An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 7                Number 172             12th  December 2006

11,578 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED




News? Plenty of news (especially after such a long time) Comments? Plenty also.

With this new issue of SHARE we formally enter our 8th year of publication (remember our birthday was on October 31st!). All this while we have been tinkering with a new format for SHARE. A difficult task since (a) we don´t want SHARE to lose its original “flavour” (b) we want SHARE to “look new” (c) we MUST keep it free as that was the foundational spirit of the magazine (d) we are running into real trouble with Yahoo over the format issue (you must have noticed an intruding right column with Yahoo! publicity in the last few issues). Difficult, very difficult to solve but not impossible. We will keep on fighting. And you know how obstinate we can be!


The SHARE CONVENTION seems to have been centuries ago but those almost 500 people that crowded the rooms of Los Dos Chinos Hotel at the end of October are still quite vivid in our minds and our eyes. Now let us read what our fairy godmother Elida Messina wrote about the Convention:


Dear Omar and Marina, Marina and Omar (so that nobody can feel jealous), and Martin and Sebas, and Share Team,


I can't tell you how many ELT seminars, conventions, congresses, whatever you call them I have participated in, organized, and/or attended since I was a student at TTI. Now Share's First Convention was something else. It was not only an opportunity to get together with old friends, make new ones, and meet beautiful young boys and girls that will soon replace us. It was not only a time to acquire new and fresh knowledge, or polish up some old thoughts or beliefs. Everything had been planned in great detail, so everything ran smoothly.  Everybody knew what they had to do, where they had to be, even if a lecturer took a little longer than allowed. And there was joy and peace and love all around. The spirit of SHAREing prevailed. This first Share Convention marks a before and after that I'm sure we will all remember and cherish.


Thank you all, once again, for this unique experience. 


With my best wishes for the continued success of SHARE and all its team members,




Thank you dear Elida for capturing the spirit of the Convention. THANK YOU all dear SHARERS for trusting us once again and having made this convention possible.



Omar and Marina



In SHARE 172


1.-    The Exercise of Power through Language

2.-    A Somewhat Incomplete Introduction to Interlanguage

3.-    Nueva Ley de Educación Nacional: Entrevista con el Ministro de
        Educación de la Nación

4.-    II Jornadas Internacionales " La Enseñanza de Inglés en las Carreras de  


5.-    Maestría en Traductología de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

6.-    Primer Congreso de Formación e Investigación en Lenguas

        Extranjeras y Traducción

7.-    Helbling Languages Workshops

8.-    5th Conference on Applied Drama: A Letter from Celia Zubiri

9.-    XI Jornadas de Enseñanza de Lenguas Extranjeras en Nivel

10.-   Auditions at The Suburban Players

11.-   The Resourceful Teaching  Week

12.-   Experiencing Meditation

13.-   Book Presentation and Exhibition Drama Class

14.-   Methodology Course at Universidad Villarreal

15.-   First Certificate Weblog

16.-   A Letter from Ken Sutherland

17.-   An Announcement from Mario Rinvolucri 






Our dear SHARER Magíster Adriana Podestá has generously sent us this paper to SHARE
with all of us:





* This is the full version of the presentation made at the XII Congreso Nacional de Profesores y Estudiantes de Inglés. July, 2006



Since this paper deals with the relationship between power and language, first of all, let´s consider what power is. Power is defined in terms of control, control over actions and control over minds.Thus, groups have power if they are able to control the acts and minds of members of other groups. This ability presupposes a power base of (privileged access to) scarce social resources, such as force, money, status, fame, knowledge, information, “culture” or indeed various forms of public discourse and communication.

Different kinds of power may be distinguished according to the various resources employed to exercise power: the coercive power of the military or of violent men will be based on force, the rich will have power because of their money, whereas the more or less persuasive power of parents, professors, journalists may be based on authority, knowledge or information.


Power is seldom absolute. Groups may more or less control other groups in specific situations or social domains. Moreover, dominated groups may resist, control, condone, comply with or legitimate such “power” and even find it natural. Indeed, the power of dominant groups may be integrated in laws, rules, norms, habits and even a quite general consensus and thus take the form of what Gramsci called hegemony, that is constructing alliances, and integrating rather than dominating the subordinate classes through concessions or through ideological means, to win their consent. Class domination, sexism and racism are examples of hegemony.


Now, let´s consider the role of language in relation with power.

The constant unity of language and other social matters ensures that language is entwined in social power in many ways: language indexes power, expresses power and is involved when there is a contention over and a challenge to power. Power does not derive from language but language can be used to challenge power, to subvert it, to alter distributions of power in the short and long term. Language provides a finely articulated means for differences in power in social hierarchical structures.

The approach that seems the most suitable for the study of the relationship between language and power is Critical Discourse Analysis. C.D.A. takes an interest in the way in which linguistic forms are used in various expressions and manipulations of power. Power is signalled not only by grammatical forms within the text, but also by a person’s control of a social occasion by means of the genre of a text. It is often exactly within the genres associated with given occasions that power is exercised or challenged.

C.D.A. focuses on the abuse of power, on the ways control over discourse is abused to control people´s beliefs and actions in the interest of dominant groups, and against the best interests or the will of others. “Abuse” in this case may be (very roughly) characterised as a norm-violation that hurts others, given some ethical standard, such as rules, agreements, laws or human rights principles. In other words, dominance may be briefly defined as the illegitimate exercise of power.


It is one of the tasks of C.D.A. to spell out these forms of power.


C.D.A. or Critical Linguistics, started to develop in the 1970s at the University of East Anglia with Roger Fowler, Tony Trew and Gunther Kress. It recognised the role of language in structuring power relations in society. C.L. is based upon Halliday’s systemic linguistic theory which brings to analysis the view of the text as multifunctional, always simultaneously representing the world (ideational function) and enacting social relations and identities (interpersonal function); seeing texts as built out of choices from within available systems of options in vocabulary, grammar and so forth. Discourse is seen as “a field of both ideological processes and linguistic processes, and there is a determinate relation between these two kinds of process” (Trew, 1979); specifically, the linguistic choices that are made in texts can carry ideological meaning.


C.D.A. as a network of scholars emerged in the early 1990s through the support of the University of Amsterdam . In this group were Teun Van Dijk, Norman Fairclough, Gunther Kress, Theo Van Leuween and Ruth Wodak. C.D.A. had existed before but not as an international heterogeneous, closely knit group of scholars. Other scholars who joined the group later are Scollon, Jäger and Meyer. They all share a particular perspective in which the concepts of power, ideology and history figure centrally. Wodak and Fairclough rely on Halliday’s linguistics and also on the work of literary critics and social philosophers such as Pecheux, Foucault, Bourdieu, Habermas, Bakhtin and Voloshinov.

Calling the approach “critical” is a recognition that our social practice in general and our use of language in particular are bound up with causes and effects which we may not be at all aware of under normal conditions. Specifically, connections between the use of language and the exercise of power are often not clear to people, yet appear on closer examination to be vitally important to the workings of power. Basically, “critical” is to be understood as having distance to the data, embedding the data in the social, taking a political stance explicitly and a focus on self reflection as scholars doing research. 

The theory and the methodology are eclectic, that is theories and methods are integrated if they are helpful in understanding and explaining the object under investigation.


Fairclough and Wodak summarize the main tenets of C.D.A. as follows:


1)      C.D.A. addresses social problems- It aims to investigate social inequality, as it is expressed, signalled, constituted, legitimized and so on, by language use (discourse). It is concerned with analysing structural relationships of dominance, discrimination, power and control as manifested in language.


2)      Discourse is a form of social action- Viewing language as a social practice implies first, that is is a mode of action, as Linguistic Philosophy and the study of Pragmatics have recognised (Austin-Levinson). It also implies that language is a socially and historically mode of action in a dialectical relationship with other facets of the social. By a dialectical relationship, Fairclough means that language is socially shaped, but it is also socially shaping or socially constitutive. C.D.A. explores the tension between these two sides of language use, the socially shaped and the socially constitutive, rather than opting one-sidedly for one or the other.


3)      Power relations are discursive- C.D.A. will ask questions about the way specific discouse structures are deployed in the reproduction of social dominance, whether they are part of a conversation, a news report or other genres and  contexts.


4)      Discourse does ideological work. It contributes to the reproduction of power relations. Let’s define “ideology” first. Ideologies are common sense assumptions that are implied in the conventions according to which we interact linguistically and of which we are not consciously aware. Ideologies are closely linked to power because the nature of ideologies depends on power relations and differences of power which underlie the conventions. And conventions legitimize power simply through the recurrence of ordinary, familiar ways of behaving which take those power relations for granted. Ideologies are closely linked to language because language is the commonest social practice where we rely most on common sense assumptions. In modern society, the exercise of power is achieved through ideology and more particularly, through the ideological workings of language.


