discretion; his daughter, Responsibility; and his son, Reason. He is survived by three stepbrothers; I Know My Rights, Someone Else is to Blame, and I'm A Victim.
Not many attended his funeral because so few realised he was gone.
If you still remember him pass this on, if not join the majority and do nothing.
5.- CURSOS DE CAPACITACIÓN DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES
Our dear SHARER Paula Gelemur has sent us this information:
Subsecretaría de Educación
Dirección Provincial de Educación Superior y Capacitación Educativa
Equipos Técnicos Regionales "Maestros y Profesores enseñando" - Inglés
Lanzamiento del Programa de Cursos De Capacitacion Gratuitos con Puntaje
Región VI: Vicente López, San Isidro, San Fernando y Tigre
Informes e inscripción: CIE V.López: 4709-1357, CIE San Isidro: 4742-9100,
CIE S. Fernando: 4744-2452 y CIE Tigre: 4749-0416.
Informes por email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cursos en Vicente López y Tigre: El enfoque discursivo-crítico (ESB y Polimodal).
En San Isidro y San Fernando: El potencial de los textos (todos los niveles).
Frecuencia: 6 encuentros quincenales de 4 hs + 1 encuentro día sábado 6 hs (septiembre a noviembre 2005). Confirmar fecha de cada encuentro en el CIE del distrito correspondiente.
El potencial de los textos (abstract en inglés)
The aim of this theoretical and practical course is to reflect and act upon our daily practice in order to explore the benefits of Communicative Language Teaching, Task-Based Learning and the latest findings in Discourse Analysis for the adaptation of texts and textbook activities in order to make our teaching more effective. Videoed lessons will be analysed as well as lesson plans and textbooks. By the end of the course, participants will have had the chance to apply new ideas in class and evaluate their usefulness.
El enfoque discursivo-crítico (abstract en inglés)
ESB and Polimodal students need to learn English for work reasons but also to develop
critical thinking. How can we adopt a critical perspective on the materials we use in class
in order to make the most of Critical Discourse Analysis and Pedagogy? Through the
analysis of secondary materials, videoed lessons and the latest trends in Critical
Applied Linguistics, participants will be invited to view the teaching of English at
seconday school in a new light and to implements new ideas in their daily lessons.
SOBRE LOS DISCURSOS POSMODERNOS DE LA LICENCIATURA EN
LENGUA INGLESA DE LA UNIVERSIDAD TECNOLÓGICA NACIONAL
Our dear SHARER Maria Elena Dutto has got an invitation to make:
Primera Jornada sobre Discursos Posmodernos
Discursos Posmodernos desde los Años Sesenta en adelante (Literatura, Arquitectura y Cine).
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional - Facultad Regional Villa María
29 de octubre de 2005 – 10:00 – 20:00 hs
Calendario de actividades
09:00 a 10:00 Acreditaciones de participantes
10:00 a 10:30 Apertura de la Jornada con palabras del Decano de la Facultad Regional Villa María de la UTN, Ing. Juan Carlos Peretti, y de la Lic. María Elena Dutto
10:30 a 11:00 Música en vivo. Artista invitado: Marcos French
11:00 a 12:00 Primera conferencia plenaria inaugural a cargo de la Dra. Cristina Elgue de Martini, Decana de la Facultad de Lenguas, (UNC): "Posmodernidad y posmodernismo. Estrategias posmodernas en textos de arquitectura y pintura"
12:00 a 12:15 Pausa
12:15 a 13:30 Panel de tres ponencias
Moderador: Lic. Gustavo Kofman, Prof. Ramiro Mansilla (UNC), Prof. Francisco Zanín (UNC) y Cecilia Urquiza (UNC): "Leer ficción posmoderna puede ser perjudicial para su salud"
Prof. Ana Ávalos (UNC) Prof. María Elisa Romano (UNC)
13:30 a 14:30 Almuerzo
Exposición de cuadros con visita guiada a cargo del artista invitado: Horacio French
14:30 a 15:30 Segunda conferencia plenaria a cargo de Paula Varsavsky: "John Fowles: cuando el siglo XX atrapa al XIX"
15:30 a 15:45 Pausa
15:45 a 16:45 Panel de tres ponencias
Moderadora: Lic. Agustina Sosa Revol
Lic. Agustina Sosa Revol (UNC, UTN): "La metaficción de los años sesenta y setenta: El horror vacui y el libro detrás del libro en Jealousy de Alan Robbe-Grillet y El Mundo de Acuerdo a Garp de John Irving"
Lic. Gustavo Kofnan (UNC, UTN): "Realismo mágico y la reconstrucción de realidades poscoloniales en dos novelas de Salman Rushdie: Hijos de la Medianoche y Vergüenza"
Lic. Guillermo Zaballo (UNC): "El componente audiovisual en la posmodernidad"
16:45 a 17:00 Pausa
17:00 a 18:00 Tercera conferencia plenaria a cargo del Dr. Carlos Batal (UNC): "El nuevo teatro en la posmodernidad"
