An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 6                Number 152              August 20th 2005

8700 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED




Once again the ELT community of our country was afforded a golden opportunity to meet, to reflect on their teaching practice, to share theoretical insights as well practical ideas for the classroom, discuss hot issues in the profession, learn about a few “innovations” and to rejoice in the company of fellow teachers from all over the country (and a large delegation from neighbouring Uruguay!).

Once again the National Congress of Teachers and Students of English was up to the expectations of the Latin American ELT professional. This time, with the impeccable organization of APrIR (Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Rosario), the National Congress was a gust of fresh air among the barrage of so many events that promise to “change your life, your professional personality, your phonology (and in passing, your hairstyle)” in two days”. The National Congress of Teachers and Students of English was a respite among so much sheer madness. Eight hundred concerned practitioners gave a firm and astounding response to the songs of those irresponsible “mermaids” and self-appointed “gurus” that seem to have flourished in our midst only to bring shame and disgrace to our profession.          

Our deepest gratitude, then, goes to the 2005 Organizing Committee and our very best wishes to the coming Organizing Committees that have taken in their hands the responsibility of “keeping and defending the faith”:


2006 – XII National Congress – Universidad CAECE – Buenos Aires

2007 – XIII National Congress – Instituto Superior “Lola Mora” – San Miguel de Tucumán

2008 – XIV  National Congress – APICOBO – Greater Buenos Aires

2009- XV National Congress – Facultad Regional Villa Maria UTN - Córdoba


Omar and Marina




In SHARE 152


1.-    The Input Vs Output Fallacy.

2.-    Defining Interlanguage.

3.-    Dos Invitaciones de la Academia Nacional de Educación.

4.-    The Theory of Multiple Intelligences: 20 years after.

5.-    Maestría en Traducción e Interpretación en la UBA.

6.-    Maestría en Inglés en la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto.

7.-    III Jornadas “La Formación Del Profesorado A Debate”.

8.-    Encuentro de Experiencias de Lectura en Inglés en la Escuela.

9.-    IV Jornada Bonaerense Para Traductores e Intérpretes.

10.-   Ninth Annual Book Fair in San Miguel.

11.-   2005 Spring Conference.

12.-   Conversation Workshops on American Culture.

13.-   Décimas Jornadas de Enseñanza de Lenguas Extranjeras en el Nivel Superior.

14.-   Primer Encuentro Provincial de Narración Oral "Libros y voces en comunicación". 

15.-   Columna de “Idiomas, Arte y Cultura” en Radio Argentina.

16.-  News from The Hopkins Creative Language Lab.

17.-  Teaching Competition at Lenguas Vivas Sofía E. Broquen De Spangenberg.

18.-  ICANA Annual Seminar.

19.-  Online Courses by Net Learning.






Our dear friend and SHARER Ana María Rozzi de Bergel has written this reaction to  Stephen Krashen´s article “Comprehensible Output” that was published in our last issue of SHARE. A most welcomed contribution.


The Input Vs Output Fallacy

By Ana María Rozzi de Bergel


Dr Krashen’s article on the relative values of the comprehensible output and the comprehensible input hypotheses in last week’s issue of Share Magazine, contains some interesting discussion points.


The comprehensible output hypothesis holds that language acquisition takes place when learners fail to transmit messages due to poor command of the language being learnt, but re-formulate them as many times as necessary and finally succeed in producing an accurate, appropriate message. By doing this, learners acquire the items thus produced. (Swain, 1985). The comprehensible input hypothesis states the value of input as opposed to that of output (Krashen, 1985) in the process of language “acquisition”, defined as a sub-conscious process, different from formal learning. The value of comprehensible input far exceeds that of comprehensible output, to the point that “...humans acquire language in only one way – by understanding messages...” (Krashen,


The discussion of one point of view versus the other seems slightly pointless, as we know that attributing the success of learning or acquisition primarily to only one factor might exclude many others which are equally relevant and play important roles in the process. However, we would like to discuss Dr Krashen’s comparison of both hypotheses and his conclusions, namely:


The comprehensible output hypothesis has numerous difficulties.

- Output and especially comprehensible output is too scarce to make a real contribution to linguistic competence.

- High levels of linguistic competence are possible without output.

- There is no direct evidence that comprehensible output leads to language acquisition.

In addition, there is some evidence that suggests that students do not enjoy being "pushed" to speak.”


To support his assertion that there is scarce comprehensible output among EFL learners, he cites quantitative studies which demonstrate that instances in which learners re-formulate their messages in the way described in the CO hypothesis are extremely rare. In these studies, out of thousands of instances of erroneous utterances produced by learners, only a few were readily repaired by the learners themselves, when their teachers or interlocutors asked for clarification of the inaccurate or otherwise faulty utterances. This is supposed to demonstrate the scarcity of CO and therefore minimise its value, when actually it is only demonstrating that the very concept of CO (error-request for clarification-repair-acquisition of the new form) is false, because it does not take into consideration the three stages of error described by Pit Corder (1973): pre-systematic, systematic and post-systematic. At pre-systematic stage, learners are not even aware that they have made an error; at systematic stage, they can self-correct the error only if it is pointed out to them and at post-systematic stage, learners can readily correct their errors with very little prompting from the interlocutor – maybe a raised eyebrow – or no prompting at all. What the studies cited by Dr Krashen demonstrate is that there are always very few errors at post-systematic stage and therefore the whole concept of CO is reduced to this domain.


Why should there be very few examples of post-systematic errors, and consequently CO, at experiments or lesson observations where learners interact with native speakers or their teachers for the researchers to count these instances of self-repair? The answer to this question depends largely on the level of the conversation relative to the learners’ level of command of the foreign language. To self-repair an utterance, the learner needs to have recourse to the correct form, which is impossible to fetch from the thin air or devise creatively. In other words, the learner needs to “know” what to produce. When made to perform above this level, he/she will find self-repair impossible.


In our own study of errors (1978 – 2001) we were forced to make a distinction between compensatory errors, those made by learners in their attempt to fill a communication gap with language elements they did not possess and non-compensatory errors, those involving language they had been taught, but had not yet learnt. The distinction was not easy at upper-intermediate or advanced levels, but it could very often be clarified through authoritative explanation (Pit Corder, of the error, that is, by discussing it with the learner, who normally provided the necessary information. Whereas compensatory errors tell the researcher a lot about the learners’ capability and style for coping with language limitations, non-compensatory errors add information as to what has been learnt and about the stage of the learners’ errors. Within this paradigm, nobody could expect a learner to repair a compensatory error, because compensation is just that and will never produce CO as defined by Swain. In fact, in Tarone and Liu (1995), Liu admits that one of the subjects in their experiments “may have been pushed beyond the limits of his language competence” by the researchers themselves.


A quantitative method does not seem to be fully reliable here, as we are told that the studies cited took place in different countries, with learners of different ages and backgrounds and there does not seem to have been any attempt at controlling important variables of the experiments, such as methods used for teaching these subjects, environmental and cultural aspects, and the level of demand placed on the learners’ production, to mention but a few. Scarcity of CO, in these studies, may have been caused by a number of factors which, if modified, might produce a completely different type of production. This does not expose the scarcity of CO but it may show that teachers and researchers fail to create the necessary conditions for CO to emerge or that they are relatively unaware of the processes behind error production and their implications.


To support his claim that language acquisition is possible without output, Dr Krashen mentions a laboratory experiment concerning the learning of a few lexical items, a study on second (not foreign) language acquisition and several other experiments, all conducted under different circumstances and by an assortment of methods,  which resulted in learners showing “a modest vocabulary gain” as measured in terms of words per minute, versus those who had been exposed to conversational interaction with a native speaker. Again, we may question the methods used, the focus of the experiments, the lack of control of loose variables and even the advisability of offering varied instances of research as an exploration of such a comprehensive concept as “acquisition without output”. The quality and level of this acquisition should also be measured with reference to appropriacy and register, not merely by counting words or instances of correct usage of grammatical items. Otherwise, we might conclude that input is more important than output only in terms of achieving accuracy.


To further support the value of the comprehensible input hypothesis, Dr Krashen claims that there is evidence suggesting that students do not enjoy being "pushed to speak”. This seems to indicate that we should not push students to speak, not that output is not important. Methods should respect the learners’ pace, learning styles and personality and never push them to do anything, let alone talk. We might also state there is some evidence that adult learners do not appreciate not being asked to speak, as they are usually eager to acquire some conversation skills in as short a time as possible and that pushing learners to do something is just as inadvisable and authoritarian as preventing them from doing it.. Whether they are inhibited or not in class, or ashamed of making mistakes, or embarrassed to speak in a foreign language, or ready for a particular type of production, depends largely on their personality, cognitive hypotheses and the teacher’s ability to create a supportive, relaxed classroom atmosphere. 