5)      Discourses exercise power as they transport knowledge on which the collective and individual consciousness feeds. The emerging knowledge is the basis of individual and collective action and the formative action that shapes reality. As “agents of knowledge” (valid at a certain place, at a certain time) discourses exercise power. They are themselves a power factor by being apt to induce behaviour and other discourses. Since people’s minds are influenced by texts, discourse may at least indirectly control people’s minds, as we know, from persuasion or manipulation. If people’ s minds are controlled, so are their actions.


6)      Discourse is historical- Every discourse is historically produced and interpreted, that is, it is situated in time and space. Therefore, the context of language use is considered crucial for C.D.A., since context explicitly includes social, psychological, political and ideological components and thereby postulates an interdisciplinary procedure. All discourses are historical and can therefore be understood with reference to their context. In accordance with this, C.D.A. refers to such extralinguistic factors as culture, society and ideology. Van Dijk makes a distinction between the global context – the social, political, cultural and historical structures in which a communicative event takes place- and the local context –the immediate, interactional situation in which a communicative event takes place (domain, the participants, their intentions, goals,knowledge, norms and other beliefs).


7)      Discourse constitutes Society and Culture-.  Language use-any text- is always simultaneously constitutive of a) social identities, b) social relations and c) systems of knowledge and belief. That is, any text makes its own contribution to shaping these aspects of society and culture. In particular cases, one of the three might appear to be more important than the others, but it is a sensible working assumption that all three are always going on to some degree. Dicourse is moreover constitutive both in conventional ways which help to reproduce and maintain existing social identities, relations and systems of knowledge and belief, and in creative ways which help to transform them. Whether the conventional or the creative predominates in any given case will depend upon social circumstances and on the functions of language within them.


8)      The link between discourse and society is mediated –by the social acting subjects. Subjects connect discourse with reality in the sum of their activities which in the way they actually take effect, are neither planned by a single individual, nor a group. These active subjects conduct discursive and non discursive practices, acting as (co)producers and (co)agents of discourses and changes to reality. They can do this because as subjects “knitted into” the discourse they have knowledge at their disposal. The link between discourse and society is always mediated by the discourse practice, that is by the processes of production, distribution and consumption.


9)      Discourse Analysis is interpretative and explanatory- Critical theories are aimed at producing enlightenment and emancipation. Such theories seek not only to describe, interpret and explain, but also to root out any kind of delusion. They intend to create awareness in agents of how they are deceived about their own needs and interests. C.D.A. can systematize awareness and critique of ideology. From awareness and critique arise possibilities of empowerment and change. Scholars, therefore, play and advocatory role for groups who suffer from social discrimination, that is for the dominated groups.


TEXT ANALYSIS- A political speech by Bush


Global context


The U.S. leading a coalition invaded Irak in March, 2003 under the pretext that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq . These weapons were never found but Bush decided to stay on in Iraq . Now he wanted to find Saddam Hussein, to capture him in order to protect the Iraqi people. His speech is about this.

Local context

Bush is in Washington delivering a speech, aimed not only at the addressees he mentions but also at his enemies and at the whole world, since he knows that his speech will  become part of the media discourses. Indeed, it has been  through the New York Times that we have come in contact with this speech.




As we can see, the headline and the subheadline have been written by a journalist. In the headline, Bush’s words have been quoted: “A dark and painful era is over” in Iraq . In the subheadline we read an introduction to Bush’s speech. This introduction refers to one of the main ideas ( macrostructures) of the text: the capture of Saddam Hussein.

Connecting the headline to the subheadline, we can derive this interpretation: now that Saddam has been captured, a dark and painful era is over in Iraq .


Considering the addressees, we can divide the text into three parts.


In the first part, Bush talks to the nation. He announces the capture of Saddam Hussein, gives information about it and highlights the benefits this event will bring to the Iraqi people.This part is mainly informative- notice the use of the third person. The speaker is being objective. He uses the Past Tense to describe how the operation was carried out. In this part of the text, there are two indirect recipients: his enemies, the Baathist holdouts (Saddam’s secret police) and the Iraqi people to whom he talks in the third person. The speech acts are a threat aimed at his enemies and a promise aimed at the Iraqis. In these speech acts, he uses the Future Tense, expressing determination.

In the second part, he addresses the Iraqis and talks to them in the second person. Again, he promises them a better life. He uses the third person when he says All Iraqis who take the side of freedom,  (metaphor: All Iraqis who are with us) have taken the winning side. First, he is restrictive: only the Iraqis who are with him, who support his actions, will receive the benefits of Saddam’s capture.Then he makes the opportunity for a better life extensive to every Iraqi citizen ... All Iraqis can now come together and reject violence... In this way, the speaker seems to be showing consideration for all Iraqi citizens, he sounds democratic. He makes a sort of proclamation when he says  “In the history of Iraq , a dark and painful era is over. A hopeful day has arrived. All Iraqis can now come together and reject violence and build a new Iraq .” He sounds like a Messiah, who has come to save people from evil and sin. He adopts the voice of someone who is more powerful than him. Then, he praises the American armed forces which captured Saddam. In the next paragraph he praises the coalition allies who contributed to the capture of Saddam. He wants to be fair to the coalition allies, too. By praising the armed forces, Bush wants to make it clear that thanks to them, the Iraqis can build a new Iraq , enjoy freedom, a dark and painful era is over... Can a country be free when it is being occupied by a foreign force?

At the end of this part, he thanks and congratulates the American armed forces (our men and women now serving in Iraq ) in the first person singular and in the Present.


In the third part, he addresses all the Americans. He uses the inclusive we (I and you), the Americans, identifying himself with the Americans. He announces that the war will go on, this time, against terrorism, since violence has not ended in Irak : “such men” (the terrorists) are a direct threat to the American people and Bush promises that they will be defeated. But this message contains an implicit message to the American forces fighting in Iraq . Let’s consider the passive clause without agent.The question that arises is “Who will defeat the terrorists?” All the Americans? Not all the Americans are fighting in Iraq . In this clause there is an order in disguise. The promise to all Americans contains an order to the American armed forces and a threat to the terrorists.  Notice the use of the Future Tense with an Imperative meaning. Bush is telling the American soldiers that they will have to stay on and go on fighting for the security of America until they win the war. As we can see,  he appeals to patriotism when he refers to the direct threat to America and then when he talks about security and freedom.

In this way, he justifies his decision. They are fighting for a good cause. This is a just war, a war for self defense. And when he later says “The U.S.  OF  America will not relent until this war is won”, the metaphor  the U.S. of America hides the real agent which is I, Bush means I will not relent...  The nation as person metaphor attempts to justify the war as a just war. Notice the Future Tense with an Imperative meaning expressing determination. Notice the use of the Passive Voice in  until  this war is won. Who will win the war? Or better, who will have to fight in order to win the war? Again, the Passive hides the agent, that is, the American soldiers who are giving their lives in Iraq . Bush finishes his speech by asking God to bless the Iraqi people and America . (Allusion to the religious discourses as if God supported his actions). Then he thanks his audience. Why does he say Iraqi people and America ? Why not Iraq and America ? Probably because he presents America as a unified nation -he takes for granted that everybody in America agrees with him- and Iraq is divided into the good Iraqis and the terrorists. The terrorists do not respond to the category of “people”.




The capture or Saddam Hussein and the war against terrorism.


Argumentation strategies


According to G. Lakoff, who has studied the role of metaphors in Bush’ s speeches, the idea of a just war is presented by the nation as person metaphor and by two narratives that have the structure of classical fairy tales. In our speech, the two narratives are :  the rescue story and the self-defense story. In both of them there is a Hero (Bush), a victim (the Iraqi people), a criminal (Saddam and the terrorists) and a crime (Saddam bullied and killed innocent people and the terrorists are doing the same).  In the story for self defence, the hero and the victim are the same.Through these stories, Bush justifies his acts. He has acted in the name of justice to rescue the Iraqi people from Saddam, and he will act in the name of justice to bring security home.

And this is a strategy of  argumentation. He needs to justify the presence of the American troops in Iraq .

The argument he develops is the fight for freedom: if there is freedom, there is security. He has fought for the freedom of the Iraqi people and now he will fight for the freedom of America so as to bring security home. Considering the vocabulary, we can see that the key word in this speech is freedom or liberty.

Within argumentation theory, “topoi” or “loci” can be described as parts of argumentation which belong to the obligatory, either explicit or inferable premises. They are content-related warrants or “conclusion rules” which connect the argument or arguments with the conclusion, the claim. As such, they justify the transition from the argument or arguments to the conclusion. In this text, the topos alluded to is that of danger or threat, which can be paraphrased in the following conditional: if there are specific dangers or threats, one should do something against them. In Bush’s terms we can say “As Saddam represented a threat to the Iraqi people, we captured him. As terrorists in the heart of the Middle East (metaphor: Iraq- reference to the Middle East-other terrorists- connotation- it will be a very long war) represent a threat to the U.S. of America, we will eliminate them. We are fighting for security at home”. In a previous speech Bush said “We must extend freedom elsewhere to make sure we have security at home”. Here we have an intertextual relationship between this speech and the previous one. And we can see that they present the same idea, which corresponds to Bush’s ideology: he will fight against terrorism to provide security at home.

