An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 7                Number 171             17th September 2006

11,045 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED




You have probably received our newsletter with information about the 2006 SHARE CONVENTION to be held next Friday 20th and Saturday 21st in the historic and nostalgic neighbourhood of San Telmo in the city of Buenos Aires. You are probably among the first 200 teachers that have already enrolled. You are probably getting ready to enjoy one of the biggest events in the ELT academic year ion Argentina.

Maybe you want to hear some of the latest news about the Convention:

It has got the support of The British Council and the institutional support of The Embassy of the United States of America (Department of State) as well as that of TESOL Chile, PERU TESOL and Argentina TESOL and of the biggest firms in the ELT market.

We kindly invite you to visit our Website:

and to meet the thirty top-notch speakers and how they hope to give concrete answers to your concrete problems of the real classroom. Enjoy the surfing! 




Omar and Marina



In SHARE 171


1.-    Leadership for Learning: An Action Theory of School Change

2.-    Three studies on the impact of Content-Based Instruction.

3.-    New words in English.

4.-    Responsabilidad Civil de los Docentes en Excursiones.

5.-    Collocations and Colligations.

6.-    Next Presentations by Omar Villarreal

7.-    Congreso Internacional Lenguas Vivas 2007.

8.-    Seminarios de Postgrado de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.

9.-    Legal English Courses.

10.-   Workshop: Adults as learners of a foreign language.

11.-   Latin-American Congress on Language Teacher Education.

12.-   Primeras  Jornadas  Internacionales de Traductología.
13.-   Presentation of Global Issues.

14.-   Critical Literacy ELT School in Lima.

15.-   Herbert Puchta in Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires.

16.-   The Bs. As. Players on tour.

17.-   The James Joyce Society.

18.-   La Noche de los Museos.








Leadership for Learning: An Action Theory of School Change

By Tony Wagner


Today's successful educational leaders understand that they cannot make change alone or by edict. Mr. Wagner notes. They motivate groups to learn and to solve problems together by asking tough questions and naming the big problems while refusing to offer easy answers.


I have worked in education for 30 years -- as a teacher, principal, teacher educator, and consultant and as head of several nonprofit organizations working with schools. For the past 12 years, I have both studied and facilitated the change process in numerous schools and districts in the U.S. and abroad. I spend most of my weeks working in schools and with various groups concerned about education.


This article is an attempt to distill what I have learned about how successful leaders create change in schools -- change aimed at improving learning for all students. I call this an "action theory" of change because it is a synthesis of ideas informed by theory but developed primarily from practice -- trial and error and disciplined reflection. The theory describes how to create the conditions and capacities for sustaining change, which must be developed before more specific action plans can be considered.


The first question that any theory of change should address is: What motivates adults to want to do new and sometimes very difficult things? This question is especially critical in education, as I believe that the temperament, training, and working conditions of most teachers predispose them not to want to change. On the other hand, leaders are often individuals who like change and so see teachers' reluctance to change as sheer stubbornness or indifference. In my experience, most teachers are neither stubborn nor indifferent, but they do resist change for reasons that leaders must understand. Three of the most common factors contributing to teachers' resistance are risk aversion, "craft" expertise, and autonomy and isolation.



Risk Aversion


Historically, most people have entered the teaching profession because it promises a high degree of order, security, and stability. In my experience, most educators are risk-averse by temperament, while many who thrive in the business world are risk-seekers. (I believe this fundamental difference in temperament is one reason why the two groups generally do not understand or even like each other, and this lack of understanding and communication contributes greatly to the absence of a more thoughtful, balanced dialogue about educational improvement.)

The training and working conditions of most teachers have only reinforced this risk aversion. Schools of education foster docility with too many lecture courses and too few opportunities for problem solving and original thinking, and school district leadership rewards compliance rather than creativity and initiative. The educational "fads of the month" that have swept through schools for the past 30 years have served to reinforce the belief of many teachers that innovations are the fleeting fancy of leaders who are here today and gone tomorrow -- and so are not to be believed.


'Craft' Expertise


In traditional cultures, many individuals worked alone as farmers and craftsmen. Historically, education has also been a "craftsman's" trade -- attracting people who enjoy working alone and take great pride in developing a degree of expertise and in perfecting "handcrafted products." For many teachers, their special units or courses -- on Native Americans, Shakespeare, Advanced Placement (AP) biology -- represent expertise they have developed over years and are sources of enormous pride. Teachers' greatest sense of job satisfaction often derives from introducing just a few students to their "craft." Teachers have told me that asking them to give up teaching such units would be like telling them to cut out a part of what makes them unique as human beings. And many perceive the call to create uniform standards as a demand that everyone teach the same thing in the same way. Their sense of craft pride is offended and their identity threatened.