18:00 a 18:15 Pausa
18:15 a 19:00 Panel de dos conferencias
Moderadores: Lic. Gustavo Kofman y Lic. Agustina Sosa Revol
Lic. Ana Claudia Ziraldo (UTN): "La Amante del Teniente Francés: Una Visión Posmoderna"
Lic. Federico Barbieri (UTN): "De la mano en el laberinto"
19:00 a 19:30 Muestra sobre música posmoderna a cargo de Rodrigo Vacis: "House"
19:30 a 19:45 Pausa
19:45 a 20:45 Cuarta conferencia plenaria de clausura a cargo de la Mgtr. Alejandra Portela (UNC): "La superación de lo trágico en la obra de John Irving"
20:45 a 21:00 Cierre de Jornada con palabras de la Lic. Agustina Sosa Revol y el Lic. Gustavo Kofman
21:00 Cena de Camaradería para expositores y comité organizador de la Jornada
Docentes, investigadores y profesionales interesados: $ 25.-
Estudiantes: $ 10.-
Para informes e inscripciones comunicarse a la FRVM de la UTN Av. Universidad 450 Villa María, Córdooba o al TEL.: 0353 - 4537500 interno 105, E- mail: email@example.com
7.- URUTESOL CONVENTION IN COLONIA
Our dear SHARER Juan Andrés Larrinaga has an announcement to make:
Teachers Of English To Speakers Of Other Languages
"To Teach Or Not To Teach : That Is The Question"
Colonia, Uruguay November 5 - 6 , 2005
Call For Participation Urbi Et Orbi
Among the different forms of participation you will find the presentation of short papers - Time Alotted: 15 Minutes - that will be organized thematically in groups of four, with time for Questions And Discussion.
8.- FULLBRIGHT SCHOLARSHIPS
Our dear SHARER Laura P. Moraña from the
Fulbright Commission in Argentina
has sent us this information:
La Comisión Fulbright y el Ministerio de
Educación, Ciencia y Tecnología anuncian la apertura del concurso de becas
"Asistentes de Idioma 2006". Este programa de cooperación entre ambas
instituciones permitirá otorgar becas a docentes de inglés argentinos para
desempeñarse como Asistentes de Idioma en universidades de los
Estados Unidos. El plazo de entrega de solicitudes es el 12 de noviembre de 2005. Las becas se harán efectivas a partir de agosto de 2006. Para informarse sobre requisitos, beneficios y cómo participar:
Comisión Fulbright, Viamonte 1653, 2do piso, CP: 1055ABE, Buenos Aires, Tel: (011) 4814 3561/62, Fax: (011) 4814 1377; firstname.lastname@example.org
Dirección de Cooperación Internacional, Pizzurno 935, 2do piso Of. 231, CP: 1020, Buenos Aires, Tel/Fax (011) 4129-1187, email@example.com
Laura P. Moraña
Fulbright Commission in Argentina
Viamonte 1653, P. 2 - C1055ABE - Buenos Aires -Argentina
Tel.: (5411) 4814 3561/62
9- PRIMER ENCUENTRO METROPOLITANO DE FORMADORES DE DOCENTES
La Dirección General de Educación Superior del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la Dirección Provincial de Educación Superior y Capacitación Educativa de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, convocan a la comunidad de formadores-as de docentes de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y del Conurbano Bonaerense, al 1º Encuentro Metropolitano de Formadores-as de Docentes y al 2º Encuentro de Formadores-as de Docentes de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, cuyos objetivos son:
Promover el debate e intercambio de experiencias y propuestas acerca de las particularidades de la formación docente en el área metropolitana.
Generar un ámbito de reflexión sobre las prácticas presentes en el campo de la formación docente
Fecha de realización: 3, 4 y 5 de noviembre de 2005 .La acreditación será de 8.00 a 9.30 hs.
Lugar: Bartolomé Mitre 1869 (entre Riobamba y Callao)
Estrategias metodológicas para la mejora de la enseñanza en el nivel superior.
Tutorías y programas de orientación a los estudiantes del nivel superior
Modelos y estrategias de evaluación
Relación entre las instituciones formadoras y las escuelas receptoras
Formación en y para la diversidad.
Presentación de ponencias: relatos de experiencias o ensayos reflexivos acerca de los ejes propuestos.
Simposios sobre temáticas específicas propuestas por los asistentes.
Conferencias y Paneles con especialistas invitados-as de reconocida trayectoria.
Informes e Inscripción:
A través de correo electrónico a la dirección: firstname.lastname@example.org
Docentes de los Institutos de Formación Docente del Conourbano Bonaerense (Regiones I a IX), de todas las perspectivas y espacios curriculares.
Certificación y asistencia:
Se entregarán certificados de asistencia. Está en trámite el no-cómputo de inasistencia para los asistentes, no expositores, de Educación Superior.