But before Bush gave the military the order to go on fighting, he praised and congratulated them. This was another strategy to win the support of the armed forces. (First the praise and then the order).


Us and Them

Another discourse strategy is that of positive self representation and negative other representation (Us and Them).

There are two groups in conflict.

Us :Bush, the American forces and the coalition allies:

They stand as the protectors of the Iraqi people- They have fought for their freedom, for their opportunity for a better life, for the sovereignty of Iraq ,  they have brought peace to Iraq , they have given their lives for the Iraqi people. They have put an end to the corrupt regime of Saddam Hussein. They have to protect home from terrorists.  They believe in the success of liberty.

The U.S. military forces conducted a raid without casualties, the operations were carried out with skill and precision by a brave fighting force, they showed courage to face the dangers and their work continues.

Them: Saddam Hussein- the Baathist holdouts- the terrorists

Saddam and his followers were responsible for torturing innocent people in the torture chambers. Saddam established a corrupt regime. His men bullied and killed innocent people. The terrorists reject peace, cherish violence. They kill the innocent, do not accept the rise of liberty and worst of all, they are a direct threat to the American people. They are the evil-doers.




This text is a political speech, because its author is a political leader: the President of the U.S.A. and he holds a position of power. His speech is a discourse of power based on force, because Bush occupied Iraq by force but it is also a discourse of power based on persuasion considering the arguments he develops to justify his actions before all the Americans and the whole world. The praise before the order is a persuasion strategy. By praising the American soldiers, he has created the necessary conditions for the order to be accepted. Besides, he has appealed to the soldiers’ patriotism: they have to defend home. And this is a just cause to fight for.

The Speech Acts show that he is in a position of power: he informs, he promises, he threats, he congratulates, he thanks and he takes decisions-he orders- and justifies them.The use of pronouns shows how he talks to the different recipients: in a direct or indirect way.


Mood and modality


The text presents a succession of declarative sentences which give the impression that the propositions are factual and objective.

The modality of the statements is categorical and authoritative. The speaker does not express possibility or probability; he expresses certainty. The Future Tense used for the promises and the threat sounds like an Imperative: The former dictator of Iraq will face the justice he denied to millions, There will be no return to the corrupt power and privilege, You will not have to fear  the rule of Saddam Hussein again, They (the terrorists) will be defeated, America will not relent until the war is won.


The implicit meanings and the unsaid


Any text is a combination of explicit meanings- what is actually said- and implicit meanings- what is left unsaid but taken as given, presupposed. A text’s presuppositions are important in the way in which the text positions its readers/viewers or listeners: how a text positions them is very much a matter of the common sense assumptions it attributes to them. Presuppositions help establish represented realities as convincing.


•       The Iraqi people wish to live as free men and women– They were not free.

•       torture chambers and secret police are gone forever-  There were torture chambers...

•       You will not have to fear the rule of Saddam Hussein ever again - They feared the rule of Saddam Hussein.

•       A dark and painful era is over– There was a dark and painful era.

The absences from the text are significant.

Bush does not say anything about the weapons of mass destruction. Didn’t he say that  he invaded Iraq in search of those weapons?

Further questions that arise and find no answer in the text are:

Did the Iraqi people ask him for his help to enjoy freedom in Irak? How do they feel about having a foreign occupation in their country? And what about the American soldiers?, how do they feel about fighting in a country which is not theirs?


Evaluation of Bush’ s speech


Now that three years have passed since the invasion, the promises to the Iraqi people have not been carried out.

In his speech, Bush says that Iraq represents a threat to the United States of America . Perhaps it does now, but it did not at the moment of the invasion. There has been no evidence about it.

Peter Bergen, an expert in terrorism, expressed in the Boston Globe “The President is right when he says that Iraq has become the central front against terrorism, but it is a front we have created”.

Let’s consider now the reasons Bush gave for invading Iraq . First, he said that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq , so he invaded Iraq . He did not find those weapons but he stayed on in Iraq to protect the Iraqi people from Saddam Hussein. He captured Saddam, but he stayed on. This time, to fight against the terrorists who represent a threat to the U.S.

As we can see, he has changed the reasons accordingto the circumstances.

The central question that arises is: what are Bush’s real reasons?

They have been stated by George Lakoff:

To control the flow of oil from the world’s second largest known reserve, and to be in a position to control the flow of oil from Central Asia as well. These would guarantee energy domination over a significant part of the world. The US could control oil sales around the world. And in the absence of alternative fuel development, whoever controls the distribution throughout the world, controls politics as well as economics.


Taking a position


As a critical analyst, I feel at the side of the Iraqi people who are living in  a

country beset by war and by what war implies: death, torture, kidnappings. I also sympathise with the American soldiers fighting in Iraq . Poll results have shown that they are not willing to go and fight in Iraq . Those recruited are the ones who do not have access to education or a good job and who consider the recruitment as a job.


There is no doubt that it is a discourse of power, of power imposed by force and the linguistic resources have shown that it is.

We have referred to the pronouns, the speech acts, the implicit meanings and the unsaid, tense, syntax, mood and modality, to the strategies of argumentation and we have considered the context, both the global and local context.

The speech is not a proclamation for peace and freedom (as Bush tells the Iraqi people). It is a prescription for more war and more hate.

War is never just another means that one can choose to employ for settling differences between nations, Pope John Paul II  stated in his address to the diplomatic corps at the Vatican on January 13th , 2003.




•       Fairclough, Norman (1995) Critical Discourse Analysis, Longman, Harlow , England .

•       Fairclcough, Norman ( 1995) Media Discourse, Arnold , London .

•       Wodak, Ruth and Michael Meyer (2001) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, Sage Publications, London

•       Van Dijk, Teun, Critical Discourse Analysis, second draft, January 1998, University of Amsterdam .

•       Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark (1980) Metaphors we live by , the University of Chicago , U.S.A.

•       Lakoff, George (March 18th, 2003) Metaphor and War, Again





XII National Congress of Teachers and Students of English

The Exercise of Power through Language

                                                                                                                      by Adriana Podestá




This presentation will explore the relationship between language and power within the theoretical framework of Critical Discourse Analysis. C.D.A. focuses on the way control over discourse is abused to manipulate people’s beliefs and to induce actions in the interest of dominant groups. The tenets of C.D.A.and its goals  will be dealt with.

As an example of theory in action, a political discourse –a speech by President Bush- will be analysed. The analysis will show how specific linguistic resources and argumentation strategies have been used in the expression and manipulation of power.




Adriana Podestá was born in San Nicolás, Bs.As.

She is Profesora de Castellano, Literatura e Inglés, graduated from Escuela Normal Superior del Profesorado de San Nicolás, and Magister en Enseñanza de la Lengua y la Literatura , graduated from Facultad de Humanidades y Arte (Universidad Nacional de Rosario).

She has done a good number of courses in English Language and Literature, both at home and abroad.

She has contributed articles to the API bulletin (San Nicolás), Revista Espacio 127 (San Nicolás), APrIR Journal (Rosario), Stones Harbour (Villa Constitución) and Share electronic magazine.

She is a lecturer on  English Language (CUFBA), Written Language III (Profesorado de Inglés)  and  Lingüística y Gramática II (Profesorado de Lengua Castellana) at I.S.F.D. Nº 127 de San Nicolás. She also teaches at E.G.B. and Polimodal.


In Bush's Words: 'A Dark and Painful Era Is Over' in Iraq



WASHINGTON, Dec. 14 - Following is a transcript of President Bush's address to the nation about the capture of Saddam Hussein, as recorded by The New York Times:


Good afternoon. Yesterday, Dec. 13, at around 8:30-p.m. Baghdad time, United States military forces captured Saddam Hussein alive. He was found near a farmhouse outside the city of Tikrit in a swift raid conducted without casualties. And now the former dictator of Iraq will face the justice he denied to millions.


The capture of this man was crucial to the rise of a free Iraq . It marks the end of the road for him and for all who bullied and killed in his name.


For the Baathist holdouts largely responsible for the current violence, there will be no return to the corrupt power and privilege they once held. For the vast majority of Iraqi citizens who wish to live as free men and women, this event brings further assurance that the torture chambers and the secret police are gone forever.


And this afternoon I have a message for the Iraqi people:


You will not have to fear the rule of Saddam Hussein ever again. All Iraqis who take the side of freedom have taken the winning side. The goals of our coalition are the same as your goals: sovereignty for your country, dignity for your great culture, and for every Iraqi citizen, the opportunity for a better life.

