An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 5                Number 135            October 23rd 2004

6500 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED




This has been an odd week. Very especially so if you count last Sunday as part of this week. As my grandma would say:  that is the right way for a week to start, on a Sunday. She had some theory that you started a week thanking the Lord on his day: Sunday. I never contested that when I was younger but now (only now and I cannot explain why today of all days) I came to think it could easily be that Sunday is the last day of the week and that it is most befitting to end up the week thanking God.

Coming back to our “odd” week: last Sunday (you will not believe this), we got up at five, five p.m.! (I cannot remember having got up so late since I was in my early twenties). Mother Day celebrations had to be postponed till this coming Sunday. Instead we had a really big and “early” dinner. It feels so good being able to go to bed at ten! (during the school year we never go to bed before twelve). Why had we slept so late? Because we had had the celebration of the 30th Anniversary of our College on Saturday (an incredible celebration we will tell you all about some other day).

What else was odd about our week? Neither Marina nor I worked on Monday (we took a day off to rest from the Congress work) and Sebas was also at home preparing one of his IGCSE exams. Martin had to go to College, though. It feels incredible being at home as if it were a Sunday on a weekday and to know everybody else is working. A tiny little luxury we cannot afford so often! I must finish this silly bit now and let you enjoy SHARE. Marina is at school conducting parents´meeting (Grr...on a Saturday morning!) and I´m running definitely short of ideas, if I ever had one this morning.


Omar and Marina




In SHARE 135


1.-    The Comprehension Hypothesis.

2.-    Attending to the Adult Learner.

3.-    'Who' and 'What' in Subject-verb Concord.

4.-    Jornada Provincial de Experiencias Didácticas en Inglés.

5.-    Thomson´s First British – American Language Teaching Conference.

6.-    Congreso de Convivencia y Violencia: Nuevos Desafíos Educativos.

7.-    Omar in Zárate: A Survival Kit for Teaching Teenagers.

8.-    OUP Calendar of Events.

9.-    Anglia Presentations in Salta and Chubut.  
10.-   ELT Marathon in Mar del Plata.

11.-   The Mousetrap at The Playhouse.

12.-   NLP Goal Setting Day.

13.-   English Teacher Wanted.

14.-   Hopkins Creative Language Lab.





Our dear SHARER and world famous applied linguist Stephen Krashen wants to SHARE this article with all of us.



Applying the Comprehension Hypothesis: Some Suggestions

By Stephen Krashen

To be presented at 13th International Symposium and Book Fair on Language Teaching (English Teachers Association of the Republic of China), Taipei, Taiwan,
November, 13, 2004.


This paper consists of three parts: (1) A brief review of the Comprehension Hypothesis; (2) How the Comprehension Hypothesis helps settle some seemingly never-ending controversies in the field; and (3) some ideas for application to the English as a foreign language situation.



The Comprehension Hypothesis


My goal in this paper is to discuss some possible pedagogical applications of the Comprehension Hypothesis, a hypothesis I consider to be the core of current language acquisition theory.


The Comprehension Hypothesis states that we acquire language when we understand messages, when we understand what people tell us and when we understand what we read.


The Comprehension Hypothesis also applies to literacy: Our reading ability, our ability to write in an acceptable writing style, our spelling ability, vocabulary knowledge, and our ability to handle complex syntax is the result of reading.

Until a few years ago, I referred to this hypothesis as the Input Hypothesis, a term I still consider to be acceptable. I have come to prefer “Comprehension Hypothesis,” because it more accurately reflects what the hypothesis says.


The Comprehension Hypothesis is not new with me. In the field of second language acquisition, James Asher and Harris Winitz discussed the importance of comprehension years before I did. In the field of reading instruction, Kenneth Goodman and Frank Smith hypothesized that “we learn to read by reading, “ we learn to read by understanding what is on the page.


The Comprehension Hypothesis is not a wild idea, the result of staying up all night drinking cheap wine. It is, rather, conservative, an effort to make sense of and be consistent with a wide body of academic research.

For a hypothesis to survive, it must be consistent with all the research: there can be no exceptions. I have argued that this has been exactly the case with respect to the Comprehension Hypothesis: It is consistent with research in several different fields and continues to be validated, and potential counterexamples have been easily dealt with. I will not review this research here; some of it has been presented at ETA meetings in the past (Krashen, 2002a) and in detail in several books (e.g. Krashen, 2002b).


The Comprehension Hypothesis is closely related to other hypotheses. The Comprehension Hypothesis refers to subconscious acquisition, not conscious learning. The result of providing acquirers with comprehensible input is the emergence of grammatical structure in a predictable order. A strong affective filter (e.g. high anxiety) will prevent input from reaching those parts of the brain that do language acquisition.

Note that if we ignore the Comprehension Hypothesis, that is, provide students with incomprehensible input, and force early speaking, we will raise students’ Affective Filters.


The Monitor Hypothesis is also related. The Monitor Hypothesis claims that there are severe limits to the application of consciously learned grammatical rules – learners need to know the rule (a formidable constraint) learners need to be focused on form or thinking about correction, and they need to have time to apply the rules. The only time all three conditions are met for most people is when they take a grammar test; even so, when we examine the impact of grammar study on grammar test performance, it is very modest (Krashen, 2002b). This confirms that our competence comes from comprehension of messages, not grammar study.


The Value of Grammar Instruction


The Comprehension Hypothesis claims that language acquisition does not happen when we learn and practice grammar rules. Language acquisition only happens when we understand messages. This has, of course, been questioned in recent years, as a stream of papers have appeared in the professional journals claiming that grammar instruction is helpful. I am pleased that these studies are being done: What was once an axiom is now a testable hypothesis.


In my reviews of these studies, I have concluded that they confirm the correctness of the Comprehension and Monitor Hypotheses: they show only that even after substantial grammar study, even very motivated students show only modest gains in accuracy, and these gains occur only on measures that encourage a focus on form. Truscott (1998) has arrived at very similar conclusions.


Some have interpreted this position as a claim that all grammar teaching is forbidden. Not so. There are two good reasons for including grammar in the EFL curriculum.

The first is for "language appreciation," otherwise known as "linguistics." Linguistics includes language universals, language change, dialects, etc. The second is to fill gaps left by incomplete acquisition and places in which idiolects differ from the prestige dialect. Society’s standards for accuracy, especially in writing, are 100%: We are not allowed "mistakes" in punctuation, spelling or grammar. One public error, in fact, can result in humiliation. Even well-read native speakers have gaps, places where their grammatical competence differs from accepted use.

Consciously learned rules can fill some of these gaps, which are typically in aspects of language that do not affect communication of messages. The place to use this knowledge is in the editing stage of the composing process, when appealing to conscious rules will not interefere with communication.


I recommend delaying the teaching of these rules until more advanced levels. I would first give acquisition a chance, and then use conscious knowledge to fill in some of the gaps. There is no sense teaching rules for Monitoring that will eventually be acquired.

Grammar, thus, is not excluded. It is, however, no longer the star player but has only a supporting role.




The correction controversy is closely related to the grammar controversy. As I understand it, correction helps us fine-tune and adjust our consciously learned grammar rules. In his review of the literature, Truscott (1996) has concluded that correction has no effect on grammatical accuracy; in a previous ETA paper, I also reviewed this research and came to similar conclusions – correction only seems to help when students are tested on tests in which the conditions for Monitor use appear to be met, e.g. a grammar test.


Another way of determining whether grammar correction is effective is to look at studies in which students are corrected on their writing and then are asked to rewrite the same paper, taking the corrections into consideration. I have found four studies of this kind. In three studies, Fathman and Whalley (1990), Ashwell (2000), and Chandler (2003), subjects were fairly advanced students of EFL who had had considerable instruction in formal grammar, and who, we can assume, believed in conscious learning. In a fourth, Gascoigne (2004), subjects were first year university students in the US studying French. In these studies, the students had the advantage of having the corrections in front of them and had plenty of time. Because the paper was already written, students did not have to think about meaning at all but could focus on form, and they were graded on their grammatical accuracy. In these cases, correction was given the maximum chance to work; all conditions for the use of the conscious Monitor were met. Even under these optimal conditions, the impact of correction was very modest.