The claim that “providing more comprehensible input seems to be a more reasonable strategy than increasing output”, seems a rather unnecessary remark to make, since it is to be demonstrated how we could possibly increase output with less input, as input necessarily provides the source of elements for language production. For years, we have known that learners should be exposed to listening and reading materials slightly above their level of production, so that they can have a whole wealth of input as a valuable resource.


The input-versus-output discussion appears to atomise the problem of growing into the command of a language, where no element can be singled out as dominant. Input and output interact and this goes hand in hand with theories of learning which place great emphasis on the role of social interaction, the creation of meaning and the formation of systems during language learning. Meaning, on the other hand, is created with reference to the language user’s previous knowledge, view of the world and personal needs and as nothing succeeds like success, learners find confirmation of their hypotheses about the foreign language by trying them out and confirming or correcting them, a process by which they also build up their self-esteem. This goes beyond trial and error, as Piaget (1960) demonstrated, with each trial producing a re-accommodation of the whole system, not just of the item being tried out. Although periods of intake of information without overt performance are necessary, language is ultimately a social tool and it cannot be consolidated until it has been tried and tested in social interaction. An exploration of the nature of the necessary interplay of input and output and how it takes place in different environments and with different individuals would shed more light on the process of language learning and acquisition.



Krashen, S.D. (1985) The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. New York: Longman Inc.

Piaget, J. (1960) The Psychology of Intelligence. New York: Humanities Press Inc.

Pit Corder, S.(1973) Error Analysis. In Allen, J.P.B. and Pit Corder, S. (Eds.) The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics, Vol.4, pp 122-154. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Swain, M. (1985) Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its development. In Gass, S. and Madden, C. (Eds.), Input in Second Language Acquisition, pp. 235-256. New York: Newbury House.


©  by Ana María Rozzi de Bergel







Our dear SHARER María Fernanda Di Grandi has sent us this article to SHARE with all of you.



By Ranganayaki Srinivas



While learning a second language, learners build up a system for themselves which is different in some ways from their first language and second language systems. The system which the learners build up for themselves has been given various names but the most widely used terminology is that suggested by Selinker (1974). He calls this Interlanguage to emphasize the structurally intermediate status of the learner’s language system between his mother tongue and his target language. A detailed study of this Interlanguage could help us to understand the learners’ problems better and try to provide timely help to learners, so that they achieve competence in the language they are trying to learn.


Selinker’s theory of Interlanguage


Based on the theory that there is a ‘psychological structure latent in the brain’ which is activated when one attempts to learn a second language. Selinker (1972) proposes the theory of Interlanguage. Selinker says that in a given situation the utterances produced by the learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning. This comparison reveals a separate linguistic system. This system can be observed when we study the utterances of the learners who attempt to produce a target language norm.


To study the psychological processes involved one should compare the Interlanguage of the learner with two things. These two things are as under:

(1) Utterances in the native language to convey the same message made by the learner

(2) Utterances in the target language to convey the same message made by the native speaker of that language


(1) language transfer

(2) transfer of training

(3) strategies of second language learning

(4) strategies of second language communication and

(5) overgeneralization


According to Selinker five central processes are responsible for this Interlanguage. They are:


Jean D’Souza (1977) thinks these five processes could be reduced to three for according to him there is no clear cut distinction between processes three, four and five. According to him overgeneralization could include strategies of second language learning and strategies of second language communication. Besides he points out that it is not always possible to say with certainty whether a learner uses a particular form because he thinks it is enough to communicate effectively or because he is using a particular strategy.


Following are the three processes suggested by Jean D’Souza:

(1) transfer from previous learning experience; errors due to interference;

(2) simplification and overgeneralization of elements of the target language system; errors due to learning strategies; and

(3) errors arising from teaching methods and materials employed; ‘teaching induced’ errors.


Selinker in fact discusses in detail what he means by strategy of second language learning and strategy of second language communication. According to him learner strategies are culture bound

to some extent. He gives the example of chanting which is used as a learning device in many traditional cultures. These strategies can be present in the conscious or subconscious level. When a learner realizes that he has no linguistic competence for handling a target language material he evolves some strategies to get through the situation. Whatever strategies he uses considerably affect his ‘surface structure of sentences underlying his Interlanguage utterances’. Since we do not have adequate information as to what these strategies might be and how they might work we can only roughly attribute the sources of his utterances to one or the other strategy.


One strategy which probably works at the conscious level may be the learners’ attempt to reduce the target language to a simpler system. For example, if the learner has adopted the strategy that all verbs are either transitive or intransitive, he may produce Interlanguage forms such as ‘I am feeling thirsty’ or ‘Don’t worry. I am hearing him’ (Selinker 1972).


Selinker quotes Coulter (1968) and says learners avoid grammatical formatives such as articles, plural forms and past tense forms as in,


It was Ø nice,  nice trailer, Ø big one.’

‘I have many hundred carpenter(s) my own’.

‘I was in Frankfurt when I fill(ed) application’.

All these could be the result of a learning strategy of simplification but Coulter attributes them to a communication strategy. He thinks because of past experience the learners have come to know that if they worry about grammatical processes their speech would not be fluent and hence native speakers may not have the patience to hear them through. Besides the learners also felt they did not need a form such as English plurals to communicate efficiently.


As Jean D’Souza says one cannot really draw a line between overgeneralization strategy of second language learning and second language communication. It seems to be a matter of looking at the same thing from different points of view. What actually goes on in a learners mind and how he decides to say one thing instead of the other cannot be really perceived. One can only speculate and say this is what probably happens. Unless one is able to study ones own mind very objectively while trying to learn a new language the strategies used cannot be actually stated. Even if such a study of one’s mind without any subjectivity is possible this may not be true of others for each individual has his own peculiar nature, way of learning things, way of responding to given circumstances, etc.

Selinker also talks of a subconscious strategy of second language learning which he calls ‘cue copying’. He gives the example of the /r/ sound at the end of words like ‘California’ and ‘saw’ which foreign students of English who have had teachers from the Boston regularly reproduce in their Interlanguage. But he does not state how this is different from what he calls ‘transfer of training’. While discussing transfer of training he says Serbo-Croation speakers at all levels of English proficiency have difficulty in distinguishing between he and she because their teachers and text books almost always present drills with ‘he’ and never with ‘she’. So here too the learners could be said to use the ‘copy the cue’ strategy.

Whatever the differences may be it is not very difficult to identify a few strategies and study the learner’s errors from those points of view. Selinker himself says that there could be number of other processes in addition to these five processes mentioned by him.

Differences of opinion opinion cannot be avoided since what takes place in the mind of the learners when they attempt to learn a language cannot be stated with absolute certainty. Most of the efforts to understand the process of language learning are speculative and abstract. But the basic concepts behind the apparent differences of opinion appear to be the same in all cases.

All that one needs to understand is that when children are exposed to a particular language they do not learn the grammar of that language straight away. They process the input data and form certain hypotheses. They cook up their own grammar which may be called G1. If ‘G’ is the grammar of the language they are learning, they may use and discard a number of grammars like G1 and G2 before they get to ‘G’. As per their exposure they constantly test their hypotheses and keep altering it. Hence their grammar at a particular point of time is systematic and has its own rules. But it is not constant. It keeps changing in line with the exposure they receive.


Similarly for second language learning all these processes have tobe gone through. Hence the second language learners are almost in the same position as the first language learners but for the fact that they already have one language in their possession. Since our concepts and ideas are largely structured by our first language, the  first language has a lot of influence over the learning of other languages. Hence learners could be said to view the second language through their first language and arrive at a system which is midway between their first and second language. This intermediary system is given the name ’Interlanguage’ by Selinker. Other terminologies have also been used by various others to identify this system. Different factors have been considered as the most important aspect of this system and accordingly the names have been assigned.

William Nemser calls it ‘Approximative system’. This term emphasizes the transitional and dynamic nature of the system. JackRichards thinks it is the ‘Transitional competence’ while Dulay and Burt say that the learners’ system reveal their ‘Creative construction hypothesis’. Pit Corder calls it the ‘Idiosyncratic dialect’ of the learners.


Idiosyncratic Dialect


Pit Corder [1967] suggested that linguistics should study the process of second and foreign language acquisition and the various strategies learners may use. Since then he has contributed a number of articles wherein he discusses the nature of the learners’ language. He calls the learners’ language as their idiosyncratic dialect. PitCorder (1971) says that this dialect of the learners is (1) regular. (2)systematic and (3) meaningful.

According to Pit Corder the learners’ utterances can be accounted for by a set of rules. This set of rules is obtained from the target social dialect. He gives two reasons why the learners’ language should be considered as a dialect of the target language. The two reasons are as follows:

(1) It is a language and has a grammar.