In the history of Iraq a dark and painful era is over. A hopeful day has arrived. All Iraqis can now come together and reject violence and build a new Iraq .


The success of yesterday's mission is a tribute to our men and women now serving in Iraq . The operation was based on the superb work of intelligence analysts who found the dictator's footprints in a vast country. The operation was carried out with skill and precision by a brave fighting force.


Our servicemen and women and our coalition allies have faced many dangers in the hunt for members of the fallen regime. And in their effort to bring hope and freedom to the Iraqi people their work continues ¬and so do the risks.


Today, on behalf of the nation, I thank the members of our armed forces and I congratulate them.


I also have a message for all Americans:


The capture of Saddam Hussein does not mean the end of violence in Iraq . We still face terrorists who would rather go on killing the innocent than accept the rise of liberty in the heart of the Middle East . Such men are a direct threat to the American people, and they will be defeated.


We've come to this moment through patience and resolve and focused action. And that is our strategy: moving forward. The war on terror is a different kind of war, waged capture by capture, cell by cell and victory by victory. Our security is assured by our perseverance and by our sheer belief in the success of liberty. And the United States of America will not relent until this war is won.


May God bless the people of Iraq , and may God bless America .


Thank you.  15/12/03







Our dear SHARER  has sent us this article which we SHARE with all of



A Somewhat Incomplete Introduction to...



Short historical preview


Prior to the introduction of interlanguage, linguists attempted, through contrastive analysis between native languages and target languages, to predict and describe learners' errors in terms of interference (Lado, 1961) - the projection or transfer of habits of the first language onto that of the foreign language to be learned. However, whereas language transfer could account for some errors (especially at the phonological level), it was noticed that a great many errors did not bear a resemblance to either the native language or to the foreign language being learned.


Selinker's interlanguage hypothesis

Interlanguage defined


Selinker (1972), amongst others, postulated the existence of a system somewhere between the native language and the language to be learned. This system he termed 'interlanguage', defining it as a 'separate linguistic system based on observable output which results from a learner's attempted production of a target language norm,' where the target language is defined as 'one norm of one dialect.' This interlanguage system relies upon access to the latent language structure postulated by Lenneberg (1967) - a device already pre-wired in the brain as a counterpart to universal grammar, transformed into a 'realized' structure of a particular grammar coinciding with maturational stages from infancy to adulthood.


However, Selinker also postulates (1975, Selinker et al., 1988) that in addition to this there exists a separate latent psychological structure accessed for the learning of a second language in adults and also in children. This device is also pre-wired but has no genetic time table, no necessary connection with universal grammar, and no guarantee of activation or 'realization' into particular grammar structures of the second language.


This device is considered independent, but possible overlapping may occur between this structure and other learning areas of the brain. The five percent of second language learners who achieve mastery of the L2, according to Selinker, have access to the 'latent language structure' of Lenneberg (1967), whereas the remaining 95 percent of learners rely on access to the 'latent psychological structure,' never quite achieving complete mastery of the L2.


Some factors affecting the Interlanguage system


Selinker (1972) lists five factors which directly affect the output of the interlanguage system:

  1. Language transfer - fossilizable items, rules, subsystems which occur in the interlanguage as a result of transfer from the native language.
  2. Transfer of training - items resulting from particular approaches used in training.
  3. Strategies of second language learning - identifiable approaches by the learner to the material being learned.
  4. Strategies of second-language communication - identifiable approaches by the learner to communication with native speakers of the target language.
  5. Overgeneralization of target language linguistic material - overgeneralization of target language rules and semantic features.


By viewing the shape of utterances originating in the interlanguage, as affected by the above categories, we can better see, according to Selinker, the nature of the psychology of second language learning.



Selinker, in his theory of an interlanguage, also postulates the concept of 'fossilization,' wherein particular 'linguistic items, rules, and subsystems' that a L2 learner will 'tend to keep in their IL relative to a particular TL no matter what the age of the learner or amount of explanation and instruction s/he receives in the TL.' These may be items the learner never has completely mastered, or they can be items which the learner has seemed to master but cannot consistently reproduce, especially under conditions of anxiety, excitement, or extreme relaxation. It is important, Selinker notes, to realize that these 'backsliding' events are not random or towards the NL of a speaker, but are instead towards an interlanguage norm. Combinations of fossilized items are termed 'IL competences,' and fossilizations of these IL competences could lend themselves to the production of new dialects.

other perspectives on interlanguage


Other theories of the nature of interlanguage have been proposed in addition to - and in contrast to - that of Selinker (1972). Here are just a few:


Corder (1981)

Corder, like Selinker, believes that learners' errors are systematic, regular, and consistent. Because of this system of errors, he postulates that the interlanguage system is based on knowledge or "competence" - a well-defined 'personal grammar' of the L2 learner. Through this system, the learner is 'creating an account of structural properties of the TL, about its grammar, on the basis of his interaction with the data he is exposed to'. Corrections to this system can occur on an unconscious acquisition level or through self-correction.


Corder, however, indicates the importance of including an analysis of development within the interlanguage system. He notes that as interlanguages develop (especially in unstructured learning situations), they bear resemblance to each other with variability ascribed to the particular learning situation or personality of the learner. Just as Burt and Dulay (1974 ) have found a natural order in morpheme acquisition, a general sequence of interlanguage syntax is also recognized, which, Corder states, implies that there is a property of the human mind which determines the way the learners process the data of the language to which they are exposed. He makes three important generalizations concerning this natural order:


  1. That younger learners will have more similar interlanguage structures (in part due to the restricted need for communication).
  2. That the more communicatively oriented the learning setting, the more similar the structural properties of the learner's interlanguage will be.
  3. That, if universal properties exist and a universal grammar exists, then approximative systems of learners from any NL progressing towards any TL will show similarities.


The idea that a universal grammar is responsible for a natural order in morpheme acquisition among both adult and child learners' of L1's and L2's raises interesting questions concerning the nature of the latent language structure of Lenneberg (1967) and the psychological language structure postulated by Selinker (1972). Selinker's model (1972) is incompatible with the notion of a natural order of morpheme acquisition in that it allows only a small five percent of adults to access the latent device responsible for these orders. It is unclear from the original paper whether the psychological language structure may contain devices bearing resemblance to those in the latent language structure that may account for natural order sequences in acquisition. For an interesting defense of the separation of universal grammar from interlanguage, see Chapter 31 (by L. Selinker) in Interlanguage (Davies et al., 1984).

In accordance with the above discussion, Corder appears to view interlanguage as a developmental process of transitional competence rather than a process of restructuring or reorganizing. One note he offers to those who teach L2 learners is to arrange their teaching methods and curriculum to fit restrictions that these natural orders might impose. For example, teachers should shift from grammar lessons and drills to a more communicative approach to the TL and should incorporate more learner-centered, group-learning, and discovery approaches into their lessons.

James, C. (from Corder, 1981) - Interlingua

Believes that the learner's language will show systematic features of the target language and of other languages s/he may know but mostly the NL. Emphasized one dimension of variability in interlanguages.


Nemser, W. (1971) - Approximative system

Emphasizes goal-directed development of the language learner towards the TL.

For other interesting advances in the study of interlanguage (Composite Matrix Language), search under Carol Myers-Scotton (USC-Columbia) and Janice L. Jake ( Midlands Technical College ).




Corder, S. P. (1981) Error Analysis and Interlanguage, Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Davies, A. et al. (1984) Interlanguage, Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press.

Dulay, H.C. and Burt, M.K. (1974) Natural sequences in child second language acquisition, Language Learning 24, 37-53. Reprinted in Hatch, E.M. (ed.) (1978).

Lado,R. (1961) Linguistics Across Cultures. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press.

Lenneberg, Eric H. (1967) Biological Foundations of Language. John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Nemser, W. (1971) Approximate systems of foreign language learners, IRAL 9.2, 115- 23.

Selinker, L. (1972) Interlanguage, IRAL 10.3, 209-31.

Selinker, L. (1988) Papers in interlanguage. Occasional Papers No.44, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization ( Singapore ): Regional Language Centre. ED321549.

Selinker, L., Swain, M. and Dumas, G. (1975) The interlanguage hypothesis extended to children, Language Learning 25, 139-52.


© by Ralf Thiede 1997








Entrevista con el ministro de Educación, Daniel Filmus


¿Que va a cambiar en la escuela con la nueva ley?

Lo más inmediato es tender a ordenar y unificar la estructura del sistema, con la recuperación de la primaria y la secundaria. Las provincias, que a su interior quedaron con varios modelos diferentes, deberán organizar una primaria de 7 años y una secundaria de 5, o dividirla en 6 y 6. Entre otros muchos cambios, la carrera docente tendrá una duración de 4 años y se incorporará la residencia como parte del plan de estudios.

¿Qué garantías existen, en un país que no se distingue por cumplir leyes, de que esta vez funcionará?