Subjects in Fathman and Whalley (1990) were intermediate ESL college students in the US. Students wrote compositions that described a series of pictures. We examine here two groups that were corrected: One group received correction only, the other correction plus feedback on content. Correction was limited to grammar, and consisted "solely of underlining all grammar errors (e.g. verb forms, tenses, articles, agreement). Thus students were told the location of their errors only and were not given information on the kinds of errors or shown the correct forms" (p. 182). Students wrote their compositions in class (they were given 30 minutes), the corrected versions were returned "a few days later" (p. 182) and students were given 30 minutes to rewrite.

Students wrote approximately the same number of words on each version, about 220 words in the first draft and about 250 words in the correct draft. As seen in table 1, they were able to correct only about half of their errors.


Table 1: Percent of errors corrected: Fathman & Whalley



Number of errors: before

Number of errors: after


% corrected






grammar + content






from: Fathman and Whalley (1990)


Ashwell (2000) compared the effect of correction on form with comments on content to determine if there was an optimal order (which should come first). Here, I focus only on the effect of correction, ignoring whether correction came before or after comments on form. I focus specifically on two of the subconditions. In both, subjects wrote 500 word compositions outside of class, and errors were then corrected, with correctors spending 12 minutes on each paper. The correction was "indirect feedback," that is, "underlining or circling grammatical, lexical, and mechanical errors or … using cursors to indicate omissions" (p. 233). Students had a full week to return their revised papers. The assignment was part of regular classwork.

In both conditions, students were able to correct only about one third of their errors (table 2).


Table 2: Percent of errors corrected: Ashwell



% errors before



% corrected

content then form





form then content






from: Ashwell (2000)


Students clearly paid attention to the corrections. For all conditions of the study, students acted on 75% of the formal corrections, and 88% of the formal changes they made were in response to the corrections.

One of the conditions in Chandler (2003) also appears to be a case of students’ rewriting the same paper after correction. In this study, students were taking advanced ESL classes at a music conservatory in the US, and all "had had quite a bit of training in English grammar" (p. 272). Students had every reason to be careful: Accuracy in writing was a component of their grade in the class. Students had several days to make corrections.


Students wrote about eight pages of text and received four different kinds of feedback. In the "correction" condition ("full correction" in table 3), students were provided with the correct form, in the "underline" condition only the location of errors was indicated, as in the previous two studies. In the "describe" condition, a margin note was written indicating the kind of error made in the line it was made (e.g. "punc"), but the precise location was not given. All abbreviations had previously been explained in class and students received a list of the abbreviations. Finally, in the underline/describe condition, both the kind of error made and its precise location were indicated.

As indicated in table 3, with full correction students were able to correct nearly 90% of their errors. It should be noted, however, that all students had to do was copy the teacher’s correction. The other conditions produce results that are quite similar to what we have seen before.


Table 3: Errors per 100 words: Chandler






% corrected

full correction















underline only






from: Chandler (2003)


In Gascoigne (2004), first semester university students of French were asked to write four compositions. Each essay was connected to a unit and was designed to help students practice those rules presented in the unit. Students were given two days to make corrections, and had access to the textbook during this time. Correction of grammar errors included information about the location of the error and a description of the error, and sometimes the correct form was provided. Gascoigne only gives two examples: "Pay attention to verb endings" and "Don’t forget agreement."

Gascoligne concluded that correction had a "profound effect": 88% of corrections were successful, 8% led to an incorrect change, and only 3% were ignored.


Summary of Correction Studies


These studies represent the most optimal conditions for correction to work: All students were university-level and were able to understand grammar. All were motivated to do well, in some cases grades were at stake. All had plenty of time, from 30 minutes to one week to make corrections and all had access to their grammar texts. All they were asked to do was rewrite their own corrected essay. Thus, all conditions for Monitor use were met.

When students are told only where the error is, they can only correct from 1/3 to 1/2 of their errors. They get better when given more information, but even when they are given the actual rule, and need only copy, they still miss 10% of the errors. This is hardly a compelling case for correction.

Ferris (2004) claims that successful editing of one’s text in the short term is "likely a necessary, or at least helpful, step on the road to longer term improvement in accuracy" (p. 54). It is considered a given that students’ accuracy improves when editing from one draft to the next. The "big question," according to Ferris, is whether correction helps students improve over time. My conclusion is that we have not even provided a positive answer to the "little question," whether correction under optimal conditions works even in the short- term.


The Role of Output


The Comprehension Hypothesis claims that we acquire language by input, not by output, a claim is supported by studies showing no increase in acquisition with more output (Krashen, 2002b). Studies show, however, consistent increases in acquisition with more input.


This does not mean that output should be forbidden. Oral output (speaking) invites aural input, via conversation. If you talk, somebody might answer back. The Comprehension Hypothesis predicts, however, that the contribution of conversation to language acquisition is what the other person says to you, not what you say to them.

Comprehensible input-based methods encourage speaking but do not force it. Students are not called on; rather, participation is voluntary.

Written output, in addition to its communicative value, makes a profound contribution to thinking. In short, writing makes you smarter. As we write, as we put our ideas on paper and revise them, we come up with better ideas. When it does not happen, when we have "writing blocks," it is often because we are not using what is called "the composing process," strategies for using writing to come up with new ideas. Strategies included in the composing process are planning (but having flexible plans), being willing to revise, delaying editing, rereading what one has written, and allowing periods of "incubation" for new ideas to emerge (see Krashen, 2002b).


Many EFL classes include the composing process, but it is not clear if this is necessary or will always be necessary. There is some evidence that at least aspects of the composing process transfer across languages (Lee and Krashen, 2002); it may only necessarily to expose students to these ideas in the first language.


Our Goal: Autonomous Acquirers

We don’t need return business in the language education profession. Our goal in foreign language pedagogy is to bring students to the point where they are autonomous acquirers, prepared to continue to improve on their own.

In terms of the Comprehension Hypothesis, an "autonomous acquirer" has two characteristics:


The autonomous acquirer has acquired enough of the second language so that at least some authentic input is comprehensible, enough to ensure progress and the ability to acquire still more language.


The autonomous acquirer will understand the language acquisition process. The autonomous acquirer will know that progress comes from comprehensible input, not from grammar study and vocabulary lists, and will understand ways of making input more comprehensible (e.g. getting background information, avoiding obviously incomprehensible input).


An autonomous acquirer is not a perfect speaker of the second language, just good enough to continue to improve without us. This is, of course, the goal of all education – not to produce masters but to allow people to begin work in their profession and to continue to grow.


The Use of the First Language


The Comprehension Hypothesis helps us with the issue of whether and how to use the student’s first language in foreign language education. The Comprehension Hypothesis predicts that the first language helps when it is used to make input more comprehensible: This happens when we use the first language to provide background information. This could be in the form of short readings or explanations by the teacher before a complex topic is presented. Information provided in the first language can help the same way pictures and relia can help at the beginning level, as context that makes input more comprehensible.


The Comprehension Hypothesis predicts that first language use can hurt when it is used in ways that do not encourage comprehensible input. This happens when we translate and students have no need to attend to the second language input.

Research from the field of bilingual education is consistent with these predictions. In general, bilingual programs have been shown to be quite successful in helping language minority children acquire the majority language. In these programs, literacy is developed in the primary language, which transfers to the second language, and subject matter is taught in the primary language in early stages to provide background knowledge (Krashen, 1996a). One version of bilingual education, however, "concurrent translation," in which teachers present the same message in both languages using sentence-by-sentence translation, has not been shown to be effective (Legarreta, 1979).


The Comprehension Hypothesis thus predicts that a quality education in the primary language is an excellent investment for later second language development.