(2) At least some of the rules in this grammar are the same as those in the target language grammar


Linguistically two languages which share the same rules are dialects and hence the learners’ language can be called a dialect. Having acquired this dialect the learners constantly try to change it to bring it in line with the standard dialect. This happens as far as the learners continue to learn. Once the learning stops their dialectis fossilized. That is those utterances which are deviant from the target language point of view remain unchanged. Pit Corder also points out how an understanding of the learners’ system can help the teacher and the learners.


According to Pit Corder the study of the learners’ dialect would tell the teacher how far the learners have progressed towards the goal and what more they have to learn yet. He also points out that if the learners utter a correct form we cannot take it as a proof that ‘thelearners have learned the systems which would generate that form in a native speaker’. For they might just be repeating an utterance that they have heard before. They may not have understood the system behind it. In such cases they cannot be said to be using the language. Spolsky (1966) uses the term ‘language-like behaviour’ to account for those utterances which are merely repeated from memory without a proper understanding of the system behind it.

Besides Pit Corder points out that the learners’ utterances should be studied in their situational context. For often it so happens that the learners’ utterance though well formed superficially does not express what the learners intended to say. Hence he categorizes the learners’ utterance under four heads as follows:

(1) superficially well formed and appropriate

(2) superficially well formed and inappropriate

(3) superficially deviant but as far as can be judged appropriate

(4) superficially deviant but as far as can be judged inappropriate


Pit Corder also points out that the child language and the language of aphasics are all deviant idiosyncratic dialects. Poetic language is ‘deliberately deviant’ and the language of the aphasics is ‘pathologically deviant’. But the dialects of the children and the learners are the result of the learning process. Here both thec hildren acquiring their mother tongue and the learners learning a second language go through a similar process wherein they form hypotheses about the nature of the language and test them. But the task of the second language learners is much easier, according to Pit Corder, for they only have to find out how the system of the new language they are trying to learn differs from the system of their mother tongue. In so doing they commit a lot of errors which reveal a lot of mother tongue influence.

The errors committed by the learners which show the influence of their mother tongue are often labeled as interference errors. The term suggests that old habits are interfering with those which are yetto be acquired. But according to Pit Corder possession of a language makes it easy for the learners to learn a new language as they have already learnt to adopt some strategies for language learning and they have only to find out how the new language is different from their mother tongue. Hence errors are not signs of inhibition but are evidences which show what strategies the learners are using to acquire a language.


An analysis of the learners’ language could help us adjust our syllabuses to the built-in syllabus which the learners have made for themselves. But it is not very easy to analyse the learners’ dialect mainly because of two reasons. Firstly, the learners’ dialect is not stable and secondly, interpretation is difficult because of the peculiarity of the dialect. But if we understand the learners’ built-in syllabus through the study of their errors we could create better conditions for language learning. We could help the learners to improve and adapt their strategies so that a development of the language takes place in their mind spontaneously. The suggestion that our syllabuses should suit the needs of the learners is not new. Carroll (1955) made such a proposal and thought if the learners were asked to find verbal responses to certain problems taking the help of their teacher or a dictionary they could learn better. Ferguson (1966) points out if at all our syllabuses have any considerate foundation; they are often based upon impressionistic judgments and vaguely conceived theoretical principles. Now it is an accepted fact that learners’ errors should be systematically studied and our syllabuses should be formed in such a way that they are in line with the strategies used by the learner.

If this can be done “we may be able to allow the learner’s innate strategies to dictate our practice and determine our syllabus; we may learn to adapt ourselves to his needs rather than impose upon him our preconceptions of how he ought to learn, what he ought to learn and when he ought to learn it”   

        (Pit Corder 1967 /p27)


Approximative System

William Nemser (1971) employs the term ‘Approximative system’ to identify a learner’s linguistic system which is distinct from his mother tongue and the target language he is attempting to learn. Here by the term ‘approximative’ he means that the learner is progressing towards the target language and his system is developmental in nature. The term system implies that he is using aset of rules and hence his language is not a random.

As the learner receives more and more exposure and collects new data he attempts to change his system. He constantly tries to alter his system to bring the system closer to the target language. Hence his system should be studied from three points of view (1) his mother tongue. (2) his target language and (3) as an independent system itself.


It is important to study this system separately because it can ‘provide attested information or immediate utility in teaching and course development on patterns of learning behavior for the principal structures of the target languages’ (Nemser 1971). What Nemser is trying to suggest is that the materials based on Contrastive linguistic studies are not so effective because they take into consideration only the learner’s mother tongue and his target language. If learner’s learning behavior as revealed from the study of his approximative system is understood we should be able to foresee the problems of a particular learner with respect to a particular target language.

The learner’s system is ‘internally structured’ and it varies according to the learner’s level of proficiency. According to Nemser this system is affected by two types of interference (1) internal (That is learner strategies which operate on the input) (2)external (That is learner’s previous learning experience). If the learner’s approximative system is analysed systematically we might be able to anticipate how a learner will react with respect to a particular target language structure viewing it from a particular language.

According to Nemser there are two stages in the learning process of a second language learner. These two stages are identified as the early stages and the later stages. In the early stages a  second language learner does not differentiate properly the phonological grammatical and lexical categories of his mother tongue and target language. In the later stages after learning the distribution of some of the formal elements he extends their distribution and commits errors. So his former stages are characterized by reinterpretation, hypercorrection and analogy.

A number of studies have revealed the influence of mother tongue in beginners and the influence of overgeneralization in advanced learners. Thereby it can be seen that Nemser is right in saying that in the initial stages there is an ‘underdifferenciation’ of the various categories of the target language from that of the learner’s mother tongue while in the later stages there is reinterpretation of whatever is misunderstood. Further, it has often been observed that a particular rule of subsystem which poses problems to one learner is easily acquired by another. This could be because of the learning strategies that each learner may be using. Hence Nemser  rightly stresses the need to study individual learner’s systems to gain in sight into their learning strategies.


Nemser also suggests that attempts should be made to keep the learner’s system transient or moving towards the target system. He says, “effective language teaching implies preventing, or postponing as long as possible, the formation of permanent intermediate systems and subsystems (deviant phonological and grammatical structures)”. According to him a study of the learner system could make valuable contribution to contrastive linguistic theory and general for tackling students’ problems. According to him, an ultimate goal might be the reformulation of the native language and the target language descriptions in terms of permitting the accurate projection of the learner’s approximative system throughout its successive stages in each contact situation. But it should be noted that this is not an easy task and a large number of studies have to be carried out before we could attempt such a description.


Transitional Competence

Jack C. Richards (1971) refers to the learner’s competence at a particular time, as the transitional competence. He says that the learner’s competence at a particular stage is full of what he calls as intralingual or developmental errors. These errors illustrate some of the characteristics of language acquisition. The learner’s competence is transitional because it keeps changing as long as the learner tries to improve his competence. If he stops learning his competence at a particular stage becomes his final grammatical competence.

Intralingual errors are not caused by the learner’s inability to separate two languages. “Their origins are found within the structure of English itself and through reference to the strategy by which a second language is acquired and taught”. These errors are systematic and are not caused by memory lapses. fatigue and the like. These errors occur repeatedly “from one year to the next with any group of learners” (Richards1971). Developmental errors are caused because of the learners’ efforts to build up hypothesis about the language from his limited experience in the classroom. Richards classifies these errors under various heads like, overgeneralization, ignorance of rule restrictions, incomplete application of rules and false concepts hypothesized.

Richards thinks that an analysis of the learner’s developmental errors should help us to examine our teaching materials and make them more effective. The language learning assumptions behind material preparation and teaching practices could be changed, if we understand how a language is acquired. According to Richards, many teaching practices are based on the notion that the learner will reproduce exactly whatever is presented in his textbook or whatever is taught in the classroom. But often this does not happen. If a systematic study of the learners’ errors is undertaken, we could know the learning strategies used by the learner and the generalizations formed by him. This should be studied along with the teaching materials and techniques of presentation through which the learner attempts to learn the language.

As Richards rightly points out the learner uses his own strategies to learn a language, which may be independent of the teaching methods. Teachers have often been annoyed at the learners committing errors, in spite of repeated instructions. They just fail to understand why their learners produce deviant forms when the right forms have been drilled again and again. They don’t realize that a learner cannot be forced to learn anything by an external syllabus, because he has his own internal syllabus. With this internal syllabus he tries to build up a system of the target language for himself, through generalizations. As Pit Corder observes, a list of items in the syllabus only represent what is ‘available for going in’. What actually goes in depends on what the learners is ready to take in

Richards is also right in saying that many of the course materials based on a contrastive approach to language teaching put undue emphasis on points of contrast. This leads to an unnatural use of English. If the learners’ exposure is limited to the confines of the classroom and the textbooks he is likely to form generalizations based on these materials. Hence his competence will surely reflect a lot of deviant and inappropriate use of target language structures. Richards cites an instance, that is, the use of Present Continuous tense in an unnatural way found in many of the course books. These books give more importance to the continuous form because it is not present in the mother tongue of the learner.