Autonomy and Isolation


Risk aversion and craft pride contribute to educators' reluctance to change, but the factors limiting their capacity to change are their autonomy and isolation. Craftspeople often have a temperamental predisposition for autonomy, but they are not necessarily isolated in the way that many teachers are. Educators are, first, isolated from the fast-changing world of globalization and business innovation. Most do not understand the fundamental changes that have taken place in the world of work -- changes that require that, to be successful, students will have to have very different skills from those needed a quarter century ago. Lacking daily exposure in their own workplace to these fundamental economic changes, most educators do not understand the urgency of many business and political leaders.


Educators -- who spend most of their workday with children -- are also largely isolated from contact with other adults. The "egg crate" organization of work in most schools reinforces autonomy rather than collaboration. With few opportunities to work with other adults during their workday, many educators have not developed the skills of teamwork.

Fifty years ago, the opportunity to work alone for most of the day was considered a plus for many adults in our society. Autonomy equaled independence. Not so today. The problems and challenges in the workplaces of the 21st century are impossible to solve alone. That's one reason why teamwork is now the dominant mode of work nearly everywhere -- except in education. But teachers working alone cannot possibly solve the systemic problem of how to get more students to achieve higher standards. Add to this the tendency of leaders to blame educators for what they describe as the "failure" of American education, and I find that most teachers feel both powerless and victimized in their isolation.


Faced with these serious obstacles to change, some leaders and state legislatures attempt to apply the most primitive "theory" of human motivation to the problem: an appeal to teachers' fear and greed. They try various forms of intimidation and threaten teachers with the takeover of underperforming schools, or they attempt to bribe them with the promise of bonuses for improved test scores. But most teachers are not moved by some combination of threats and bribes to do the difficult things required for school change. They have tenure and so are not easily intimidated, and they are less motivated by the desire for more money than many in other professions.

So if the "carrot and stick" theory of human motivation doesn't work, what does? What motivates teachers? What do leaders need to do to create the will to learn how to improve student achievement?


First, we must acknowledge that most teachers care about students, and they want to make a difference. That's one important reason why many chose the profession initially. Thus the challenge in motivating teachers is to help them understand what today's students need to know and be able to do for work and for effective citizenship and to help them learn better strategies for teaching all students.


'Buy-in' Versus Ownership


Many school leaders say they talk to teachers about how the world is different, and they provide them with workshops on new teaching strategies. But what are the real messages? "Get kids to pass the tests, or we're in trouble . . . and here's a workshop on the new state standards to help you." Not exactly inspirational. Yet leaders expect "buy-in" from teachers for goals and strategies that teachers have never even discussed. Indeed, the biggest problem I hear educational leaders worry about these days is how to get "buy-in."

It's the wrong question and the wrong answer. The question is how to create "ownership," not buy-in. And the answer is that, just as good teachers create classrooms in which students construct new knowledge, leaders must provide learning opportunities that enable teachers to "construct" a new understanding of the world, their students, and their craft -- and so enable them to "own" both the problem and the solution rather than being coerced into "buying" someone else's. With this new understanding, leaders can then work with teachers to design the new school structures and conditions that will allow them to be more successful.


What is needed, in a word, is leadership that creates "constructivist" adult learning -- dialogue and critical inquiry. What I am describing should not be confused with a simple increased emphasis on professional development -- the current fad in schools these days. Leadership for change means creating and sustaining the conditions for continuous adult learning for both teachers and members of the community -- many of whom are as confused and resistant to change as teachers. It means analyzing everything a leader of a school or district does from the point of view of whether or not it is promoting focused, collaborative learning.


In my experience, there are four essential conditions for adult learning in schools and communities -- and therefore for educational change. At the risk of sounding too formulaic, I call this the S-U-R-E approach to the improvement process in schools:

* Shared vision of the goals of learning, good teaching, and assessment;

* Understanding of the urgent need for change;

* Relationships based on mutual respect and trust; and

* Engagement strategies that create commitment rather than mere compliance.


Let me explain what I mean by each element of this framework for adult learning and what leaders must do to develop it. I will begin with understanding the urgent need for change, as I think too many leaders skip over or rush the process of helping teachers and the community really understand the educational "problem." But without a clear understanding of the challenges we face, we have no criteria for determining success or evaluating alternative strategies. Even more significant, popular misconceptions of our educational problem contribute greatly to teachers' sense of victimization and resistance to change and so must be actively countered by leaders. As Einstein said, "The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution."