Age: Why older is faster


The Comprehension Hypothesis helps us understand why older children acquire more quickly than younger children, and why, in early stages, adults are faster than children: Older acquirers, thanks to their superior knowledge of the world, understand more of the input they hear and read.


Narrow Input


The Comprehension Hypothesis predicts that language acquisition will proceed more rapidly if input is "narrow," that is, if acquirers obtain a great deal of input in a narrow range of subjects and gradually expand. This contrasts with the usual idea of the "survey" in which students are given a short exposure to a wide variety of topics. The "survey" only ensures incomprehensible input. Staying "narrow" allows the acquirer to take advantage of background knowledge built up through the input.

The idea of narrow input began with narrow reading (Krashen, 1981), the suggestion that language acquirers stick to one author or genre and gradually branch out. It is supported by findings showing that better readers in English as a first language tend to read more series books (Lamme, 1976), as well as reports of progress made by female adult second language acquirers who read extensively from the Sweet Valley High series, a series written for girls (Cho and Krashen, 1995, 1995a, 1995b).

In narrow listening (Krashen, 1996b), acquirers listen to recordings of several speakers talking about the same topic, a topic of interest to the acquirer. Ideally, the acquirer records the tape him/herself, from friends who speak the language. Acquirers then listen to the tape as many times as desired. Repeated listening, interest in the topic, and familiar context help make the input comprehensible. Topics are gradually changed, which allows the acquirer to expand his or her competence comfortably. Narrow listening is a low-tech, inexpensive way to obtain comprehensible input.

Dupuy (1999) reported a clear increase in comprehensibility with repeated hearings of narrow listening tapes for students of French as a foreign language. Students did not record the native speakers themselves but could choose the topics. Intermediate students improved from about half to nearly full comprehensibility after three to four listenings. Rodrigo and Krashen (1996) reported that students of Spanish as a foreign language were enthusiastic about narrow listening: 92% said the activity was very interesting and beneficial. Their subjects reported that selecting their own topics and their own speakers was more effective and interesting than hearing pre-selected tapes in a classroom situation.


Some Suggestions for Application


I outline below a possible application of the Comprehension Hypothesis and related hypotheses to the EFL situation.




One component of EFL needs to be orientation, a brief explanation of language acquisition theory. As noted earlier, our goal is to develop independent, or autonomous acquirers. Knowing how language is acquired will help ensure that this will occur. It is also important to tell students something about the philosophy underlying our practice because the approach outlined here is radically different from traditional approaches; we need to justify our pedagogy to students and in some cases to their parents.

Orientation can be done in the primary language fairly early in the EFL student’s language career and can be covered in more detail at advanced levels in English. S.Y. Lee (1998) included an introduction to language acquisition in an English course at the university level, with excellent results.


A Program


Instruction begins at around ages 8 to 10, when the child is old enough to take advantage of knowledge gained in the first language and young enough to profit from the advantages of beginning as a child.

The suggestions below take advantage of the L1 to accelerate second language acquisition, and at the same time encourage full development of the first language. This happens in two ways: First, EFL does not dominate the school day – what is proposed is not a full immersion program but is just one subject. There is plenty of time in school available for study in the primary language, building subject matter knowledge. promoting cognitive development, and developing literacy, including mastering the composing process. Second, use of the first language is built into the EFL program in places where it will be helpful to provide background knowledge.

The program aims to develop autonomous acquirers, those with enough competence to understand at least some authentic input as well as knowledge of language acquisition theory so they know what to do to improve and what to expect.

The focus of the program is literature and culture of the English-speaking world, which today is nearly the entire world. The "English-speaking world" does not include only countries in which English an official language, but includes all "Englishes."

The focus on literature and culture has several advantages. In addition to being educationally justified for its own sake, literature and culture include aspects of history, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and philosophy.

In addition, this focus does not "compete" with subject matter teaching in the first language; in fact, it complements it, creating an opportunity for comparative studies. It also can create lifelong pleasure readers in English, ensuring continuing progress.


The program described below covers elementary school all the way to the university level.


Stage 1: Natural Approach and Graded Readers


Aural comprehensible input will be provided, as is done in Natural Approach (Krashen and Terrell, 1983), Total Physical Response (Asher, 2000), and Total Physical Response Storytelling (Ray and Seely, 1998) methodology. Activities can include games, dance, sports and projects. The best activities are those in which students are completely absorbed, in a sense forgetting that they are using another language (for suggestions, see Brown and Palmer, 1988).

Stage 1 also includes reading: At this level, students read very easy texts, such as graded readers, language experience texts (story dictated by student to teacher, teacher writes out story), and newspapers written for EFL students. The only criterion for texts is that they be compelling. They need not provide cultural information or "make you a better person." Some reading can be done as sustained silent reading, as students become independent readers.


Level 2: Light Reading


The focus of level 2 is "light" authentic reading, that is, comics, graphic novels, and easy sections of the newspapers, with continuing reading of graded readers and books specially adapted for second language acquirers.

Class discussion includes the cultural background of some assigned readings as well as readings done in small groups (literature circles). Background readings are provided in the first language when appropriate, e.g. comparison to similar genres in the first language. Class also includes teachers reading to the class from level 2 reading material as a means of providing additional comprehensible input and stimulating interest in books.

Sustained silent reading (SSR) is provided, about ten minutes per day. Students can read anything in English they like (within reason), including graded readers and other reading material from level 1. They are not "accountable" for what they read during SSR.

Some orientation can be done at this level, in the students’ first language. This will consist of a brief introduction to language acquisition theory or "how language is acquired," illustrated by case histories of successful and unsuccessful second language acquisition.

The formal study of grammar can begin here, with a focus on aspects of grammar that are useful for editing. Instruction will also include the use of a grammar handbook and the spellcheck function of the computer.


Level 3: Popular Literature


Reading at level 3 focuses on contemporary and light popular literature, including some current best sellers, popular magazines, and viewing of "lighter" films. Class discussion focuses on current culture and how values are expressed in current popular literature, e.g. gender roles, humor, how films and novels comment on issues of the day, the role of "gossip" magazines and newspapers, etc.

SSR continues, again allowing students to select their own reading, which can include reading at "lower levels."

Grammar study at this level can expand to include some "linguistics," i.e. language universals and language change.

I predict that many students will be "autonomous" by this time, able to understand a considerable amount of input outside the classroom. Additional study of English after this level could be made optional, and/or move in other directions, that is, more specific to different professions and interests.


Level 4: Contemporary Serious Literature.


This level includes the heavier and more "serious" works of current interest published in English, as well as films, newspapers, and literary and philosophical magazines. The approach will at first be "narrow," focusing on the work of one author or genre, e.g. the works of Kurt Vonnegut, plays by Neil Simon. As before, SSR can include lighter reading. Only after students have experienced several authors or genres in depth will the "survey" be done.

This level, and the next, can be repeated several times, focusing on different authors and genres.

At this stage, language acquisition theory can be done in some detail, reading original works in English.


Level 5: The Classics


Students are now ready for "the classics," literature written in very different eras. To help ensure comprehensibility, the approach will be "narrow," with a focus on one author or one genre, eg the romance, the historical novel of a certain period (eg World War I, the Depression). Background readings in English and in the first language will also help increase comprehensibility. As before, the "survey" will only be done after students have experienced several authors or genres in depth.


Level 6: Comparative Literature


Comparative literature emphasizes universals: universal themes, universal plots, universal characters, universals of morality and ethics.


A Necessary Condition


Such a program will work, of course, only if a large supply of interesting reading is available, a super-library filled with books, comics, magazines, films and tapes. This is not an impossible dream. In fact, it would cost a lot less than we currently invest in computers, computers of dubious value and that become obsolete within a year or two.




Asher, J. (2000). Learning another language through actions: The complete teacher’s guidebook. Los Gatos: CA: Sky Oaks Productions. (Sixth edition).