Es la pregunta que hay que hacerse. Hay tres condiciones para que se cumpla. Que haya recursos: hemos ido creciendo del 3,65 a cerca del 5 del PBI desde que asumimos, y en 2007 deberemos llegar al 6%. Uno de los fracasos de la Ley Federal es que no se respetó el compromiso de inversión. Es una condición imprescindible, pero no suficiente. Podríamos invertir más y no cumplir. La segunda es que se convierta en política de Estado. El tercer elemento es el consenso de la sociedad y su compromiso para exigir el cumplimiento. Esta ley sale con el consenso de los sindicatos docentes principales.

¿Están listos los docentes para brindar una mejor educación?

No, no estoy conforme con su formación actual. Por eso creamos el Instituto Nacional de Formación Docente. No toda la formación docente es de mala calidad. Está fragmentada en 1.300 institutos de formación docente y en las universidades, con una desigualdad pavorosa. Un mecanismo nacional apunta a aplicar parámetros para homologar. Docentes peor formados a su vez generan más desigualdad entre sus alumnos.

¿Cuáles son los flancos más débiles de los docentes: dificultades en saber enseñar, el conocimiento de sus disciplinas?

Por un lado, disciplinares, de actualización. Y también en aspectos didácticos. En tercer lugar el desconocimiento de las poblaciones con las que van a ir a trabajar, los sectores urbanos marginales. Si queremos incorporarlos hay que elaborar estrategias particulares para no expulsarlos.

¿La residencia docente será condición para recibir el título?

Sí, será parte de la etapa de estudio, una práctica por las escuelas por donde van a empezar a trabajar que en general son las que están en situación más crítica. Los estudios demuestran que allí van los más jóvenes y menos preparados. Y es allí donde necesitamos que se queden los mejores para enfrentar las transformaciones socioeconómicas que la Argentina tuvo y que impactaron entre quienes necesitamos que se queden.

La secundaria es uno de los puntos más críticos del sistema, con una altísima deserción del 50%, pobres aprendizajes. ¿Cuándo se vería una mejora?

Algunos beneficios serán inmediatos. La tendencia es que los profesores condensen sus horas en una escuela, que haya tutores y coordinadores de cursos, actividades extraescolares, talleres vocacionales. Es el único de los niveles que plantea la modificación de su modelo pedagógico. Todo acompañado con inversión que garantice las vacantes, construcción de escuelas. Es clave la definición de los contenidos.

Los contenidos existen desde los 90 y muchos docentes no podían enseñarlos.

Estoy de acuerdo. Por eso es fundamental que los cambios mejoren las condiciones de trabajo docente y de enseñanza.

Los obispos exigieron que los alumnos puedan conocer a Dios en la escuela ¿Qué opina?

El Consejo de Educación Católica (CONSUDEC) participó del debate y dio su apoyo global a la ley. La ley no permite la educación religiosa en las escuelas públicas pero contempla una educación integral. No acordamos con este pedido. El Estado garantiza a los padres de menores recursos brindar a sus hijos una formación religiosa con los aportes a la privada.

Uno de los fracasos de la Ley Federal de Educación fue ampliar la matrícula en detrimento de la calidad.

Es cierto que en algunos lugares creció mucho la matrícula, que por primera vez algunos sectores llegaron a la escuela media. Esto influyó en la caída de la calidad pero fue central el deterioro de las condiciones de trabajo docente, su resistencia a aplicar cambios, la improvisación en la aplicación. La calidad es muy desigual: entre jurisdicciones hay diferencias de hasta el 50%, y hasta del 30 o 40% dentro de una provincia. El desafío es cómo generar condiciones para que el Estado brinde igualdad de condiciones.

¿Me aconsejaría que un hijo mío vaya a la escuela pública?

La opción no debiera ser la calidad. No puede ser que no podamos tener un país sin pobreza y buena educación. No es imaginable eternamente una educación pública de menor calidad que la privada.

¿Todavía sostiene que Educación no intervino en la crisis de la UBA ?

El Ministerio no intervino en particular en cuestiones internas. Hubo actores vinculados que se reunieron, pero no este ministro ni sus secretarios.

Además de ministro es profesor titular de la UBA , ¿qué opina como docente?

Me siento como el conjunto de la sociedad. Accedí al cargo por concurso dos veces. Y de acuerdo a los estatutos no puedo votar en la elección de los representantes para los órganos de gobierno porque soy docente del Ciclo Básico. Por ser docente del CBC no soy menos profesor. Muchos actores de la sociedad, que con sus recursos sostienen la UBA , miran azorados lo que pasa. En la UBA junto con el Conicet están los mejores docentes e investigadores y reúnen buena parte de la ciencia y la tecnología argentina que debe volver a la sociedad.

¿Cómo ve la posibilidad de que la Asamblea sesione en el Congreso.

No voy a opinar más que eso.



© Clarín (10/12/06)







Our dear SHARER Fabiana Vega writes to us:


II Jornadas Internacionales " La Enseñanza de Inglés en las Carreras de



Cuando:     Viernes 15 y Sábado 16 de Diciembre 2006

Organiza:   Departamento de Idiomas - Facultad de Ingeniería UBA

Lugar:       Paseo Colón 850 - Buenos Aires - Argentina


Más información e inscripción on line en:



Los objetivos de las Jornadas se centran en promover la reflexión, el debate y el intercambio de los diferentes puntos de vista en relación a la enseñanza del inglés en las carreras de Ingeniería.


El encuentro contará con conferencias plenarias a cargo de reconocidos especialistas, comisiones de exposición y discusión de ponencias, exposición de "posters" sobre trabajos referentes a las temáticas señaladas y proyectos de investigación que  actualmente se llevan a cabo en diversas universidades latinoamericanas en el ámbito de las distintas áreas temáticas.


"Las políticas universitarias con respecto al idioma inglés"; "Metodologías y estrategias de enseñanza" y "La enseñanza del inglés y las tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC). La Educación a Distancia", son algunos de los temas a abordar durante el desarrollo de las jornadas.


Entre los expositores internacionales y argentinos destacan el Dr. Murial Zimmerman, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Luke Maki , President of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Professional Communication Society (PCS); María Susana González, Licenciada en Letras de la UBA , profesora e investigadora UBACYT; y Ann Mntemayor-Borsinger (Master of Education, University of Bristol, PhD in linguistics, University of Glasgow), profesora de Inglés en el Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo.


Deseamos contar con su presencia y agradecemos haga extensiva esta invitación a sus colegas.


Fabiana Vega

Departamento de Idiomas

Facultad de Ingeniería - UBA

Tel: 4343-0891 int. 120








Maestría en Traductología

Apertura de Inscripciones para el Dictado de la 3º Cohorte 2007-2008


Destinatarios: egresados universitarios y terciarios de carreras de traductorado, profesorado y licenciatura en lenguas extranjeras

Modalidad: presencial (10 cursos de 40 horas y 8 talleres de 20 horas a distribuirse en dos años)

Costo de la carrera: $4080 (24 cuotas de $170)


Más información:


Puede solicitar más datos sobre la carrera en la Secretaría de la Maestría en Traductología de la Facultad de Lenguas de la UNC. Av. Vélez Sársfield 187.  (X5000JJB) Córdoba. Tel: 054- 351- 4331073/75 int. 22.


Horarios de atención: Mar. de 09:30 a 12:30 hs., Miér de 11 a 14 hs y Vier 9:30 a 13:30 hs. 











Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas “Juan Ramón Fernandez” announces:




Mayo 2007: Jueves 24, viernes 25, sábado 26


Mesa redonda de apertura: miércoles 23 de mayo, 19 hs.


Ante los numerosos pedidos recibidos, hemos decidido extender por única vez la fecha de entrega de trabajos –ponencias en su versión integral de 1500 palabras y síntesis de pósteres- hasta el 14 de febrero de 2007. Durante febrero y marzo la comisión de lectura evaluará los trabajos y en abril los ponentes recibirán la información relativa a la aceptación de sus presentaciones. Si hasta el 28 de febrero no hubieran recibido el aviso de recepción de su trabajo, les agradeceremos se contacten nuevamente con nosotros.


Los expositores estudiantes podrán entregar sus trabajos hasta el 30 de marzo de 2007; quienes opten por esta fecha deberán, de todos modos, haber presentado una versión preliminar al 14 de febrero de 2007.


Dado que nos proponemos contar con los trabajos editados al inicio del congreso, no habrá posibilidad de nueva prórroga. Agradeceremos el respeto de los plazos anunciados.