Another important point, which Richards makes, is about the way items are graded and presented in many course books. According to him the learners find it difficult to perceive the difference between two contrasting elements presented together in synonymous contexts. He rightly suggests that these items should be presented at different times in different contexts which are non-synonymous. He also suggests transformation exercises based on contrasts should be avoided. It is not difficult to perceive that Richard’s suggestions make a lot of sense. But course writers need to have native-like competence in the language to foresee the conflicts that the learners might face. In most of the places where English is taught as a second language the materials are prepared by those who do not understand the problems of the learners because their knowledge in the fields of linguistics and methodology is very superficial.


Within the limitations of the resources we have we should try to help the learners to improve their competence. This we can do if we try to “take account of the structural and developmental conflicts that can come about in language learning” (Richards 1971).  Richards is right in saying that course writers and classroom teachers should avoid presenting conflicting structures at the same time. But some amount of conflict between the newly presented item and the one that precedes it is bound to be there.  Errors cannot be completely avoided. Without generalization speedy and efficient language learning is almost impossible. What we possibly can do is to minimize confusion in the minds of our learners as far as possible. If we find a certain set of learners commit errors repeatedly and if the particular error can be traced back to the textbook or method of presentation in the class we could try to rearrange the items and present them in different contexts and at different times.


Significance of Error Analysis and Interlanguage for the Teaching of English


Teachers and learners of English as well as syllabus designers and materials producers have much to gain from the studies of Error Analysis and Interlanguage.

Error Analysis helps the teachers to assess whatever they have taught and whatever the learners have learnt and make plans for the future. If teachers understand that learners cannot achieve native speaker’s competence directly they would be ready to accept the varieties of language which their learners produce. These varieties may be different from the well-formed utterances found in the course book drill or dialogue. But a close study of the learners’ English will provide “thesort of data on which realistic predictions about learning and teaching can be based” (Richards and Sempson 1974). When teachers realize that learners have to pass through various stages to achieve competence they would set more realistic goals for particular learning situations.

Longitudinal studies of acquisition of mother tongue as well as English could be carried out to see how far the hypotheses about the grammatical rules of mother tongue and English are related. If a number of such studies are carried out generalizations based on these should enable us to introduce particular elements of English at such stages when it would likely to be of greatest benefit.


If the learners’ learning strategies are understood by a systematic study of their errors and if a number of such studies make it possible to form certain generalizations such teaching procedures could be developed which make optimal use of the learners’ way of learning. Further if studies of second language learning in natural environments and informal classroom settings are compared effective pedagogic grammars could be prepared.

If the teachers know the nature of the learners’ system to be transitional they would be on the look out for items which are fossilized. They would be able to help the learners improve their competence and bring it as close to native competence as possible. Even if they do not have the time to carry out systematic analyses the mere awareness of these concepts would influence their thinking. They might at least make a mental note of the errors that recur over long periods of time and treat them appropriately as part of their class work.

If the teachers’ attitude towards errors changes they would at least encourage the learners to use the language in the class without worrying about their errors. Since the learners usually reflect the teacher’s attitude they will make attempts to form hypotheses and test them without any inhibition. They would use the language to express their feelings and attitudes instead of writing on some stale topics which are suggested by the teachers. They would actively participate in the learning process.


© 2005 Ranganayaki Srinivas






Buenos Aires, agosto de 2005


Sr. Lic. Omar Villarreal


La Academia Nacional de Educación invita a usted a la sesión pública, que se realizará, en el salón de conferencias de su sede de la calle Pacheco de Melo 2084, el lunes 5 de septiembre a las 18 y 30.


En la oportunidad la académica Prof. María Celia Agudo de Córsico disertará sobre "La enseñanza efectiva".


Alfredo Manuel van Gelderen                               

Avelino José Porto

Académico Secretario                                        Académico Presidente


Asistencia libre - Se solicita confirmar asistencia

Teléfono 4806-2818 Telefax 4806-8817 - E-mail:





Buenos Aires, 2 de agosto de 2005


Lic. Omar A. Villarreal


Tengo el agrado de dirigirme a usted con el objeto de anticiparle la realización en esta Academia, de la Vigésima Tercera Reunión de Colegios Universitarios, que se realizará el próximo martes 6 de septiembre, de 14y30 a 20.

Como es habitual en la parte final de la reunión presentaremos experiencias de Colegios Universitarios mediante la articulación de Profesorados o Institutos Superiores Técnicos con Universidades. Las experiencias que se presenten pueden ser independientes del uso o no, de la denominación Colegio Universitario.

Si usted considera que posee una experiencia valiosa y desea presentarla, con mucho gusto la consideraremos en tanto y cuanto el tiempo lo permita.

Para ello, el cierre de las propuestas de aporte ha sido fijado para el día 16 de agosto, por lo que le solicitamos las haga llegar antes de dicha fecha.

Sin otro particular, saludo a usted atentamente.


Dr. Alberto C. Taquini (h)
Académico -
Academia Nacional de EDucación






The following is a reproduction of an article published in Clarín on March 3rd, 2005


Howard Gardner, mentor de las Inteligencias Múltiples

Primero era una, después fueron ocho, y hoy ya se habla de once tipos de inteligencia. Después de 20 años de la creación de la teoría de las "Inteligencias Múltiples" (MI), Howard Gardner, Co-Director del Proyecto Zero de la Universidad de Harvard, sigue dando que hablar con los "papers" que hacen una revisión de la teoría que revolucionó el sistema educativo estadounidense en los ''80. Según informó, se sumarían ahora nuevas inteligencias como la sexual, la digital y la de las ''grandes preguntas''.

"La sexual estaría relacionada con la manera de vincularse con el placer íntimo, la digital con la habilidad para manejarse con las nuevas tecnologías y la de las "grandes preguntas" son las que hacen a cuestionamientos más trascendentales, también llamada ''espiritual''", según un mail que hizo llegar a este diario.

"En 2005 —afirma— hay tres nuevas resignificaciones que hacer: La teoría ya tiene vida propia, y cada institución debe crear su propio modelo para aplicar y desarrollar las inteligencias múltiples. La neurociencia ha probado que existen diferentes facultades mentales en los seres humanos. Y el coeficiente intelectual (IQ) es sólo la medición de un tipo de inteligencia".

¿Cuál fue el éxito de MI? Reconocía en su momento lo que se sabía intuitivamente, y es que la brillantez académica no lo es todo. Dicho de otro modo, Einstein no era más inteligente que Michael Jordan; sus destrezas pertenecían a campos diferentes.

El quiebre de MI con otras teorías surgió de la propia definición de " inteligencia". Para Gardner, es la "capacidad de resolver problemas o elaborar productos que sean valiosos en una o más culturas". Y la importancia de este nuevo concepto es doble. Primero, porque amplía el campo de lo que es la inteligencia. "Hay gente de gran capacidad intelectual —dice Gardner— pero incapaz de elegir bien a sus amigos". Segundo, y no menos importante, define a la inteligencia como una capacidad, lo que la presenta como una destreza que puede ser desarrollada, si bien no niega el componente genético.

En la Argentina, no hay demasiados colegios que apliquen estos estudios. Cristina Tanner, directora de Relaciones con la Comunidad del Florida Day School (uno de los colegios que se animó al cambio desde 1996), afirma que "a los alumnos no se los puede evaluar con un test standard, sino que hay que medir a cada uno según sus distintas capacidades". La experiencia consiste en guiar a los alumnos desde chicos para que elijan un espacio donde puedan desarrollar sus áreas de mayor interés y dominio. Así, por ejemplo, si sus gustos se inclinan por la inteligencia lingüística, podrá elegir por el POD —así llaman a estos espacios especiales— de Periodismo, o de Teatro.

¿Por qué MI se enfrenta con la educación actual formal? Porque todas las inteligencias son igualmente importantes y el sistema escolar ha entronizado las dos primeras de la lista (ver Las nuevas inteligencias), la inteligencia lógico-matemática y la inteligencia lingüística hasta el punto de negar la existencia de las demás; los individuos también pueden formar sus inteligencias mediante regímenes de formación de carácter más informal; y aunque la evaluación constituye un componente clave de la educación, no es el primer objetivo. Lo vital en la educación es la comprensión, que no puede conseguirse de manera inmediata.

"Es evidente que, sabiendo lo que sabemos sobre estilos de aprendizaje, tipos de inteligencia y estilos de enseñanza es absurdo que sigamos insistiendo en que todos nuestros alumnos aprendan de la misma manera", dice Paula Pogré, colaboradora del Proyecto Zero en la Argentina. Y agrega: "Pero, además, tenemos que plantearnos si una educación centrada en sólo dos tipos de inteligencia es la más adecuada para vivir en un mundo cada vez más complejo".