Ashwell, T. (2000). Patterns of teacher response to student writing in a multiple-draft composition classroom: Is content feedback followed by form feedback the best method? Journal of Second Language Writing, 9(3), 227-257.

Brown, M. and Palmer, A. (1988). The listening approach. New York: Longman.

Chandler, J. (2003). The efficacy of various kinds of error feedback for improvement in the accuracy and fluency of L2 student writing. Journal of Second Language Learning, 12, 267-296.

Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S. (1993). Acquisition of vocabulary from the Sweet Valley High Kids series: Adult ESL acquisition. Journal of Reading, 37, 662-667.

Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S. (1995a). From Sweet Valley Kids to Harlequins in one year. California English, 1(1),18-19.

Cho, K.S. and Krashen, S. (1995b). Becoming a dragon: Progress in English as a second language through narrow free voluntary reading. California Reader, 29, 9- 10.

Dupuy, B. (1999). Narrow listening: An alternative way to develop listening comprehension in the foreign language classroom. System, 27(3), 351-361.

Fathman, A. and Whalley, E. (1990). Teacher response to student correction: focus on form versus content. In Barbara Kroll (Ed.) Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 178-185). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ferris, D. (2004). The "grammar correction" debate in L2 writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 49-62.

Gascoigne, C. (2004). Examining the effect of feedback in beginning L2 composition. Foreign Language Annals, 37(1), 71-76.

Krashen, S. (1981). The case for narrow reading. TESOL Newsletter, 15, 23.

Krashen, S. (1996a). Under attack: The case against bilingual education. San Francisco: Alta Book Company.

Krashen, S. (1996b). The case for narrow listening. System, 24, 97-100.

Krashen, S. (2002a). The comprehension hypothesis and its rivals. Selected papers from the Eleventh International Symposium on English Teaching/Fourth Pan- Asian Conference. (pp. 395-404). English Teachers Association/ROC. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.

Krashen, S. (2002b). Explorations in language acquisition and use: The Taipei lectures. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.

Krashen, S. and Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Lamme, L. (1976). Are reading habits and abilities related? The Reading Teacher, 10, 21-27.

Legaretta, D. (1979). The effects of program models on language acquisition by Spanish-speaking children. TESOL Quarterly, 8, 521-576.

Lee, S.Y. (1998). Effects of introducing free reading and language acquisition theory on students’ attitudes toward the English class. Studies in English Language and Literature, 4, 21-28.

Lee, S.Y. and Krashen, S. (2002). Writer's block: Is it universal? Does it transfer across languages? Selected papers from the Eleventh International Symposium on English Teaching/Fourth Pan-Asian Conference. (pp. 432-439).English Teachers Association/ROC. Taipei: Crane Publishing Company.

Ray, B. and Seely, C. (1998). Fluency through TPR storytelling, Berkeley: Command Performance Language Institute.

Rodrigo, V. and Krashen, S. (1996). La audicion enfocada en el aula y fuera de ella. GRETA, 4(2), 71-75.

Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46 (2), 327-69.

Truscott, J. (1998). Noticing in second language acquisition: A critical review. Second Language Research, 14(2), 103-135.


© Copyright 2004 by Stephen Krashen.







Our dear SHARER Ruth Fitjman from Osorno, Chile has sent us this article:  


Attending to Adult Learners: Affective Domain in the ESL Classroom

By Eva Bernat
Macquarie University
, Australia


1. Introduction


It has been said, that the process of education is one of the most important and complex of all human endeavors. A popular notion is that education is carried out by one person - a teacher, standing in front of a class and transmitting information to a group of learners who are 'empty vessels', and willing and able to absorb it. Similarly, language learning is not an abstract exercise in memorizing vocabulary words and applying grammatical rules. Such views simplify what is a highly complex process involving an intricate interplay between the learning process itself, the teacher's intentions and actions, the individual personalities of the learners, their culture, reservoirs of background experiences, perceptions and beliefs, the learning environment, and a host of other factors. In other words, various cognitive and affective processes play an important and integral role in the language learning context.


2. Cognition or Affect?


While cognition and the theory of knowledge has been the interest of educationists and researchers since Plato provided the basis for what is referred to as 'epistemology', the interest in affective factors in learning came much later. It was first reflected in the writing of Dewey, Montessori, and Vygotsky in the first part of this century, and gained importance with the growth of humanistic psychology in the 1960's. The work of C.R. Rogers has become increasingly relevant to a discipline that recognizes the importance of affect on the learning situation and sees each learner as an individual "…in a continually changing world of which he is the center" (Rogers 1951:483), reacting to events as they are experienced and perceived: "this perceptual field is, for the individual, reality" (Rogers 1951:484).


As a result, many of the major developments in language teaching in the past years have, in some way, related to the need to acknowledge affect in language learning. Methods such as Suggestopedia (aims to reduce anxiety by creating a non-threatening environment), Silent Way (the learner must take responsibility), Community Language Learning (the group must decide what to learn), and Total Physical Response (aims to engage the learner physically, putting the learner under no pressure and allowing to speak when ready) take into account the affective side of the language learning in quite a central manner. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has also had a major influence on language teaching many areas (materials, teaching methods, syllabus design) and it too, has incorporated affect. Similarly, the Natural Approach takes affect into consideration in a prominent way. Using one of the five hypotheses in Krashen's Monitor Model' - the affective filter - influenced the design of many of the Natural Approach classroom activities designed to minimize stress.


Although affective contributions are central to second language learning Johnson (1994:439-452) argues that overall "the field of second language education lags behind mainstream education research in that it has neglected to focus adequate attention to the affective dimension of second language learning". Horwitz (2001) gives further support and states that to discuss foreign language learning without considering the emotional reactions of the learner to language learning was and remains a serious oversight. Horwitz continues, that with the possible exception of writing, foreign language learning demands a level of personal engagement unlike that of any other subject-matter studied in academic settings.


Rejecting the cognitive-centeredness of previous language learning research, foreign and second language educators are currently beginning to recognize the importance of the learner's role in the both the cognitive and affective domain in the language learning process. Consequently, there has been a greater understanding and appreciation of affective variables, and - as Hilgard (1963:267 cited in Arnold 1999) noted long ago - "purely cognitive theories of learning will be rejected unless a role is assigned to affectivity". Moreover, Schumann's (1998) neurobiological model derives from an examination of second language acquisition from a neurobiological perspective. A recent book, The Neurobiology of Affect in Language, offers a summary of the author's theory. According to Schumann, affect is seen as central to the understanding of L2 attainment/achievement, and the author argues that second language acquisition is emotionally driven and emotion underlies most, if not all cognition! In similar vain, Damasio (1994) has articulated that even on the neurobiological level emotions are part of reason, and Oatley & Jenkins (1996:122) affirm that "emotions are not extras - they are the very center of human life".


It is important to note that note that the affective side of learning is not in opposition to the cognitive side; and that the affective component contributes to at least as much and often more to language learning than the cognitive skills (Stern 1983:386). When both a used together, the learning process can be constructed on a firmer foundation. Neither is more important, and neither can be separated from each other. Early proponents of such integration (Brown 1971; Castillo 1973) stressed the need to unite to cognitive and affective domains in order to educate the 'whole person'. In the late 1970's and 1980's foreign and second language teacher trainers and writers expressed similar concerns. Stevick, Rinvolucri, Moskowitz, Galyean, among other representatives of Humanistic Language Teaching, were searching for ways to enrich language learning by incorporating aspects of the affective dimension of the learner.