Normas para el envío de trabajos

Los trabajos –ponencias y síntesis de pósteres- deberán entregarse en copia impresa acompañada de disquette y enviarse por correo electrónico en formato RTF.
La copia impresa y el disquette, rotulado con el nombre del/los autor/es y el título del trabajo, podrán entregarse personalmente o enviarse por correo postal a la siguiente dirección:
Congreso LENGUAS VIVAS 2007
I.E.S. en Lenguas Vivas Juan Ramón Fernández
Carlos Pellegrini 1515 - C1011AAE Buenos Aires

La copia en formato RTF deberá dirigirse a Para facilitar la recepción de su envío, les recordamos que el documento adjunto deberá identificarse únicamente con el apellido del/los autor/es y no con el nombre del congreso.

Ejes temáticos

1. La construcción del lugar social de los profesores en lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de los traductores en las carreras de formación.
2. El vínculo teoría-práctica en las carreras de profesorado en lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de traductorado.
3. La investigación en el campo de la didáctica de lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de la traducción.
4. La enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras y segundas en contextos formales (niveles primario y medio) y no formales (extensión).
5. El traductor y su práctica profesional.


Conferencias plenarias y cursos
A cargo de especialistas argentinos y extranjeros.


Estarán conformados por ponencias agrupadas de acuerdo con cada uno de los ejes temáticos.
Las ponencias serán presentadas en español, exclusivamente por su(s) autor(es) y, en la medida de lo posible, se evitará su lectura. El tiempo de exposición será de 15 (quince) minutos por ponencia, con el fin de poder contar con un espacio de 30 (treinta) minutos de debate para el panel en su totalidad. Cada participante podrá presentar un máximo de 2 (dos) ponencias.

Destinados a la presentación de propuestas didácticas y experiencias áulicas.

Foro de alumnos
Este espacio se propone contribuir a la divulgación de los diferentes tipos de trabajos que los alumnos realizan durante su carrera. Sabemos de la alta calidad de numerosos trabajos cuyo conocimiento queda frecuentemente reducido al autor y al docente a cargo de su corrección. Por ello convocamos a los alumnos de profesorado y traductorado a decidir cuál de sus trabajos ya terminados o en vías de realización se adecua a uno de los ejes temáticos del congreso para luego ajustarlo a las normas que pautan la presentación de ponencias y pósteres.

Normas para la presentación de trabajos

- Los trabajos deberán ser inéditos y no haber sido expuestos en otros encuentros científicos.
- Cada trabajo podrá tener un máximo de 3 (tres) autores.
- Para la aceptación de los trabajos los expositores deberán haber completado el trámite de inscripción.


Se presentarán en español y tendrán una extensión de 1500 palabras incluidos notas y gráficos, sin considerar la bibliografía. Los trabajos de investigación deberán consignar objetivos, metodología, corpus y conclusiones.

- Papel tamaño A4, con letra Times New Roman, cuerpo 12, interlineado 1,5.
- Título centrado, en letra mayúscula.
- Debajo del título, encolumnado sobre el margen derecho y en minúscula, nombre del/los autor/es, institución de pertenencia y dirección electrónica.
- Notas numeradas correlativamente a pie de página.
- Indicación del nombre de los autores citados en el texto, año de publicación e indicación de página, entre paréntesis.
Ejemplo: (VENUTI, 2004), (VENUTI, 2004:17)
- Bibliografía en orden alfabético, de acuerdo con las siguientes pautas:
CORRÊA, M. L. G. & F. BOCH (orgs.), 2006, Ensino de Língua: representação e letramento, São Paulo, Mercado de Letras.
Artículos :
REVUZ, C., 1991, “La langue étrangère entre le désir d’un ailleurs et le risque de l’exil”, Éducation Permanente, 107, pp. 23-35.

Para la participación en la sesión de pósteres, se presentará una síntesis que será evaluada por la comisión de lectura.

La sesión de pósteres será de 2 horas (dos horas) de duración en los días y horarios que se fijarán oportunamente. La presencia del/los autor/es para responder preguntas, ofrecer explicaciones acerca del contenido e intercambiar con los asistentes es condición sine qua non para su exhibición.

El póster se presentará en un panel de 1.00 x 0.70 metros . El texto será breve y podrá acompañarse de soporte visual (gráficos, fotos, dibujos, etc.). Incluirá título del trabajo, nombre completo e institución de pertenencia del/los autor/es.

Para facilitar la confección del póster se presentan las siguientes sugerencias:
a) Título del trabajo (Arial negrita, 72)
b) Nombre y apellido del/los autores (Arial 48)
c) Institución de pertenencia
Para el resto del trabajo se recomienda utilizar cualquier tipo de letra legible a un metro de distancia e incluir: (i) contextualización del trabajo; (ii) objetivos; (iii) metodología; (iv) materiales; (v) resultados; (vi) observaciones; (vi) bibliografía sugerida.

Trabajos de alumnos

Los alumnos podrán presentar ponencias o pósteres de acuerdo con las pautas anunciadas en los respectivos apartados. Para identificar sus trabajos, además del nombre del/los autor/es, dirección electrónica e institución de pertenencia, se les solicita identificar materia, carrera y docente a cargo de la cátedra.


Aranceles: Estudiantes expositores y participantes. Los estudiantes deberán exhibir libreta de estudiante en el momento de la inscripción.


Hasta el 14/02/07 $10

Desde el 15/02/07   $15


Más informes: Carlos Pellegrini 1515 - Tel.: 0054 (0)11 4322-3992/3996/3998, int. 120 ó 101


El llenado de la ficha de inscripción (ver debajo), es imprescindible para todos los participantes, tanto expositores como asistentes.

Para completar el trámite de inscripción, los interesados deben dirigirse a:

Asociación Cooperadora del I. E. S. en Lenguas Vivas J. R. Fernández
Carlos Pellegrini 1515, oficina nº 1

Horario de atención: Lunes a viernes de 9 a 20 horas

* Personalmente, la inscripción podrá formalizarse en efectivo, con las tarjetas de débito Maestro y Visa Electron o las tarjetas de crédito Visa, Mastercard y American Express.

* Para las opciones depósito o transferencia en cuenta bancaria, deberán tenerse en cuenta los siguientes datos:
Titular: Asociación Cooperadora del I. E. S. en Lenguas Vivas J. R. Fernández
CUIT: 30-54200821-7
Cuenta Nº: 185-0 018-8
Banco: Galicia, sucursal Arroyo
CBU: 0070018420000000185080

Atención: En este caso, resulta imprescindible para la acreditación al congreso enviar una copia del comprobante del depósito o la transferencia, sin olvidar incluir nombre, apellido y documento de identidad del emisor. La copia puede enviarse por fax a (011) 4322–3992/3996/3998, interno 113, o adjuntarse, escaneada, en un mensaje de correo electrónico dirigido a

Hasta el 14/02/07 Desde el 15/02/07
Docentes, traductores e investigadores expositores y participantes $80 $100
Estudiantes expositores y participantes (*) $10 $15
(*) Deberán exhibir libreta de estudiante en el momento de la inscripción.


Recordamos que todos los participantes, presenten o no trabajo, deberán completar esta ficha.
Tipo y número de documento:
Domicilio: CPA
Teléfono (indicar código de área):
Correo electrónico:

Institución a la que pertenece:

Docente Traductor Investigador Estudiante
Participa en calidad de: Expositor Asistente
Título del trabajo:
Ponencia Póster Individual Grupal
Apellido y nombre del/los coautor/es: 1)
Eje temático (para marcar el número correspondiente, remitirse a segunda circular) 1 2 3 4 5
¿Requiere material audiovisual-multimedia? Sí No Indique tipo(*)
(*)Atención: Por motivos de organización, podrán considerarse únicamente los pedidos de material audiovisual y multimedia presentados hasta el 14 de febrero de 2007.

Modalidad de inscripción:
Efectivo Tarjeta de débito Tarjeta de crédito Depósito Transferencia





Our dear SHARER Mercedes Oliveri invites us all to these free workshops:




Most of us teachers tend to think of grammar as something important  for our students to learn but not necessarily fun to teach. Grammar tends to be associated with rules that put constraints on the creativity of speakers. Fortunately, this does not have to be so, and in this workshop we will explore ways to present grammar to our students so that it is pleasurable, enjoyable and even a source of delight. We will analyze activities that are engaging, motivating and exciting.


Friday 15th December , 17.30 – 20.00

SBS Palermo – Av. Coronel Díaz 1747 – Capital






In this introductory  workshop we will examine the theory behind Multiple Intelligences and its application in the English as a Foreign Language classroom. Through a variety of exercises we will discover how it is possible to enlarge our repertoire of resources to make our lessons more motivating and appealing to our students.


This workshop is based on the work of Herbert Puchta and Mario Rinvolucri, world famous, talented and acclaimed authors of materials for a wide range of students at different levels.


Friday 15th December, 10.00 – 12.30

Liceo Cultural Británico – Av.Pueyrredón 1388 - Capital



Both workshops conducted by Oriel Villagarcía


Graduate from the Univ. Nacional de Tucumán. Post graduate studies at the

University of Texas , M.A. from the University of Lancaster . British Council

and Fulbright Scholar. Master Practitioner in NLP, Certificate of Completion,

NLP University, California. Certified Administrator of the MBTI, Florida . Former

Lecturer at the Universidad Católica de Salta, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, and Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero.