Además, se ha abandonado la idea de que la inteligencia es una cantidad, que puede medirse con un número como el coeficiente intelectual (IQ). Según Alejandra Dold, psicopedagoga de la Fundación Majdalani, "hoy se habla de éxito escolar y no sólo académico, por lo que el docente debe hacer un mayor esfuerzo para que todos los niños tengan la posibilidad engancharse según sus distintos intereses".

Gardner, finalmente, da algunos consejos para mejorar el sistema educativo: "Que todos los niños empiecen a aprender con la misma edad, sea con un año o con tres, que se los entusiasme con la idea de aprender y por último, que puedan continuar aprendiendo fuera de la escuela".






La Facultad de Derecho y la Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de la Universidad De Buenos Aires anuncian la apertura de:



Seminarios con Creditos para el Proyecto de Carrera de Especializacion y Maestria en Traducción e Interpretación


Destinatarios: Traductores Públicos, Técnicos, Científicos, Literarios, Profesores de Lengua Inglesa con Título Universitario o Terciario


La Maestría en Traducción e Interpretación orientaciones: comercial/ legal y técnico- científico y literario  se completa con 38 créditos más 10 créditos de tesis, o sea con un total de 48 créditos ( 768 horas).El presentismo requerido es del 80%.


Seminario: "Fonología Del Inglés – Actualización"

Docente: Profesor: Norberto Ruiz Díaz.

Horas: 32 Hs. = 2 Créditos.

Dias: Sábados: De 9 A 13.

Fecha De Inicio: 20/08/05


Seminario: "Traducción Y Lingüística"

Docente: Profesor: Alejandro Parini

Horas: 32 Hs. = 2 Créditos.

Dias: Martes Y Jueves De 18,30 A 20,30.

Fecha De Inicio: 16/08/05


Seminario: "Estudios Lingüísticos Contrastivos"

Docente: Profesora: María Teresa Viñas Urquiza.

Horas: 32 Hs. = 2 Créditos.

Dias: Sábados De 9,00 A 17,00.

Fecha De Inicio: 13/08/05


Seminario: "Actualización En Traducción Directa"

Docente: Profesora: Ada Franzoni De Moldavsky

Horas: 32 Hs. = 2 Créditos.

Dias: Viernes 30 De Septiembre De 18,00 A 20,00.

Viernes 7; 14 Y 21 De Octubre De 18,00 A 20,00.

Sábados 1; 8; 15 Y 22 De Octubre De 10,00 A 13,00 Y De 14,30 A 17,30.

Fecha De Inicio: 30/09/05


Seminario: "Introducción A La Interpretación"

Docentes: Profesores: Walter Kerr - Margarita Ana Moschetti y Cynthia Abad Quintaié

Horas: 32 Hs. = 2 Créditos.

Dias: Sábados 1; 15 Y 22 De Octubre De 9,00 A 13,00.

Sábados 5; 12; 19; 26 De Noviembre De 9,00 A 13,00.

Fecha De Inicio: 01/10/05


El costo de los cursos es de $ 10 la hora reloj, o sea, que un curso de 32 horas cuesta $ 320. Se acepta el pago por tarjeta de crédito.

Todos los cursos son también válidos para la Carrera Docente


Informes: Carrera De Traductorado Público – Figueroa Alcorta 2263 Piso 2do. Ciudad De Buenos Aires – T.E. 4809-5680 De 9 A 13 Y De 16 A 20.

Correo Electrónico:

Inscripción: Departamento De Posgrado – Piso Segundo De 9 A 20.







La Facultad de Ciencias Humanas de la Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto anuncia la apertura de la 3ra Cohorte de su Maestría en Inglés en Marzo de 2006:


Carrera de la Facultad de Ciencias Humanas acreditada por la CONEAU (Res. 223/99). 
Proyecto interinstitucional desarrollado por la UNRC, con la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, a través de la Facultad de Lenguas.


Orientaciones: Lingüística Aplicada y  Literatura Angloamericana. 

Sede: Facultad De Ciencias Humanas / Universidad Nacional De Río Cuarto

Preinscripción Abierta ( 3ra Cohorte) desde Agosto de 2005 a Noviembre de 2005

Inicio De Actividades: Marzo 2006. 


Junta Académica:
Coordinadora: Mgter. Iliana A. Martinez UNRC
Ma. Ana Celi UNRC.
Ma. María Cristina Astorga UNRC.
Coordinadora Ma. Lidia Soler UNC.
Dra. Cristina Elgue UNC.

Contactos de referencia:

Coodinación de la Maestría en Inglés
Cub. 18, Pabellón B
Tel. 0358-4676575. 

Dirección de Posgrado de la Facultad de Ciencias Humanas
Cub. 2, Tel. 0358-4676467


Cuerpo Académico


Mgter. María Elena Aguirre UNC.
Dra. Pampa Olga Arán UNC.
Mgter. María Cristina Astorga UNRC 
Mgter. María Lucrecia Berrone UNC.
Mgter. María Cristina Boiero UNRC.
Dra. Isolda Carranza UNC.
Ma. Ana Celi UNRC.
Dr. Rolando Costa Picazo UBA.
Dra. Cristina Elgue UNC.
Mgter. Olga Flores UN de Tucumán.
Dra. Luisa Granato Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
Ma. Ana Longhini UNRC.
Ma. Alba Loyo UNRC.
Mgter. María A. Mac Cormack UNRC.
Mgter. Ileana A. Martínez UNRC.
Esp. Ana Morra UNC.
Mgter. Laila Nicola UNC.
Mgter. Lidia Soler UNC



Perfil académico del egresado: El egresado de esta carrera estará capacitado para abordar la investigación en su campo de especialidad  (Lingüística Aplicada y Literatura Angloamericana), interpretar y resolver problemas inherentes a su realidad socio-educativa, elaborar y  ejecutar proyectos innovadores.


Duración: Dos años


Estructura de la carreraLa currícula presenta cursos comunes a ambas orientaciones y seminarios y cursos específicos a cada orientación. Tanto los cursos como los seminarios serán dictados en el idioma inglés.


Cursos comunes a ambas orientaciones:


Orientación Lingüística Aplicada:


Orientación Literatura Angloamericana:



Requisitos de Admisión:
Título universitario de profesor, licenciado o traductor de inglés.

Arancel La matrícula tendrá un costo de $50. 
Los alumnos podrán abonar la carrera por crédito, a $70 o por mes, a $100. 






Our dear SHARER Ma. Cristina Sarasa from Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales

Facultad de Humanidades, Universidad Nacional de  Mar del Plata has got an announcement to make:



III Jornadas La Formación del Profesorado a Debate: “Reflexiones metodológicas para la investigación”


Mar del Plata

UNMDP Facultad de Humanidades

20 y 21 de octubre de 2005


Organiza: Grupo GICIS: Proyecto: “Formación el Profesorado en el marco de la nueva agenda de la didáctica”




        La formación docente se presenta hoy como una de las claves necesarias en el momento de indagar en un proceso de reforma educativa. Concebimos a los maestros y otros educadores capaces de enfrentar cuestiones relacionadas con la función mas amplia del currículo y de la escuela, así como poder articular las relaciones entre cultura y poder, interés y teoría/ práctica. Imaginamos a los profesores como intelectuales transformadores que pueden entender cómo las ideologías dominantes de etnicidad, clase, género y raza han dejado una huella en la forma en que piensan y actúan. Es por ello que se hace necesario un diálogo crítico comprometido que pueda situarlos desde este lugar de transformación social en época de neoliberalismo pedagógico que pueda generar las “condiciones de posibilidad” necesarias para el cambio educativo.

Afirma Pruzzo (2002) que “esta formación de profesores, más que concebirlos como aplicadores acríticos de las ideas de los especialistas, puede enseñar a indagar en el marco de contextos sociales de la escolarización, en las propias autocomprensiones de los docentes, en las diferencias culturales que luego se trocan en las distancias escolares”. Este análisis nos permite comenzar a compartir ideas sobre lo que significa la democracia en las instituciones escolares. En este sentido Giroux (1998) afirma que “los educadores necesitan dar a los estudiantes una voz activa en la determinación de su futuro y encontrar una noción de pedagogía que dé coherencia a varios conflictos y movimientos políticos, enfocándose en los tipos de lenguaje, formas de comunicación y prácticas sociales a través de las cuales la gente aprenda acerca de sí misma y de sus relaciones con temas sobre significado, poder y lucha”.

La Facultad de Humanidades es el ámbito donde se forman docentes en variadas áreas para una amplia región de la provincia de Buenos Aires, por lo que se hace necesario resignificar este espacio desde un lugar de recuperación teórica pero con una fuerte injerencia en prácticas concretas. La puesta en marcha en 1998 del Ciclo de Formación Docente en nuestra Facultad, hace necesario comenzar a generar espacios donde se pongan en juego categorías de análisis de esta naturaleza.

Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo concibe que la visión epistemológica de la actual formación de profesores con un fuerte énfasis en la formación teórica determina una práctica docente acrítica, caracterizada por la reproducción de las propias biografías escolares. En las Jornadas avanzaremos en esta definición a partir de la discusión y la crítica en torno a los nuevos ejes que deben configurar la docencia y la formación profesional.

¿Por qué debe investigarse sobre la enseñanza? Gimeno Sacristán (1997: 7 ss.) indica que la carencia de investigaciones en este campo sugiere, a su vez, la carencia de fundamentos, reflexiones y críticas para las prácticas docentes. La investigación permite que la docencia tome conciencia de sí misma. Díaz Barriga (2002: 33-34) insiste sobre la necesidad de comprender las prácticas docentes en las instituciones de educación superior ya que éstas se ocupan no solo de la transmisión del conocimiento sino que juegan un papel fundamental en su organización y creación.

En cuanto a la formación del profesorado en el ámbito de la educación superior, la misma no ha sido íntegramente reconocida como un objeto de conocimiento sólido. Esta cuestión también ha afectado a los programas de formación docente, que pueden beneficiarse con la realización de investigaciones educativas (Liston y Zeischner 1997: 163-165, 218-219). Existen en la actualidad investigaciones en las cuales los formadores de docentes, sean o no especialistas en educación propiamente dichos, estudian problemáticas de la formación del profesorado al tomar sus propios contextos como sitios de investigación. En la literatura profesional y en las actas de las conferencias profesionales se encuentran una variedad de términos que indican que un número cada vez mayor de formadores docentes se encuadra abocado a distintas formas de indagación de sus prácticas: investigación docente, investigación acción, indagación autobiográfica, auto estudio, autoreflexión, estudio de la docencia, desarrollo de saberes en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje. Si bien estos términos no son en absoluto sinónimos, contribuyen a indicar una nueva investigación en la formación docente. Por otra parte, la docencia y la investigación son componentes inseparables de la vida universitaria.

Desde esta perspectiva de construcción de un abordaje crítico para la Formación del Profesorado y en el marco de la nueva agenda de la didáctica, planteamos la discusión en torno a los siguientes ejes o tópicos centrales: paradigmas y metodologías de investigación en la formación del profesorado, currículum para la formación docente, y didáctica de la formación del profesorado. En esta oportunidad se favorecerá la presentación de comunicaciones para ser discutidas en las mesas de debate.




Día 20  de octubre

10,00 horas: Apertura.

10,30 horas: Mesa de Debate

15,00 horas: Mesas de Comunicaciones por área temática

18,30 horas: Mesa de Debate


Día 21 de octubre

09,00 horas: Mesas de Comunicaciones por área temática

13 horas: Mesas de trabajo de comisiones

16,00 horas. Conferencia de cierre


Informes e Inscripción: Dirección Postal: Facultad de Humanidades, Complejo Universitario, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata

Tel/fax: 0223-475-2277. /


Aranceles : Expositores: $ 25 , Asistentes: $ 20, Alumnos: gratis

Forma de pago: los aranceles se abonarán al momento de la acreditación

Los alumnos de la UNMDP quedan eximidos de todo tipo de arancel


Formato de las comunicaciones

Las mismas presentarán resultados de trabajos en el campo de la investigación de la formación docente. Tendrán una extensión máxima de ocho páginas tamaño A-4, incluido los gráficos, notas y bibliografía. Se presentarán con letra Times New Roman, cuerpo 12, espacio y medio. El título debe ir centrado, con mayúscula y negrita, sin subrayar. Abajo del título debe consignarse el nombre del/de los autor/es (alineación izquierda y en minúscula), la dependencia académica donde desarrolla/n sus actividades y la dirección de correo electrónico. Luego se incluirá un abstract del artículo en no más de cien palabras. Los subtítulos se escribirán en negrita y también sin subrayar. Las palabras con énfasis en el texto se presentarán exclusivamente con letra cursiva.

El texto deberá estar justificado y presentar sangría de primera línea en vez de tabulaciones para los márgenes.

Las citas bibliográficas en el texto de realizarán entre paréntesis, indicando apellido del autor, año de publicación, y página: (Giroux 1993: 20)

Las citas textuales mayores de cuatro líneas se incluirán en cuerpo de interlineado simple, Times New Roman 10, sangría de primera línea para todo el texto.


Las referencias bibliográficas se incluirán al finalizar el texto según las siguientes convenciones, incluyen sangría francesa para todas las referencias:

Libro; un autor: Bruner, J. (1997) La educación, puerta de la cultura, Madrid, Visor.

Libro, varios autores: Tishman, S., D. Perkins, y E. Jay. (1998) Un aula para pensar, Bs. As., Aique.

Capítulo de libro: Litwin, E. (1998) “La investigación didáctica en un debate contemporáneo”, en: Baquero, R. y cols. Debates Constructivistas, Bs. As., Aique.

Artículo de publicación periódica: Schleppegrell, M. (1998) “La gramática como recurso para la escritura”, en: Investigación en la enseñanza, Vol. 32, Nº 2.


Las comunicaciones se presentarán en una copia impresa acompañada del disquete rotulado con el nombre del autor/es y el título de la misma. Se solicita asimismo el envío del trabajo por correo electrónico, exclusivamente en formato RTF que presenta menos riesgos de virus.

Direcciones de envío de los trabajos: o


Plazos: Las comunicaciones se recibirán hasta el 15 de septiembre. El objetivo del Comité organizador es publicar las actas de las jornadas antes de su inicio. Solicitamos por lo tanto el respeto de los plazos fijados.


Comité organizador:

Luis Porta, Zelmira Alvarez, Cristina Sarasa, Sonia Bazán, Silvia Branda, Gladys Cañueto

Maria Laura Sordelli, Claudia Cadaveira.





Our dear SHARER Ana Lía Cabrera has got an invitation for all of us:


Dear Teachers,


                                      Below you'll find all the info concerning this 1st "Encuentro de Experiencias de Lectura en Inglés", which means SHARING. Sharing the experiences you've had with your students, which will, needless to say, benefit everyone concerned with fostering the pleasure of READING.


For further info or any doubts you may have, please contact


Warm regards


Brown 239 - Rafaela -
Santa Fe

Tel. 03492 – 430852 - E-mail



“I Encuentro de Experiencias de Lectura en Inglés en la Escuela”



         La Secretaría de Integración Comunitaria de la Municipalidad de Rafaela, la Dirección Regional de Educación y Cultura – Región III y el Instituto Superior del Profesorado Nº 2 “Joaquín V. González”, organizan e invitan a participar en el

I Encuentro De Experiencias De Lectura En Inglés En La Escuela que se realizará en Rafaela, los días 07 y 08 de Octubre de 2005, en el Centro Cultural Municipal – Sala Sociedad Italiana – Pueyrredón Nº 262.


            In the context of second language learning and teaching, Literature has usually tended to have a capital “L”. The principal aim of this meeting is to get rid of that institutionalised capital, and to prove, in practical rather than theoretical terms, how literature is both necessary and useful in language teaching.





     Este Encuentro  intenta instalar en la región un espacio de intercambio y reflexión permanente sobre las experiencias de lectura en inglés que se llevan o se han llevado a cabo en las instituciones educativas de E.G.B. 1, 2, 3,  y de nivel Polimodal de la Región III de Educación y Cultura.





Expositores: Maestros y Profesores de Inglés de EGB 1, 2 y 3 y de nivel Polimodal

Maestros y Profesores de Inglés de Academias y de Institutos Privadas


Oyentes: Docentes de Inglés de todos los niveles, Estudiantes del Profesorado de Inglés

Estudiantes de carreras afines con conocimientos de Inglés



Comité Académico:   Nivel E.G.B. 1, 2 y 3

Prof. Liliana Coppetti, Prof. Beatriz Camacho y Prof. Viviana Piacenza

Nivel Polimodal: Prof. Tuky Ibáñez de Chiaraviglio, Prof. Lelia Chiapero y Prof. María Rosa Bostico



Presentación de Ponencias


Las Ponencias consistirán en relatos en inglés de experiencias de lectura o de animación de la lectura, en curso o concretadas en los niveles de E.G.B.1, 2, 3 y Polimodal.

Las Ponencias deberán ajustarse a la siguiente estructuración:


Breve caracterización del contexto de la experiencia: Grupo con el cual se trabajó, situación socio-económica, edades de los alumnos, experiencias de lectura previas.

Inserción institucional del proyecto: Obstáculos, resistencias, apoyos, situaciones facilitadoras, recursos disponibles.


Marco de fundamentación.

Propósito de la experiencia.

Narración de las acciones.

Impacto en el grupo participante y en la institución.

Evaluación personal de la experiencia.

Bibliografía de apoyo (en el caso que se haya utilizado).