10.- ONLINE COURSES FOR TEACHERS OF ENGLISH
Our dear SHARER Susana Trabaldo has sent us this announcement:
Topic: Distance education (in Spanish)
Course: Formación de tutores
Tutors: Susana Trabaldo, Nancy Piriz - Starting date: October, 18th - Duration: 5 weeks
Further information: http://www.net-learning.com.ar/cursos/fortu.htm
Fee: $180 (in Argentina)
Puntaje docente Resolución del Gob. de la Cdad de Bs. As. 451/2005 and
Resolución de la Prov. de Bs. As. 6594/2005
Topic: English teachers' and translators' development courses
Course: Portfolio assessment
Tutors: Liliana B. Luna and Viviana L. Pisani - Starting date: October, 20th - Duration: 5 weeks
Further information: http://www.net-learning.com.ar/engcursos.htm#ingles
Fee: AR$ 160 (in Argentina)
Certified by Escuela de Posgrado de la UNSAM and AEXALEVI
11.- COURSE ON AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT
The participants will have the chance of analyzing the different ways to evaluate learners. They will reflect on the different methods they use in their classrooms and develop different materials and ideas on how to assess students.
Ms. Gabriela Cecilia Díaz
Graduate Teacher of English from I.S. Prof. Joaquín V. González, she specialized in Methodology and Teaching Practice. She is actually coordinating a teachers´ training college in Great Bs As where she has organized and delivered many workshops for students and teachers of other institutions from the area. Currently doing Licenciatura en Gestión Educativa at Univ. de La Matanza, she has experience in all level of the educational system.
Graduate teacher of English from Prof. Pbro. Sáenz, she has continued her postgraduate studies at Belgrano University. She is currently Secondary English Coordinator at Colegio del Libertador in Capital Federal and teaches Language and Culture II and Teaching Practice at Instituto Superior Grilli and Instituo Sáenz.
Venue: Instituto Grilli. Vicente López 246 - Monte Grande
Date: October 21st, 2005 - Time: 6:00 p.m to 8:30 p.m
Registration: Profesorado Grilli. - Phone: 4296-3972 -E-mail: email@example.com
For more information: www.richmond.com.ar
Free of charge! Raffles!
12.- SEMINARIO: ¿QUÉ HACEMOS CON LA VIOLENCIA ESCOLAR?
Disertante invitado: Dr. Néstor Solari
Frecuencia: quincenal - Lunes 18:00 hs
19/9 - 18:00 hs -
El "entorno" que irrumpe en la escuela: La violencia
Lugar: Centro Dos - Salón Auditorio. Av. Pueyrredón 538 1º "A" (1er Cuerpo)
3/10 - 18.00 hs
- Los adolescentes y las épocas: Construcción social de una
Lugar: Centro Dos - Salón Auditorio. Av. Pueyrredón 538 1º "A" (1er Cuerpo)
17/10 - 18:00 hs
Estrategias resolutivas del conflicto en el marco de la Convención
Internacional sobre los Derechos del Niño
Lugar: Facultad de Derecho - Universidad de Buenos Aires - Av. Figueroa Alcorta 2263
Informes e inscripción: Av. Pueyrredón 538 1º "A" (1er Cuerpo) TE: 4961-2197 firstname.lastname@example.org
Actividad no arancelada con inscripción previa
13.- TEEACHERS! A CLASSROOM COMEDY
The Suburban Players is proud to present
A Classroom Comedy
by John Godber,
Britain's third most performed author - ever!
"When you are a hardnut and 15, you always have to give teachers a hard time.
It's part of the rules of the game"
Directed by Mara Santucci
"John Godber is one of the unsung heroes of British theatre, reaching the giddy heights of number three in the most-performed playwrights league table, nestled in behind Shakespeare and Ayckbourn" - Guardian
"In a class of its own ... Godber takes a hard-hitting look at life in a modern comprehensive where class conflicts, teacher tantrums and cavorting chaos runs riot through the corridors" - The Express
Moreno 80 - San Isidro
Opening October 14th - Fridays and Saturdays 9pm - Sundays 7pm
Tickets $12.- Group discounts -
Reservations: email@example.com - 4747-4470
14- OMAR´S NEXT PRESENTATIONS
Omar will soon be giving two new presentations. You are all invited. Please find particulars below:
Saturday 15th October
ELT Team Mega-Event at Hotel Costa Galana – Mar del Plata
For further information and enrolment contact: ELTeam consultancy - Río Negro 4413- 0223-4758631.
Friday 28th October – 9:30 –12:30 hs
Instituto de Enseñanza Superior del Ejército - Escuela de Idiomas – Avda Cabildo 65 - Ciudad de Buenos Aires
For further information and enrolment contact: Prof. César Prado firstname.lastname@example.org
Today we would like to finish this issue of SHARE with a short quotation that our dear SHARER Bethina Viale sent us:
“Nothing that grieves us can be called little: by the eternal laws of proportion a child's loss of a doll and a king's loss of a crown are events of the same size.”
author and humorist (1835-1910)
HAVE A WONDERFUL WEEK
Omar and Marina.
SHARE is distributed free of charge. All
announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We
do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the
contributors. For more information about the characteristics and
readership of SHARE visit: http://www.groups.yahoo.com/group/ShareMagazine
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : http://www.ShareEducation.com.ar There you can read all past issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.