In terms of pedagogical implications, Oxford & Ehrman (1993:188) argue that teachers of second and foreign language learners should learn to identify and comprehend significant individual affective differences in their students; and point out, "many excellent teachers have learned to do some of this intuitively, but explicit understanding of individual-difference dimensions can enhance the work of all teachers". While attention to affect may not provide the solution to all learning problems or diminish the importance of cognitive aspects of the learning process, it can be very beneficial for language teachers to choose to focus at times on affective questions/factors. In countering allegations that these matters are not part of teachers' obligations, she refers to Underhill (1989:252) who estimates that "teachers who claim it is not their job to take these phenomena into account may miss out on some of the most essential ingredients in the management of successful learning". Furthermore, Horwitz & Young (1989) believe that, although the level of achievement for the majority of language students in typical academic settings is disappointingly low, and language teachers cannot change the incoming cognitive abilities of students, the student's native language, or the overall socio-cultural context of language learning and their communities, the affective domain stands out as an exceptional opportunity for the improvement of language instruction. The authors conclude that, it is within the power of language teachers to address the affective concerns of their students, and, that it is essential to do so.


3. The Adult Learner


Having established the paramount importance of the affective or emotional side of the cognitive learning process, the question remains - how can language teachers address the affective or emotional domain of their adult ESL learners' in their classroom in practical terms? No matter what their background, adult learners often share certain characteristics that affect the process of learning another language and set them apart from younger ESL learners. Teachers need to not only recognize but also acknowledge in class that adults:


- have a lot of experience to draw on. Adults have amassed a wealth of valuable experience, which they bring to their classrooms. It is vital to recognize and openly acknowledge this experience and draw on it as a resource. In a language classroom this may include socio-cultural knowledge, as well as linguistic knowledge. Learners like to make comparisons of L1 and L2 and 'test' the various hypotheses which they have built in their minds. Teachers, who present themselves as the only useful resource of knowledge and the ultimate authority in every lesson, will find resistance from the adult learners.


- adults have strongly established learning styles/preferences. Not all language teaching methodologies & strategies will suit all learners. The 'one size fits all' approach may cause resistance if learners are pushed into radical change. As adult educators, language teachers are in the business of causing change, but they need to make sure that it is done without producing hostility and resistance. One form of enquiry is to identify - through classroom-based enquiry - learners' attitudes and beliefs about second language acquisition. Research has shown that the lack of understanding of ESL learners' preconceived beliefs about how languages are learned can have negative pedagogical implications (Horwitz 1987).


- adults are proud of their independence. One of the chief features of childhood is dependence. Adults, on the other hand, are proud of their independence. If anyone treats their adult learners as if they were not fully independent, they are attacking their pride in themselves. ESL teachers of adults have to keep this in mind, recognize and use their independence by suggesting, for example, that learners accept responsibility for their own learning, including after-class tasks.


- adults have strong feelings about the learning situation. Almost every adult has been to school. For some it was a positive experience, for others it was depressing and demoralizing. Some may believe that they will not be successful learners based on their past experiences; others may feel anxious about not knowing what to expect from a new learning environment. Teachers need to boost their learners' confidence and remove the threats at the onset of a course.


- adults have many preoccupations. When adults come to a course, they bring with them tension, anxiety, personal problems and much more. Furthermore, immigrants may face many other personal challenges, such as lack of job, inability to land a job equal in status to the one held in their country of origin, lack of personal support system provided by family and friends, and responsibility for an extended family, to name a few. Therefore, when they arrive to the classroom, they should be greeted with some relaxing music, a warm greeting and a smile. They need to relax and be made feel welcomed. During the lesson, teachers should use visuals, build a lot of participation, and include many varied and fun activities to maintain learners' attention.


- adults have firmly established attitudes. The way we behave, speak and think depends on our attitudes to life. For example, if an adult believes that ESL classes are 'a waste of time', their behavior during class will reflect that attitude. Sometimes attitudes have to be changed before any permanent learning can take place. It is not easy to change attitudes, and sometimes the only way to persuade people to make such basic changes is to show them that the new ways of behaving are more productive than the old. This is something learners will need to discover for themselves.


- adults have selective filters. We all have a filtering mechanism that allows us to screen out things that are distressing or unpleasant - or just boring. It is quite possible to sit through a lecture, or a sermon, and not really hear a word. In other words, adults hear what they want to hear. They pay attention to whatever is relevant, interesting or stimulating. They attend to sources of information that matter, the rest is filtered out. Teachers need to understand that the information that is obviously related to the needs of the group will be most effective in gaining and holding its attention.


- adults have a specific purpose for learning. Most of the time, adults attend courses because they have a specific need. Migrants learners often attend ESL courses to increase their employment opportunities and to be able to participate within their community independently. The best language teachers will be the ones that satisfy the learners' needs and point out their immediacy of application.


- adults are more strongly motivated by internal pressures than external rewards. In second language teaching, studies have shown (Gardner 1985) that integratively motivated learners (who desire to identify with the culture or community that speaks the language) will do better than instrumentally motivated learners (whose drive to learn derives from the desire to acquire another language for money, career, or power). This does not mean that adults do not respond to incentives such as higher salaries or better jobs, but factors such as higher self-esteem and greater job satisfaction are likely to be much more important to most adult learners.


Finally, there are also a number of anxieties adult ESL learners bring with them to learning activities. Anxiety is a significant aspect of the affective state of the language learner and one which needs to be taken into account. For example:


- adults are afraid that they might lose their dignity. No one likes to look foolish. People want to present themselves as being in control - in command of the situation, dignified, responsible, competent. When language learners take part in classroom activities, there is a chance that they might expose a weakness or reveal a fault. Teachers of adults have to shelter their students against the possibility of humiliation, ensure everyone is treated with respect, and set an example of tolerance and good humor.


- adults worry about the learning demands made on them. Many adult learners are very uncertain about themselves. They often feel that they are certain to fail. They doubt their ability to complete the tasks involved in a course. Language teachers have to be certain that everything is explained to the adults they teach. The learning objectives should be plainly stated. The tasks should be described clearly, and the participants should be given an opportunity to set their own standards. They have to understand that the idea of failure has no place in adult education. The emphasis will always be on personal improvement.


- adults feel anxious about having the use of their first language banished. Allwright and Bailey (1991) point to the possibility that banishing the use of the first language in the classroom diminishes learners as human beings because it deprives them of their normal means of communication. In this study, learners reported that one of their major worries is that when forced to use the language they are learning they constantly feel that they are representing themselves badly, showing only some of their real personality, only some of their real intelligence. ESL teachers should realize that allowing or attempting to ban the first language carry both costs and benefits in terms of language and the management of the learning process. Those teachers who decide to allow the use of the first language will have to exercise judgment as to the extent to which it will be allowed and the functions and purposes for which it will be used.


4. Conclusion


As outlined, the affective domain plays a significant role in the language learning classroom. Learners, particularly adults, often find themselves in a learning context for the first time since leaving formal schooling, have a number of characteristics which make them unique. They have some well established ideas and preferences about their learning, a plethora of experience to draw on, as well as some fears and anxieties which can impact on their engagement in, commitment to, and achievement of L2. ESL teachers need to develop a sensitive awareness of these factors and incorporate knowledge thereof into their teaching practice.




Allwright, D. & Bailey, K. (1991).Focus on Learning in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Arnold, J. (Ed.)(1999).Affect in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Damasio, A. (1994).Descartes' errors: Emotion, reason and the human brain. New York: Avon
Gardner, R.C. (1985).Social Psychology and Second Language Learning: The Role of Attitudes and Motivation. London: Edward Arnold
Horwitz, E. (1987).Surveying Student Beliefs About Language Learning. In A.L. Wenden & J. Robin (Eds), Learners Strategies in Language Learning. London: Prentice Hall
Horwitz, E.K. & Young D.(Eds.) 1989.Language Anxiety: From Theory and Research to Classroom Implications. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall
Johnson K 1994.The emerging beliefs and instructional practices of pre-service English as a Second Language teachers. Teaching Education, 10:4, 439-452
Oatley, K. & Jenkins, J. (1996).Understanding emotions, Cambridge. MA: Blackwell
Oxford, R.L. & Ehrman, M. (1993).Second language research on individual differences. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 188-205
Schumann, J.H. (1997).The Neurobiology of Affect in Language. The Neurobiology of Affect in Language
Stern, H.H. (1983).concepts of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Underhill, A. (1989).Process in humanistic education. ELT Journal, 43:4, 250-260


© By Eva Bernat.