Extensión Máxima: 6 (seis) carillas.

Tiempo disponible para la presentación: 20 (veinte) minutos. Podrán incluirse testimonios de las producciones de los alumnos (textos, casetes, videos).

Se podrá utilizar 10 (diez) minutos adicionales para responder inquietudes de la audiencia.


Los trabajos deberán estar encabezados por: Datos de autor / autores (incluir dirección de correo electrónico disponible), institución a la que representa(n), título de la experiencia de lectura, nivel de aplicación


El formato a observar es el siguiente:Hoja tamaño A4, Letra Arial 12, Interlineado: 1,5


Los trabajos deberán entregarse hasta el 02 Septiembre de 2005, por triplicado, en copia papel y en soporte magnético, en el tercer piso del Edificio Municipal, de 8:00 a 12:00. Los trabajos deberán acompañarse con la ficha de inscripción de cada expositor.

Los trabajos que no reúnan condiciones para ser expuestos serán devueltos con sugerencias para su reelaboración.


El Comité Académico comunicará la aceptación de las ponencias a las instituciones hasta el día 16 de septiembre de 2005.






Costo: Expositores, $ 5.- (Por grupo que presenta trabajo), Oyentes, $ 3.-

Los interesados deberán inscribirse en la Municipalidad de Rafaela – 3º piso, los días hábiles, de 8:00 a 12:00, a partir del 01 de agosto de 2005.          

Ante cualquier duda, solicitar mayor información al Tel: 03492 – 427201/50200 Int. 178, de 8:00 a 12:00

Para requerir apoyo tutorial para la redacción de las ponencias, dirigirse vía correo electrónico a la siguiente dirección:







Our dear SHARER Ana María Paonessa writes to us:


El Círculo de Traductores Públicos e Intérpretes de la Zona Oeste se complace en anunciar que el 24 de septiembre de 2005 de 9 a 17 tendrá lugar la


II Jornada Del Círculo De Traductores Públicos e Intérpretes se la Zona Oeste

y la IV Jornada Bonaerense para Traductores e Intérpretes


organizadas por los Círculos de Traductores Públicos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires y dirigidas a Traductores Públicos, Técnicos, Científicos y Literarios, Intérpretes, Estudiantes y Profesores de las respectivas carreras. Estas Jornadas han sido declaradas de interés municipal por la Municipalidad de La Matanza y la Municipalidad de Morón. Cuentan también con los siguientes auspicios: Universidad del Museo Social Argentino, Universidad de Morón, Colegio de Traductores Públicos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Asociación Argentina de Traductores e Intérpretes, Asociación Civil de Docentes de Idioma Alemán, Fundación Litterae, Colegio de Arquitectos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Distrito III.




* El control de calidad en la traducción, a cargo de María Cristina Pinto, Traductora Literaria y Técnico-Científica (IESLV J.R. Fernández), Licenciada en Idioma Inglés (UB).


* Cómo contraponer el concepto de “slow-down” a la urgencia diaria del traductor, a cargo de Nilda Ayala, Traductora Pública en Idioma Inglés (UBA).


* El intérprete, malabarista de aptitudes propias y ajenas, a cargo de María Cristina de Ortúzar, Traductora Pública (USAL), Profesora Universitaria (USAL), Master in Cultural Studies and Comparative Education (London University).


Mesas Redondas:


* Colegiación: Necesidad imperiosa. Con la participación del Colegio de Traductores Públicos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, el Colegio de Arquitectos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Distrito III y los Círculos de Traductores Públicos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires.


* El traductor argentino y el mundo actual. Con la participación de los Traductores Públicos Luisa D'Orazio, Margarita Stecher, Pablo Palacios, Margarita Willemyns y Susana Cohen.


Aranceles: Hasta el 17/9/05 inclusive: Estudiantes: $ 25. Asociados a los Círculos con credencial: $ 30. Público en general: $ 40.

Desde el 18/9 hasta el 24/9/05: Estudiantes: $ 30. Asociados a los Círculos con credencial: $ 40. Público en general: $ 50.


Lugar de la Jornada: Avda. de Mayo 56, Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires (alt. Avda. Rivadavia 14100)


Informes:  - 4372-0068 / 4672-0095 / 4751-2418 / 4654-2077






Our dear SHARER Juan Carlos Udovín has sent this announcement:


Dear Colleagues,


Come and meet these renowned speakers and institutions at our 9th Annual Book Fair on September 10, 2005. Time: 9.00 to 19 .00 hours at Instituto Superior Cultural Británico, Maestro Angel D´Elia 1564/66 - San Miguel - TE: 4451-1657 / 4667-0446 -



Caroline Gwatkin

Maria Marta Suarez

Marcela Marianelli

Fabián Wallace

Mariel Martins

Claudio Alegre

Juan Ferretti

Alfred Seymour Hopkins

Maria Teresa Manteo

Alfredo Bilopolsky

Norberto Ruiz Diaz

Virginia Lombardi

Valeria Rodríguez Van Dam

Alicia Lopez Oyhenart

Maria Marta Crespo

On the Road 


Great talks by renowned speakers, Commercial presentations, incredible discounts,

And all for free!

For further information and enrolment please enter:


This event is sponsored by Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa –Universidad Tecnológica Nacional.






Our dear SHARER Fabian Wallace announces his 2005 Spring Conference




AQA´s ESOL Examinations 

organises  the 2005 Spring Conference

October, 1stCity of Buenos Aires, Argentina


Turn Your Students Into Chatter Boxes!

And how to achieve this with preschoolers- children-adolescents and adults


Don’t you sometimes feel that

in crowded courses your students´ productive skills are always left behind?

they learn grammar but can hardly ever  put it into action?

they do not trust in English as a valid channel for real communication?


Come and meet the most widely recognised ELT specialists for the different

age-groups in this area! Book writers, Teacher trainers and ELT novel materials: all in one place!


Ben Goldstein (UK) - Omar Villarreal - Fernando Armesto - Alfredo Biloposky and Pablo Toledo among others.

4 Plenaries, a Play and an Exhibition Area.


Info: / (011) 4481-2555 / Visit us:


This event has the sponsorship and institucional support of Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa –Universidad Tecnológica Nacional and the auspices of APIBA and  SEA.  


Registration: Estari Libros: Viamonte 2052 Tel: (011)4374-2738






Our dear SHARER Laura Renart has got an invitation to make:


T.S. Elliot Bilingual Studies 


Come and have a cup of coffee while you update your English with Nikki, an American native speaker of English with great teaching experience


Conversation Workshops on American Culture

and also let’s discuss:


What are those quirks we use in our variety of English that do not sound ‘English’ at all?


Nikki Bardoulas holds a B.S. in Secondary Education from University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, U. S. with coursework in psychology, sociology, child development and diversity. She is a former primary school teacher in inner-city Catholic schools, specialized in English, American History, African American Studies, World Studies, World History, and Psychology.



Every Tuesday from 7.15 to 9 pm

Phone us and join us next time.


Alem 1380 - Banfield  - Tel. / fax: 4202 – 3672

e-mail:  /  


Special discounts for former students and teacher trainees







San Salvador de Jujuy

6, 7 y 8 de octubre de 2005


Instituto de Formación Docente Continua Nro 4 “Raúl Scalabrini Ortiz”

Avda Santibáñez 1400 - 4600 San Salvador de Jujuy - Tel. 0388 – 423 - 6535


Integrantes del Comité Académico

Ana Inés Heras Moner Sans, Zulema Brea de Cárrega, María Cristina Bernasconi de Gebauer, Liliana Chávez, Luisa Edith Checa, Marta Susana Gil de Svendsen, María Lizárraga de Venencia, Amanda Rosa Medrano de Elías, Rebeca Gladis Rodríguez

Rosa del Carmen Rojas


Conferencias, Seminarios y Talleres:

Podemos confirmar las siguientes actividades:

1. Conferencia y Seminario a cargo de Jean-Pierre Cuq, Vicepresidente de la Federación Internacional de Profesores de Francés y especialista en Didáctica del FLE, auspiciado por la Embajada de Francia

2. Taller a cargo de la Prof. Leonor Corradi, Coordinadora de las Escuelas Municipales de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, auspiciado por el British Council.



A partir del 30 de junio, el monto de los aranceles fue fijado en:

Docentes              $ 100.-

Estudiantes            $ 50.-


For further information contact: Ma. C. B. de Gebauer -










Our dear SHARER Lic.Florencia Saintout. Directora Provincial de Bibliotecas
Fga. Susana Lino. Prof.Tit. Cátedra Libre Narración Oral write to us:

La Dirección de Bibliotecas y Promoción de la Lectura, del Instituto Cultural de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, conjuntamente con la Cátedra Libre de Narración Oral de la Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social, Universidad Nacional La Plata, tienen el agrado de invitarles al Primer Encuentro Provincial de Narración Oral "Libros y voces en comunicación"  a realizarse en la ciudad de La Plata, los días 9 y 10 de septiembre 2005, en el Aula 3 , primer piso de la Sede de la Facultad,  calle  4 entre 43 y  44.