Admission is free but registration essential. Register by sending an email to  Be sure to include your full name, home address and phone number.

Vacancies are limited. Please register if and only you are sure to come.

Certificates of attendance will be issued.

There will be a HELBLING raffle of new materials






Dear Omar and Marina,


I want to share with you and the dear sharers the latest news about our 5th Annual Conference on Applied Drama that will take place in February 22, 23 and 24, 2007, at Teatro Santamaría, Montevideo 842, Ciudad de Buenos Aires. This will be a wonderful opportunity to participate in workshops that focus on strategies that will help you teach in, through and about drama. You will be able to complement your curriculum, using drama as a tool to explore themes, issues and to develop dramatic skills.  I can ensure you that there will be workshops that fit your needs of personal and professional growth. 

All speakers appointed have already confirmed their presence: Enrique Federman, Associate Director of Sweet Charity, will delight you with his “Técnicas de humor”, Laura Szmuch will introduce you to “Managing your Inner States”, Simon Freestone, an Australian actor, will teach you use scenarios of the more serious plays and twist them around to find the humour through his workshop “Fun with Shakespearean English”, among others.


I invite coordinators, teachers and teachers-to-be to visit our website  for conference updates and information. We will also offer some amazing prizes in the big raffle such as a two-week course and lodging in Brighton or Malta , and two nights in London or Rome . If you win, you choose the place.

I am looking forward to your participation as I am sure that you will enjoy an exciting and engaging conference.  


Warm regards,


Celia Zubiri

Managing Director

Buenos Aires Players







XI Jornadas de Enseñanza de Lenguas Extranjeras en el Nivel Superior

Los textos y sus contextos


Primera Circular


Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias

Universidad Nacional del Litoral

Julio 19, 20 y 21 – 2007

Santa Fe - Argentina


FHUC Resolución C.D. 143/06


El Comité Organizador de las XI Jornadas de Enseñanza de Lenguas Extranjeras en el Nivel Superior invita a participar del encuentro que se realizará en la Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral – Paraje El Pozo. Ciudad Universitaria – Santa Fe durante los días 19, 20 y 21 de Julio de 2007.




Favorecer el diálogo entre docentes e investigadores de lenguas extranjeras y segundas.

Activar mecanismos y espacios de intercambio regulares entre dichos profesionales.

Crear un espacio para la reflexión y el debate sobre políticas lingüísticas y sobre formación de profesionales.

Promover la investigación en las áreas temáticas que constituyen los ejes de las Jornadas.

Reflexionar sobre la contextualización de las prácticas docentes en el nivel superior.

Diseñar e implementar estrategias tendientes a mejorar el posicionamiento de las lenguas extranjeras en la formación de profesionales en el nivel superior universitario y no universitario.

Promover la articulación entre los niveles terciarios universitario y no universitario.




Doctores, magisters, profesores, licenciados, traductores, investigadores y estudiantes del ámbito de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras y segundas en el nivel superior.


Áreas temáticas:


1.      Formación docente en lengua extranjera

a.       Desarrollos curriculares

b.      Enseñanza de lengua, fonética, gramática, literatura, cultura

2.      Didáctica especial de las lenguas extranjeras en el nivel superior

3.      Adquisición de L2 y Le

4.      Discursos disciplinares

5.      Estudios de género

6.      Metodologías innovadoras

7.      Alternativas profesionales para profesores de lenguas extranjeras y traductores

8.      Evaluación de conocimiento y uso de las lenguas segunda y extranjera

9.      Desarrollo de materiales

10.  Lengua, Arte y Cultura

11.  Lenguaje y cognición

12.  Lenguas extranjeras y afectividad


Actividades académicas


Se desarrollarán tres tipos de actividades

Conferencias plenarias en español / idioma extranjero.

Conferencias semi-plenarias

Comunicaciones/ponencias en comisión (La presentación de las ponencias no excederá los 15 minutos)


Formatos y fecha para la presentación de trabajos


(a)   Presentación de resumen

Primer renglón: Título del trabajo en mayúscula.

Segundo renglón: Nombre de los autores (Subrayar el/los nombres del/de los expositores). No más de tres (3) autores por trabajo. No más de dos (2) trabajos por autor.

Tercer renglón: Nombre de la Institución.

Cuarto renglón: Dirección electrónica para la notificación sobre evaluación.

Quinto renglón: Nivel educativo.

Sexto renglón: Especificación del Área Temática en la que se inscribe[1].

Resumen: entre 230 y 250 palabras.

Formatos de fuentes:


Título: Arial, 12 puntos, negrita.

Nombre de los autores, nombre de la institución, correo electrónico y nivel educativo: Arial, 10 puntos, negrita.

Cuerpo del resumen: Arial 10 puntos, normal (no negrita)

Márgenes: superior: 2,5 cm ; inferior: 2,5 cm ; izquierdo: 3 cm ; derecho: 2,5 cm .

Texto justificado. Sin sangría. Interlineado simple. Procesador de texto: Microsoft Word.


(b)   Presentación de trabajo en extenso

Entre seis (6) y ocho (8) páginas tamaño A4, incluida la bibliografía

Primer renglón: Título del trabajo en mayúscula.

Segundo renglón: Nombre de los autores (Subrayar el/los nombres del/de los expositores). No más de tres (3) autores por trabajo. No más de dos (2) trabajos por autor.

Tercer renglón: Nombre de la Institución.

Cuarto renglón: Dirección electrónica para la notificación sobre evaluación.

Quinto renglón: Nivel educativo.

Sexto renglón: Especificación del Área Temática en la que se inscribe.

Formatos de fuentes:

Título: Arial, 12 puntos, negrita.

Nombre de los autores, nombre de la institución, correo electrónico y nivel educativo: Arial, 10 puntos, negrita.

Cuerpo del resumen: Arial 10 puntos, normal (no negrita)

Márgenes: superior: 2,5 cm ; inferior: 2,5 cm ; izquierdo: 3 cm ; derecho: 2,5 cm .

Texto justificado. Sin sangría. Interlineado 1.5. Páginas SIN numerar. Gráficas o ilustraciones: todo gráfico o ilustración debe estar inserto en el cuerpo del trabajo. En caso de tratarse de material manuscrito escaneado, debe ser completamente legible.

Bibliografía: Las referencias bibliográficas se especificarán sólo en la última página del trabajo (sin exceder las  ocho (8) páginas totales). Se ordenarán alfabéticamente y tendrán el siguiente formato:

Apellido del autor, Primera inicial, año, título, lugar de publicación y editorial.

Procesador de texto: Microsoft Word.


Los archivos para la inscripción y la presentación de trabajos deberán ser rotulados de la siguiente manera:



Apellido e inicial del nombre-Inscripción

Ejemplo: (fernandezd-inscripción)


Presentación de trabajos

Apellido e inicial del nombre-título del trabajo

Ejemplo: (fernandezd-Enseñanza de ELE)



Importante: El Comité Organizador se reserva el derecho de excluir las propuestas que no se ajusten al formato especificado.

Todos los trabajos se presentarán en español


Los trabajos serán enviados por correo electrónico a la siguiente dirección:




1. Inscripción y aranceles en pesos


Inscripción    Fecha límite   Arancel profesor      Arancel alumno

1ra.   11 – 05 – 07                  100                    60

2da.   15 – 06 – 07                  130                    80

3ra.   13 – 07 – 07                  160                    110



2. Presentación de trabajos

Presentación resumen 30-03-07

Devolución     10- 04 -07

Presentación de trabajo en extenso  17- 04- 07

Devolución     27- 04- 07

Presentación final     04 – 05 - 07


Inscripciones y pagos de arancel



Se podrán realizar a través de:

Pagina web  (nombre de la página)

En la oficina de Área Operativa – Paraje El Pozo “Ciudad Universitaria” S/N (3000) Santa Fe – Tel: 0342-4575105 Int: 107. De lunes a viernes en el horario de 9 a 13 hs y de 16 a 19 hs



El pago de aranceles podrá efectivizarse a través de:

En la oficina de Área Operativa – Paraje El Pozo “Ciudad Universitaria” S/N (3000) Santa Fe – Tel: 0342-4575105 Int: 107. De lunes a viernes en el horario de 9 a 13 hs y de 16 a 19 hs

Transferencia a través de Western Union: A nombre de Maximiliano Veloso.

Una vez realizada la transferencia deberá enviarse el número de operación, nombre y apellido del depositante a (**)

Transferencia a través de Correo Argentino: A nombre de Maximiliano Veloso.

Una vez realizada la transferencia deberá enviarse el número de operación, nombre y apellido del depositante a (**)

(**) Los comprobantes de transferencias postales deberán presentarse en el momento de la acreditación al congreso.