The following is a reproduction of a mail sent to the Linguist List. We thought it would be an interesting contribution to the “who /what + is/are” discussion. Slight changes have been made to the format to adapt the original to the SHARE format. Data has remained unaltered throughout.



LINGUIST List:  Vol-15-2322. Tue Aug 17 2004. ISSN: 1068-4875.

Date:  Mon, 16 Aug 2004 23:48:22 +0900
From:  Hideo HIBINO <>
Subject:  Re: 'who' and 'what' in subject-verb concord

Thank you very much for your responses to my questionnaire about 'who' and 'what' in subject-verb concord.

I received responses from 16 of you linguists; 9 American English (AmE) speakers, 5 British English (BrE) speakers, 1 Australian and 1 New Zealander.

I am pleased to present to you a tentative summary of responses for my examples (1)-(5).


(1) Who are gathering in the park?

(2) Find out who are coming to our reunion. We need to make a list of the participants.

(3) They are demanding that the provincial government take action to find out who are responsible for the Tuesday disaster.

(4) Let us proceed to inquire who have been excluded from testifying as witnesses under the term "Indian".

(5) Is there an archive site for this mailing list where I might be able to find out what have been discussed in the past?

Acceptability Ratings Table:

Acceptable= 2 points
Sound odd but sort of OK= 1
Not acceptable/Terrible= 0

Ratings and Comments:

Linguist A (AmE)   0    0    1    1    0     Total 2    

(1) might be improved if preceded by "The X's are gathering at the              store, the Y's are gathering  under the bridge,..."

B (AmE)   0    0    0    2    0     Total 2    

Grew up in several places in the US. I find only (4) to be grammatical.
(5) is really bad.

Linguist C (AmE)   0    0    2    0    0     Total 2    

(3) is OK. Southern Americans might ask "Who all are..." Get a reply from a Briton.

Linguist D (AmE)   0    0    0    0    0     Total 0    

Your examples sound much more BrE than AmE. Impossible in America.


Linguist E (AmE)   0    0    0    0    0     Total 0    

I would reject (1)-(4) and especially (5).

Linguist F (AmE)   0    0    0    0    0     Total 0    

56 years old. Grew up in California, spent most of adult life in eastern US. I would prefer singular or "Who all + plural".

Linguist G (AmE)   0    0    0    0    0     Total 0    

Your examples don't have explicit plural indicators;the singular is therefore the norm.

Linguist H (AmE)   0    0    0    0    0     Total 0    

None of your examples sound natural to me.

Linguist I (AmE)     (No judgements given)        

Try using a large database of spoken and written English and find out how language is really used.

Linguist J (BrE)   2    2    2    2    2    Total 10    

All your examples are good English.

Linguist K (BrE)   2    2    2    2    0     Total 8    

For me (41-year old BrE speaker) (1)-(4) are fine and (5) is very odd.

Linguist L (BrE)   2    2    2    2    0     Total 8    

Native speaker of English,born in Scotland,lived there 26 years, have lived in England for the last 11 years. All of your examples except (5) sound fine to me.

Linguist M (BrE)   0    0    0    1    0     Total 1    

I speak standard British English. I find (1)-(3) and (5) completely unacceptable. (4) is slightly better probably due to the plural 'witnesses'.

Linguist N (BrE)   0    0    0    0    0     Total 0    

I speak fairly standard Irish/British English. (1)-(5) sound horrible and pedantic.

Linguist O (Aus)   2    2    2    2    0     Total 8    

The rules of agreement are becoming more relaxed.

Linguist P (NZ)    0    0    0    1    0     Total 1    

(4) sounds less awful than the others. Go to some electronic corpora. That is more reliable than people's judgements.

From looking at linguists A - I, we find that the acceptability ratings are so low that we may safely surmise the singular is the norm with AmE speakers.


Linguists J - P, however, present a formidable problem. J,K,L and O rated the construction very high, while M,N and P gave a flat denial to the same construction. They are all native speakers of English in Britain and in countries where BrE more or less prevails. And they are linguists!

I said this summary is 'tentative'. I would appreciate knowing how you would view the apparently conflicting norms BrE speakers have to choose when using the construction.

Hideo Hibino
Formerly Professor

The Department of English, Kinran College,Japan







Prof.Stella M.Cavalli, Directora ISFD Nº 16- Saladillo has sent us all this press release:


Primera Jornada Provincial de Experiencias Didácticas en el Idioma Inglés
5 de Noviembre de 2004.

El Instituto Superior de Formación Docente Nº 16 de Saladillo, con amplia trayectoria en la formación de Profesores de inglés, convoca a la comunidad de docentes y estudiantes avanzados cuyo foco de interés gire en torno a la Didáctica del Idioma Inglés  a la Primera Jornada Provincial de experiencias didácticas innovadoras en  el área,

Programa de la Jornada

Acreditación: 10 a 10,30 hs
Apertura a cargo de las autoridades de la institución: 10,30 a 11 hs
Conferencia inaugural: 11 a 12 hs
"Reflexión acerca de la  didáctica del idioma". ( En Inglés) - Lic. Efrain Davis

Panel con especialistas:   12 a 13 hs.
Prof. Leonor Corradi: Music it ups ( En Inglés)
Prof. Cavalli: ¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de didáctica? (En Español)
Lic. María Rosa Mariani: Las decisiones metodológicas en el idioma (en Inglés)

Intervalo ~ Almuerzo libre: 13.00 a 14.30hs

Trabajo en comisiones: presentación de experiencias: 14.30 a 16.30hs

Plenario: presentación de las líneas de trabajo en las comisiones,
fortalezas y debilidades en la enseñanza del idioma Consideraciones para
futuros encuentros: 16.30 a 17.30hs
Cierre de la Jornada: 17.30 hs.
Se entregarán certificados

Informes e Inscripción: Instituto Superior de Formación Docente Nº 16- Rivadavia 2655- Lunes a Viernes de 8 a 12 y de 18 a 21,30 hs.
Mail directora:
Mail coordinadora:






Our dear SHARER Patricia Salvador has got an invitation to make:


Thomson´s First British-American Language Teaching Conference

Excellence: When Appropriate Isn't Enough


Teachers will have the opportunity to participate in a gamut of interesting pedagogical activities that will help them integrate new materials and new ideas in their daily teaching of English as a foreign language. Participation, culture, smiles and laughter are waiting for you! Join us!


Keynote Speakers: Hugh Dellar - Great Britain and Eric Bredenberg – U.S.A.

With Susan Hillyard


Concurrent Sessions:

Working with Teaching Methods: Learning to Teach and Teaching to learn

Silvia Ronchetti.

Reading as Exploration: unconventional reading materials in the EFL classroom.

Claudia Ferradás Moi.

Expanding Your Horizons: Techniques and Technology in ELT

Claudia Urzi

Teaching Grammar in Context

Marta Crespo

Authentic material:  Enhancing Comprehension and Communication in your Class

Cristina Speranza

Assessment and Curriculum Re-Design

Lucrecia Prat Gay.

Humour and a Memorable Class

Alicia Lopez



Date: November, Saturday 6th - 9:00 to 20:00

Venue: Universidad Abierta Interamericana – San Juan 983

Fee: $ 10 – Pizza Party included

If you want to register please send us an email to

Thomson Learning Argentina S.A.
Rojas 2128 - (C1416PCX) 4582-0601 / 4582-0607 - Fax: 4582-0607



Lic. Omar Villarreal

Profesor de Inglés e Inglés Técnico – Instituto Nacional Superior del Profesorado Técnico. Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educación (UCALP) Licenciado en Tecnología Educativa (FRA-UTN). University Lecturer in the Area of Applied Linguistics at Universidad Tecnológica Nacional and in Language I and IV at ISFD Nro 41. Lecturer in Didactics of  ESP at Licenciatura en Inglés Universidad Católica de La Plata. He has lectured extensively in all Argentinian provinces as well as in Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Perú. He is the author and co-author of more than 20 textbooks, among them: “Polimodal English”, “Resource Files”, “Grammar Explorer” and “Top Teens” published by Macmillan. 