Con motivo de esta  celebración de la palabra, la palabra viva, la palabra-imagen,  habrá  paneles con exposiciones de invitados cuyo quehacer se vincula con las Bibliotecas, la Comunicación  y la Narración Oral, como así también talleres y espectáculos de Narración Oral Escénica.

Los destinatarios del Encuentro serán bibliotecarios, narradores orales, docentes, comunicadores, artistas, escritores, estudiantes, miembros de la comunidad.
Programa y Ficha de Inscripción en archivos adjuntos.
Para consultas e inscripción

Para ampliar información:  (ver Cátedras Libres: Narración Oral)
Para comunicación vía mail con la Cátedra Libre de Narración Oral:

Todas las actividades del Encuentro serán gratuitas.





Our dear SHARER Analía Kandel has got an invitation for all of us:


Columna de "Idiomas, Arte y Cultura" de Analía Kandel
Tercer sábado de cada mes a las 15.30 hs.

en "Bureau de Arte" - Sábados de 15.30 a 17 hs.
Conducción / Producción: Elena Fassio y Nolo Correa por Radio Argentina AM 570
On line en
Audios de entrevistas anteriores en

La columna de "Idiomas, Arte y Cultura" aborda temas relacionados con aspectos lingüísticos y culturales de las lenguas extranjeras a través de comentarios, gacetillas y entrevistas a especialistas, profesionales y representantes de diversas instituciones con el fin de brindar información actual y relevante a profesores, traductores, intérpretes y
amantes de los idiomas y la palabra.

Sábado 17 de septiembre, 15.30 hs.
Elsa Grimaldi, Vicepresidente de la Asociación Santafesina de Profesores
de Inglés (ASPI)
30º Congreso Internacional de FAAPI (Federación Argentina de Asociaciones de Profesores de Inglés) organizado por ASPI (Asociación Santafecina de Profesores de Inglés) a realizarse del 22 al 25 de septiembre de 2005 en la ciudad de Santa Fe.

Lía López, Coordinadora del Proyecto Bilingüe de Frontera
Ana Armendáriz, Coordinadora del Área Lenguas Extranjeras
Dirección Nacional de Gestión Curricular y Formación Docente, Ministerio de Educación, Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación
Escuelas públicas bilingües en zonas de frontera. Programa Bilingüe de Frontera Portugués-Español. El "portuñol". Proyectos del programa para la educación intercultural. Aplicación del Módulo Común para la Educación Básica de formación histórica, geográfica, lingüística,cultural y artística de los países del MERCOSUR.

Sábado 15 de octubre, 15.30 hs.
1. Stella Maris Acuña, Miembro de la Comisión Organizadora de las Jornadas de Lengua y Cultura Japonesa Para Hispanohablantes VII Jornadas De Lengua Japonesa para Hispanohablantes - III Jornadas de Cultura Japonesa, 14 y 15 de octubre, Ciudad de Córdoba, organizadas por el Instituto Tozai y la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Escuela de Historia y Humanidades, auspiciadas por la Embajada de Japón en la República Argentina.

2. Ofelia Veltri, Directora de la Asociación Argentina de Cultura Inglesa (AACI) y el British Arts Centre (BAC).La institución. Cursos, servicios y actividades.  Centro Cultural BAC (British Arts Centre).Objetivos. Actividades culturales.

Sábado 19 de noviembre, 15.30 hs.
Roberto Arias, Periodista y capacitador de la Radio Comunitaria Mapuche FM Pocahullo
Reciente e histórico otorgamiento por parte del Comfer de una licencia a una radio comunitaria aborigen: FM Pocahullo (98.5 MHz, Aucapán,Neuquén). Sus objetivos. Su rol en la preservación del mapudungun, la lengua mapuche.

Columnas anteriores
En podés escuchar fragmentos de las entrevistas
más recientes

Analía Kandel es Profesora Nacional de Inglés, egresada del Instituto Superior del Profesorado "Dr. Joaquín V. González". Obtuvo una Maestría (M.A.) en la Enseñanza de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera de la Universidad de Reading, Reino Unido. Es especialista en la enseñanza de lengua inglesa, y específicamente en la enseñanza de la escritura con un enfoque de proceso. Es miembro de la Comisión de Educación de Fundación El Libro. Desde 2000 es Coordinadora del Dpto. de Inglés en Boston College. Dicta talleres y seminarios de capacitación sobre lengua inglesa y metodología de la enseñanza para docentes. Actualmente cursa la carrera de Producción en la Escuela Terciaria de Estudios
Radiofónicos (E.T.E.R.) y conduce el espacio "Idiomas, Arte y Cultura" en el programa "Bureau de Arte" en Radio Argentina AM 570.
E-mail:  / Web: 







Our dear SHARER Alfred Hopkins sends us this message:


The Hopkins Creative Language Lab

Presents: “Journalism Workshop”

Saturdays, 2 to 5 p.m. August and September at Bolívar 898

Learn how to edit school magazines, prepare radio and TV programs.

 $60 per month or $15 per class

Contacts: 4334-1561 or / web:







Nivel Terciario  

Escuela Normal Superior en Lenguas Vivas “Sofía E. Broquen de Spangenberg”

Tecnicaturas de Indumentaria/Gastronomía - Interinato/Suplencia

Se encuentra abierta la inscripción desde el 16 hasta el 29 de agosto inclusive para cubrir la siguiente instancia: Inglés Técnico

1ra. Cátedra interina a cubrir: lunes de 18 a 20hs

Presentar curriculum actualizado y completar planilla que se retira en la fotocopiadora de la escuela (subsuelo) Nivel Terciario - Juncal 3251. 1° piso anexo. 9 a 11,30 hs y 18 a 20,30 hs





Icana Annual Seminar 2005

Wednesday, August 31 - Friday, September 02

ICANA, Maipú 672, Buenos Aires


Keynote Speaker:        Ann Katz

Topic:                     Assessment.      

Lecturer, Master of Arts in Teaching, Language Teacher Education (San Francisco State University), Anne Katz holds a doctorate in second language education (Ph.D., Stanford University). In addition to teaching courses in the areas of curriculum, assessment, and evaluation, she conducts research and evaluation projects in the US and internationally, focusing on the identification of successful second language programs.

Program sponsored by Embassy of the United States of America, Public Affairs Section


Speaker:        David Nunan

Topic:           Motivating Young Teens: a learner-centered approach


David Nunan

Professor of Applied Linguistics and Director of the English Centre at the University of Hong Kong. He has published over 100 books and articles in the areas of curriculum and materials development,classroom-based research, and discourse analysis. He is one of the most prolific authors of English language textbooks, with over 20 million students worldwide using his books yearly. He served as TESOL President in 1999-2000.

Speaker sponsored by Thomson Learning



Registration : Seminar Fee: $ 25           

Discussion Groups´ Breakfast (Fri. Sept 02) $ 3


Please, send registration form by August 28, 2005.


Seminar fee payable on-site.

On-site registration starts Wednesday, August 31, 11:00 am.







Our dear SHARER Brenda Larefice from Net Learning has sent us this information:


Course: Aspect in English: the key to understanding TENSES...and much more

Tutor: Aldo Blanco

Starting date: 22 September

Duration: 5 weeks

Further information:és

Fee: AR$ 160 (in Argentina) – US$ 90 (other countries)

Puntaje docente Resolución del Gob. de la Cdad. de Bs. As. Nº 434/05

Certificado por la Escuela de Posgrado de la UNSAM y AEXALEVI


Course: How to teach English via the Internet

Tutor: Susana Trabaldo

Starting date: 27 September

Duration: 5 weeks

Further information:és

Fee: AR$ 160  (in Argentina) – US$ 90 (other countries)

Certificado por la Escuela de Posgrado de la UNSAM y AEXALEVI



There cannot be a better way to end up this issue of SHARE than with the words of one

of our staunch supporters and very dear SHARER : Lidia Schliesinger <>


Hi Marina and Omar,


I would like to thank you with all my heart for the wonderful work you have both been doing with your out-of this-world SHARE Magazine.!  It makes me feel the world is getting smaller all the time... because there are no barriers, no frontiers, no differences.... just a common goal:  to SHARE what we know....


And when I think about all the hard and honest work, dedication and enthusiasm that you have put into this task, one cannot be surprised at the end result:  sharing, sharing and sharing everything we know on the subject, sharing  all the experiences and benefits accumulated through our different experiences in this field.


SHARE  also conveys a feeling of hope for union, understanding and joint efforts. It's an inspiration for all of us.  Keep up the good work!







Omar and Marina.



SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.