Secretaría de Extensión – Paraje El Pozo “Ciudad Universitaria” S/N (3000) Santa Fe – Tel: 0342-4575105 Int: 108 – E-mail:  

Página web







Our dear SHARER Hugo Halbrich has sent us this information:


The Suburban Players

Audition: Sunday December 17 th from 5pm to 8pm


The Suburban Players will hold open auditions for their first production of 2007 to be directed by Hugo Halbrich.


The Suburban Players is a totally amateur theatre club. Participation in our shows is strictly ad honorem, and in order to participate in our productions you must become a member and pay the yearly membership fee which allows free entrance to any of our shows.


Rehearsals will start in February,

All roles  will require excellent English

(Women who tap-dance may be asked to do so)

Men: 18 to 60

Women:  18 to 60


Please email to  if you plan to attend.







Our dear SHARERS Jamie Duncan and Laura Szmuch have sent us this invitation:


The Resourceful Teaching Week

A rich selection of workshops to develop teaching and learning skills!

Small personalised courses with limited numbers.


5-8 February 2007


Each workshop lasts three hours.  AM: 9.00 - 12.00  PM: 14.00 - 17.00.

Venue: Gallardo 719, Versailles, Capital Federal.



Enrolment: Please enrol by phoning (005411) 4641-9068 or by e-mail:  or 


Enrolment is only guaranteed by payment of fee.






Oriel Villagarcía from Tools for Teachers announces:




It is said that when we pray we talk to God, whereas when we meditate God talks to us. Some people report finding inner balance and inner peace when they engage in meditation. Others claim that their health improves, that they release their stress and recover their vitality. Still other people say that meditation allows them to experience what is, to get to know themselves and that it has started them on their way to wisdom.


 The consensus would seem to indicate that meditation is good for your mental, spiritual and physical health, and more people are finding its benefits. Yet, how do you get started? How do you meditate? Do you have to take a retreat and isolate yourself for days in order to begin the process?


In this session we will experience some simple ways to get on our way along the meditation path and we will try different approaches which may suit different people.


This session has been planned to help those that may find it difficult to unwind after a hectic year and those who may have considered meditation but did not know how to go about it.


Wednesday, 20 December, 10:00 to 12:30

Thursday, 21 December, 17:30 to 20:30

at SBS Palermo —Av. Coronel Díaz 1747, Capital


Presented by Oriel Villagarcía -  M.A. University of Lancaster , Graduate Studies  University of Texas , researcher into mind-body approaches to health and well being.


Admission free but registration essential.


Send an email to  with your full name, phone number and home address.


Bring some non-perishable food to be given to a charitable institution as a Christmas donation.


This Workshop is sponsored by Tools For Teachers






Our dear SHARER Alfred Hopkins writes to us:


How often do you get the chance to attend the presentation of a book of stories written in Argentina for students and teachers of English? You don't have to answer that question. Or maybe you can whisper it into someone's soft ear at the Perro Andaluz bar at 8 p.m. on December 27th, a real cozy hide-out at 852 Bolivar street in Buenos Aires ' colonial neighborhood (San Telmo). If you browse through the book you might discover a real weird version of Cinderella or re-live the Christman Carol or follow an indigenous resident's attempts to save his baby with herbal medicine.


Oh. Before Alfred Hopkins and Dr. Alicia Ramasco introduce their Tea for Two ELT reader, you might want to take in an exhibition drama class featuring a performance of Alfred Hopkins' "Oh for God's Sake!" about how let down God became when he popped down to earth to see how his creatures were getting on.


Wait a minute! Here's the good news. For just $5 pesos you can take in both events and sip your favorite drink, in a relaxed atmosphere with friends and strangers who--like you--are counting the days until 2006 becomes history.

Booking: 15 62 52 10 28 or





For God’s Sake! An exhibition theatre class with the presentation of

“Tea for Two…” a book of ELT stories by Alfred Seymour Hopkins and Dra. Alicia Ramasco December 27th at 8 p.m. Perro Andaluz bar, Bolívar 852, San Telmo, Buenos Aires .


Further information: 4361-3501  / 15 6252 1028 - e-mail:



Patrocina la revista “The Buenos Aires Voz,”

Últimas entrevistas, Haiku, Tai Chi, teatro...






Escuela Universitaria de Educacion a Distancia

Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal                                       





Escuela Universitaria de Educacion a Distancia of Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal has the pleasure of inviting you to attend its First Methodology Training course based on distance education with Web support from Jan 15th to Feb 5th  in  Lima and provinces.



Monday 15 Techniques and principles of teaching English as a Foreign Language

Wednesday 17 Current trends in teaching English as a Foreign Language

Friday 19 Learning English is an active process: the use of learning strategies to succeed

Monday 22 Developing communicative competences

Wednesday 24 Making didactic resources for teaching and learning English

Friday 26 Evaluation in TEFL

Monday 29 Lesson planning

Wednes 31 Teaching grammar

Friday 2 Group work and games

Monday 5 Teaching pronunciation


Time: 160 hours

This course, as you know, is offered to English teachers and all those people interested in teaching and it has as main topic the issues of methodology.

Fees: s/ 120

Registrations will take place until the beginning of the course


Registration : Avenida Salaverry  2960/ 2950 - San Isidro

Telephone: 4600585

For more information contact us:  


Limited Vacancies






Our dear SHARER Sofía Verón has been working on a FCE weblog. All SHARERS are kindly invited to visit it at

We are sure it will prove a valuable tool for both teachers and students working towards this UCLES examination.





Our dear SHARER Dr Kenton Sutherland sends us a tip:


Dear Omar,


I'd like to share Delia Marone's interesting and prolific website with SHARE MAGAZINE readers.  Please note that it originates in Argentina .  You Argentinos are certainly world class ELTers, and I give you a lot of credit for your first-rate contributions to our profession.   Oriel Villagarcía's  terrific Tools for Teachers MUSIC DAY workshop in  Buenos Aires is certainly a fine recent example of Argentine ELT excellence in professional development.


Here is Delia Marone's cyberaddress:


A big hug as always,


Kenton Sutherland

English Language Specialist

United States Department of State






Dear Omar,


I`m delighted to announce the latest issue of Humanising Language Teaching and the first issue by our new editor Hania Kryszewska.


Normally this email would come from Hania but I wanted to take this opportunity to welcome and introduce her to you all. I`m sure over the coming issues you`ll find the magazine changing and developing in ways it never could in my hands.


Hania has already done a fantastic job in pulling this issue together.


It is indeed a bumper issue so I won`t even begin to try and tell you what`s inside - see for yourselves at


Please say a big hello and welcome to Hania and please continue to send your articles and contributions to her -  - and of course please keep recommending HLT to your friends and colleagues - currently an average of 1250 people per day are visiting the mag - amazing!


I`m off to enjoy my very first issue as a reader and not an editor - fantastic!


Hope to see some of you on the hilltop this summer!


With very best wishes




Humanising Language Teaching


Editor: Hania Kryszewska

Contact Hania at:





We would like to finish this issue of SHARE with this note and the poems a dear SHARER from Uruguay sent me:   


Dear Omar,


Dear Omar,


Many of us were really impressed by your plenary in Urutesol National Convention: "Painting with the colours of the wind". Personally, I liked it very much and I enjoyed every minute of it.It was inspiring and refreshing. I would really like to attend Share Congress,but it is very difficult for us to get  even "a small leave" at this time of the year.Even though I will not probably attend , I wish you all the very best and I would like to share something I wrote trying "to paint with the colours of the wind" and trying to capture the music of nature as seasons come and go...If you like it , feel free to use it. If you don´t, keep it secret.

Warmest regards to you and your wonderful family,

Maribel Fernández


The   four seasons





Soft breeze and shy warm sunbeams,

Patting the young heads of teenagers in love,

Rebirthing green fields, so long expected,

Immense joy of colorful, flying kites, in teams.

Nature, waking up after a long winter sleep.

Goodbye to darkness, cold rain and freezing winds.




Sandy golden beaches spreading along

Under such a luminous, blue sky. The sea…

Marvelous laziness, getting bronze skins,

Multi-cultural encounters all along the coast,

Energetic crisis, thin cattle and thirsty water streams.

Reddish clouds decorating sunsets, rocking people’s dreams…




A group of noisy kids, walking down the streets,

Undoubtedly heading off to school in teams.

Teachers, carrying along their hopeful folders,

Unbelievably full of ideas and dreams.

Morning breeze, ringing bells and young laughter,

Naughty summer has departed and eager fall sets in.




Winter: cloudy, stormy and rainy days.

Indoors, creativity must come to help.

Near the fireplace, sitting at ease,

Tasting a nice, hot cup of tea,

Engaged in some board games,

Reading perhaps, or simply waiting for spring…



Mag. Maribel Fernández




Omar and Marina.



SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.