Our dear SHARER Cristina de la Vega writes to us:


Primer Congreso Argentino Convivencia y Violencia: Nuevos Desafíos Educativos


Se llevará a cabo los días 19 y 20 de Noviembre en el Centro Cultural Gral San Martín, de Capital Federal. Este espacio multidisciplinario abordará la problemática de la violencia en el aula y es organizado por Acuarell Capacitación y Formación Profesional.


Está destinado a Directivos de instituciones educativas, docentes de todos los niveles y profesionales de diversas áreas que trabajan en el campo educativo en general. Han confirmado su participación: Dra. Silvia Bleichamar, Prof. Lic. Carlos Cullen; Lic. Carina Kaplan; Lic. Julieta Imberti; Lic. Omar Villarreal; Lic. Ana Prawda;  Lic. Abel Cortese; entre  los principales profesionales especialistas en las diversas temáticas que seran desarrolladas durante los dos días consecutivos en espacios de: Ponencias; Seminarios (de 2 horas de duración cada uno); Talleres (de 4hs de duración cada uno). También se realizará un Foro en el cual participaran profesionales y docentes y donde serán elaboradas propuestas para abordar la problemática de la violencia en las aulas las que luego se harán llegar a las autoridades nacionales.


El Primer Congreso otorga puntaje docente  y ha sido declarado de interés educativo por el Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la Provincia de Buenos Aires entre otras distinciones.


Aranceles promocionales para inscripciones anticipadas:

Hasta el 30/10 (inclusive)  $60 individual   $50 grupal (3 o más profesores-docentes)


Para mayor información e inscripción dirigirse a: Acuarell Capacitacion y Formación Profesional, teléfono 4827-5235  de lunes a viernes de 10 a 20hs. o por mail a: o leer actividades en el site






A Survival Kit for Teaching Teenagers


Teenagers have their own world.

Teenagers have their own ways of relating to others.

Is it possible to survive and to enjoy the experience of teaching teenagers.

Understanding teenagers and their teen culture is the first step to effective teaching within an affective, humanistic approach.

How to wake those sleepy teenagers up and set them into motion with drama, games, music and poetry.

Choosing appealing and challenging activities, as the ones that will be practically demonstrated in the seminar, is the only way to keep them motivated and ...awake !


Lecturer:  Lic. Omar Villarreal

Profesor de Inglés e Inglés Técnico – Instituto Nacional Superior del Profesorado Técnico. Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educación (UCALP) Licenciado en Tecnología Educativa (FRA-UTN). Post graduate studies in Educational Research (Maestría CEA _ Universidad Nacional de Córdoba).

University Lecturer in the Area of Applied Linguistics at Universidad Tecnológica Nacional and in Language I and IV at ISFD Nro 41. Lecturer in Didactics of  ESP at Licenciatura en Inglés Universidad Católica de La Plata. 

He was a Head of School for more than 12 years and has been teaching English for 31 years.

He has lectured extensively in all Argentinian provinces as well as in Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Perú. He is the author and co-author of more than 20 textbooks, among them: “Polimodal English”, “Resource Files”, “Grammar Explorer” and “Top Teens” published by Macmillan. 


Venue:  Colegio "Dr.Federico Jorge Hotton"

San Martín 1798 - Zárate

Date: Saturday 30th of October - from 9:00 to 13:00 hours.


Registration: At Colegio Hotton - Mondays through Fridays from 8:00 to 17:00 hours.

(03487) 424428 -


Certificates of Attendance will be issued.






Our dear SHARER Gabriel Schvarstein from Oxford Universitry Press has sent us this announcement:

Jayne Wildman in Argentina

Co-Author of Matrix

November 8th  to 12th


Jayne Wildman taught in Spain, Italy and the UK before working as an ELT editor at Oxford University Press. For the last six years she has worked as a freelance editor and author, as well as teaching part-time at the British Institute in Paris. Her publications for OUP include Teacher’s Books, Workbooks, grammar resource packs and CD-ROMs for the secondary age group.  She has co-authored Bonus (a two-level course for teenagers) and has also contributed to the intermediate and upper-intermediate levels of Matrix.


Write on                                                              

Writing in a foreign language is one of the most challenging (and frustrating) things students have to do. An essay is a very artificial construct, that it's difficult to write according to the rules defined by the examiner - writing an essay is like playing a sophisticated game and students need to know the ground rules.



Where and When:

Bahía Blanca

Date & Time: Monday 8th November, from 18:00 to 20:00

Venue: Colegio Victoria Ocampo, Brown 236

Registration: Agencia Sur Librerías (0291) 452-4838 /455-5858 /


GBA North

Date & Time: Tuesday 9th November, from 18:00 to 20:00

Venue: Colegio San Juan El Precursor, Anchorena 419

Registration: OUP Call Centre (011) 4302-800 ext. 222 /


Ciudad de Buenos Aires

Date & Time: Thursday 11th November, from 18:00 to 20:00

Venue: Colegio Esteban Echeverría, Av. San Juan 983

Registration: OUP Call Centre (011) 4302-800 ext. 222 /




Date & Time: Friday 12th November, from 18:00 to 20:00

Venue: To be confirmed


LEAS Distribuidora (0351) 422-3833 /

SBS Córdoba (0351) 423-6448 /


OUP also announces:


Sat 30th October - From 9:30 to 13:30

Rosario - Colegio San Bartolomé - Tucumán 1257

Language Skills Development: a solid foundation for building exam techniques by Rosario Brondolo.

Act Naturally by Susan Hillyard     

Registration: SBS Rosario: (0341) 426-1276 - Santa Fe 1340


Sat 30th October - From 9:30 to 13:30

Mendoza - Liceo Militar Gral Espejo - Boulogne Sur Mer 2136

Language Skills Development: a solid foundation for building exam techniques by Mabel Manzano

Exploring the Language, Explore the World

by Mónica Marinakis  

Registration: SBS Mendoza: (0261) 425-2943 - Gutiérrez 54


Sat 6th November - From 9:00 to 16:00

Cdad de Bs As - Universidad Argentina de la Empresa (UADE) Lima 717

An Introduction to “Global Issues’’ by Susan Hillyard.

Let’s celebrate diversity in adult learners by Gustavo Paz

Love’m, hate’m: The Teenage Class by Laura Renart

Values into Action by Corine Arguimabu     

Registration: OUP Call Centre (011) 4302-800 ext. 222






Our dear SHARER Mónica Kunz has sent us this invitation for Anglia´s ELT events:



Anglia Examination Syndicate proudly announces the next round of ELT events in Argentina for October 2004.  Christian Kunz will be pleased to lead all the presentations and is really looking forward to seeing you all during his second visit to the country this year.


Christian Kunz has been a practising ESL/EFL teacher in Argentina, Australia and the UK now for over 13 years. Although he and his wife are currently living and working in England, Christian still runs ELT Professional Development Programmes for teachers in Argentina, and is the senior Director of Studies at Kensington Schools of English in Buenos Aires. He has been lecturing on ELT Methodology, Advanced Language for teachers and English Phonetics and Phonology all over Argentina and overseas since 1997.

Christian has been involved with the Anglia Examination Syndicate Testing Services since 1996 and was appointed Academic Representative in South America for this EFL examining body in 1997. He holds the Cambridge/RSA Cert. / Dip. ELTA and is now completing the third year of the Post-Graduate Certificate in Education Course through the University of Portsmouth, UK.



Morning session – 09.30 a.m. – 01.00 p.m.

Afternoon session – 02.30 – 04.00 p.m.

Making the most of a spring day with ELT professionals

Addressing our students’ needs, wants and lacks through the implementation and practice of differential learning

Keeping Constructivism on the front burner

Recognising and producing authentic English chunks


Post-seminar presentation (free of charge)

Anglia Examination Syndicate

International English Language Exams for the New Millennium

International Diploma in TESOL via distance learning

04.15 – 05.00 p.m.


Date:  Saturday, 23rd  October

Information & Registration: SBS Bookshop - Lerma 45, Salta -

Tel: 0387 4318868


Chubut – Comodoro Rivadavia


Morning session – 09.30 a.m. – 01.15 p.m.

Afternon session – 02.30 – 05.00 p.m.

(please see details under Salta)

post-seminar presentation (free of charge)

Anglia Examination Syndicate

International English Language Exams for the New Millennium

International Diploma in TESOL via distance learning

05.00 – 05.45 p.m.


Date:  Saturday, 30th  October

Venue: Hotel Comodoro - 9 de julio 770,Comodoro Rivadavia

Information & Registration: B M Inglés - Prof. Nancy Pacheco -  - TEL: (0297) 446-7240


Loads of Raffles of ELT materials. ELT-Related Exhibitors

Certificates of Attendance

Early confirmation of attendance is strongly recommended as places are offered on a first-come-first-served basis






Our dear SHARERS from ELT Team announce:



Are you ready to rush into ideas?

Take your breath….

Ready, steady, go!!!!


Join different speakers in this event full of practical ideas and positive energy!

Theater skills, music, fantastic stories, idioms …and much more!!!

Different workshops, handouts full of activities, raffles and stands…



08:30 Registration

08:45 Music in the air

10:15 Coffee Break

10:45 Theatre=magic=fun

12:15 Lunch Break

13:15 Fantastic stories in your classroom

14:30 Making idioms your friend

15:45 Break

16:00 Making Choices …

17:20 Raffle and prizes


Date: 30th October

Venue: Museo del Mar Auditorium- Av. Colón 1114

Fee: $14

Further information:  // 0223. 471-2775

Registration: Librería Bookshop, Catamarca 2953-Mar del Plata //0223-4736567

Certificates of attendance will be issued.




“Making idioms your friend”, by Katherine Palubinskas


Idioms appear in almost every context where colloquial and authentic English is in focus. They add variety and spice to the English language. At this workshop, learn to spot idioms in any given  context, flavor your speech trying your hand at a few, learn  to express many idioms you know in Spanish in the target language, and receive some practical tips on how to work with them in your class.



“Music in the air”, by Fabiana Girón and Laura Spina

In this workshop you will get practical ideas on how to get your students interested in music that will provide them with not only a nice melody and some words to sing along, but also with the historical/social connection of the songs that were landmarks in different decades. We will deal with assumptions on the value of using music in the classroom, and discuss some ideas on how to teach English through music. You will get handouts with exercises to put into action the next day you go into your classroom.


“Theatre=magic=fun" by Hilda Lopez and Betina Bettendorf


The aim of this workshop is to offer a space where people who always have dreamt about acting can find here their chance to fulfil this expectation in a safe atmosphere leaving aside fears and prejudice. It’s the unique place where you can break away from your own identity in order to explore actor’s training and flesh out different characters. It helps you to develop the inner master who is in control of your mind in order to create, enjoy and what is more to give birth to all the wonders of your craft and possibly transfer that into your language classroom.


“Fantastic stories in your classroom” by Jorgelina Carlassare


Fantasy is a magic force that conducts us along incredible paths where fun, imagination and creativity invade our senses. Fantastic stories call upon our earliest happy memories and encourage us to create new stories… How can we include fantasy in the language classroom as a springboard for motivating learners to become successful language users?  This workshop offers you some teaching strategies, practical ideas, tips and material to achieve this daunting but possible goal….



“The relevance of making choices in the language classroom and its pedagogical implications” by Gabriela Ferreiro


This session will look at some important theoretical concepts related to the integration of skills, group work, cooperative learning, learner autonomy, learning strategies and self-assessment, and their practical implications in ELT.  







Our dear SHARER Ximena Faralla writes to us:


The Suburban Players


Agatha Christie's “ The Mousetrap”

World's Longest Ever Run Play.

directed by Ximena Faralla


Cast : Carolina Alfonsín, Roman Chlapowski, Martin Grisar, Pablo Gueli Saavedra, Elena Linn, Juan Ramollino, Mara Santucci  and Victor Taylor.


October 29th thru November 21st, 2004.

Thursdays, Fridays & Saturdays 9:00 pm - Sundays 7:00 pm

Tickets $10.- Find out about our group discounts!

"The Playhouse" - Moreno 80 - San Isidro

Reservations: 4747-4470








Our dear SHARER and friend Jamie Duncan writes to us:


NLP Goal Setting Day


Create a vibrant inner state for next year! 


We invite our students and former students to celebrate the end of year and at the same time start planning together for a bubbling 2005, full of possibilities and opportunities for growth together.  We will share a number of different activities and exercises to design and redefine your objectives, both personal and professional.


Many of you have been asking us to further foster networking of like-minded and like-spirited teachers so we think that this day will be a great chance to meet people who are committed, enthusiastic and willing to learn and create new things.  With this vibrant support group our goals and wishes will become real and irresistible!


We will coordinate the activities, and remember, this event is free of charge.  We ask you to confirm your attendance before 20 October.

Let´s launch a sparkling New Year!!!


Who can come to the meeting:

Anyone who has had training in NLP, with us or in any other school, here or abroad.

Anyone who has attended a set of our workshops or “A Spa for your Soul”.

Practitioners. Master Practitioners and Trainers in NLP.


Date:  Saturday November 27

Time: 9.00 to 12.00 (and celebration activities)

Venue: Ciudad de Buenos Aires

Reminder:  Again, please confirm attendance as soon as possible . . . , , or (005411) 46419068






Our dear SHARER Sandra Lespade is looking for a new teacher for her ELS:


English Teachers Required for 2005.

Description: Full time teaching job at private English institute either in Carlos Casares or Bolívar. Levels from Kinder to CAE.

Contact: Sandra Lespade. Tel: 02395-453106 - E-mail:





Our dear SHARER Alfred Hopkins writes:


To be or not to be, to act or not to act...


"To be or not to be," said Hamlet in a low hollow toned voice.

"Why to be and not to do?" asked Ophelia as she winked her left eye suspiciously.

"Because it is more difficult to be than to do," responded the prince.

"Oh come on! If you don't know who you are how can you be?"

"By playing!" ventured the prince, suddenly perking up excitedly. "When you act you can be and do at the same time and that's great fun!"

"Really?" Ophelia seemed a bit taken aback.

"Yea, if you want we can do it together..."

"Are you being fresh with me?"

"No, not really, just playing my role."

"No wonder you die at the end of the play" retorted Ophelia as she hurried off in a huff. Hamlet dashed after her and begged her to give it a try. She did. If you want to know how this story ends, come to the Hopkins Creative Language Lab's theatre workshop Saturdays at 2 p.m., Bolívar 898 and have a blast! If your head is as full of doubts as Hamlet's you might call 4334-1561 or check the information at "The Buenos Aires Journal":




Today we would like to finish this issue of SHARE with a message that our dear SHARER Ana Vieyra Urquiza sent us (slightly adapted for publication). Of course, it is the message itself that counts, but being teachers of English we could not help thinking what a wonderful activity it would make for the teaching of superlatives!

The most destructive habit:                  Worry
The greatest joy:                             Giving
The greatest loss:                             Loss of self-respect
Our greatest natural resource:               Our youth
The biggest problem to overcome:            Fear
The most effective sleeping pill:             Peace of mind
The most powerful force in life:             Love
The worst thing to be without:               Hope
The best words in any language:             "I Can"
The greatest asset:                           Faith
The most prized possession:                  Integrity


Omar and Marina.



SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.