Understanding the Urgent Need for Change


Why do we need change in schools? When I have asked education leaders -- policy makers, superintendents, principals, and school board members -- this question, I have often been surprised at how thin and inarticulate their responses are. How can teachers be motivated to change if leaders cannot clearly explain why it is important?

The descriptions of the nation's educational problem that are offered by politicians and the media often hinder, rather than help, the change process. "Schools are failing," and the solution is education "reform," everyone tells educators. Teachers hear or read these words nearly every day. But both the diagnosis of the problem and the proposed solution reflect profound distortions of the truth -- and they anger many teachers.


Most educators know that schools are doing an incrementally better job than they were a quarter century ago: more students than ever before are graduating from high school, taking advanced courses, and going on to college. Teachers are generally doing a better job with a student body that is more diverse and less well prepared for school than in the past.


So where's the problem? The problem is that fundamental changes during the last quarter century in the nature of work, in expectations for citizenship, in our understanding of what must be taught and how, and in students' motivations for learning -- taken all together -- have rendered our system of education totally obsolete. I have described the nature of these categories of change in my book How Schools Change: Lessons from Three Communities and in a number of articles. So let me try to summarize succinctly the problem of obsolescence.

Our system of education was designed to serve as a sorting machine. Historically, we sorted out the 20% or so of students who were going on to college and to professional and managerial careers and gave them the skills they needed. The rest of the students received the functional equivalent of an eighth-grade education -- the minimum needed for work and citizenship for most of the 20th century.


Now all students need different and more sophisticated skills, such as the ability to solve problems, work in teams, and learn independently. Those students today who leave high school with a diploma and no skills or plans for further learning are, in effect, being sentenced to a lifetime of subsistence wages and marginal employment. In most districts, at least 50% of the student population is leaving school completely unprepared for either skill-based work or responsible citizenship.

And so the first problem we face is how to educate all -- not just some -- students to higher standards and how to prepare them for continuous learning. We don't know how to do this; we've never done it before. That's why the educational problem is obsolescence, not failure.


This challenge of trying to determine how to educate all students to new high standards is the "rock" that is crushing many educators. But it is only half of the problem. Educators are caught between this rock and the "hard place" of a student population that has changed profoundly in 25 or so years.

The demographic changes -- an increasing percentage of minority students and students for whom English is a second language -- have been extensively covered in the media. But the other changes -- changes in all students' life circumstances and motivations for learning -- represent perhaps the greatest dilemma for many teachers and are much less well understood. The traditional motivations for learning, the "sticks and carrots" teachers have relied on to get generations of students through school -- fear and respect for authority and the belief that sustained hard work equals success and happiness -- don't have much traction for many young people today, regardless of their social class, skin color, or proficiency in English.


Adult authority has much less influence on young people today, for several reasons. First, as a culture, we have grown increasingly skeptical of all forms of authority. Respect for authority is no longer automatic; it must be earned. But far more serious for students is the absence of adults from their lives. Single-parent families, longer work hours, and large, anonymous schools in which very few adults interact with students outside of class all contribute to students' sense of isolation and lack of respect for adult authority. Most young people spend too much time alone and are essentially being reared by their peers. Many feel ignored or neglected and harbor resentment toward adults.


This leaves just the work ethic as the remaining dull tool in too many teachers' small bag of tricks for motivating students. But "downsizing" and our "shopping mall" society have conspired to render this appeal ineffectual for most students as well. They've seen too many people work hard and get laid off, and they've seen too many ads that tell them to have it all, have it now, and get it without effort. Students today have been acculturated to believe that the aim of life is to consume, not to create. Unless there is an immediate payoff, most simply don't see much point in working hard, especially in schools where the tasks are often boring and unrelated to their needs or interests.


Needless to say, mere education "reform" is not going to get teachers out from between the rock and the hard place I have described. The very word is insulting. First, it implies that schools were once "formed" properly -- presumably in the 1950s -- and just need some tinkering to be "reformed." Second, the term has a punitive overtone -- as if the goal of improvement were to send teachers and students to "reform(ed)" schools! But far worse, the term "education reform" trivializes the problem. We don't need to reform our schools; we must "reinvent" the entire system, and that is a very different problem and one that educators cannot solve by themselves.


What are the implications of this analysis for leadership? First, leaders must themselves clearly understand the need for change and then create a framework and forums for discussion. Everyone in the community -- not just the educators -- needs to understand the ways in which our society has changed and the implications for education and for parenting.


Second, leaders must make the problem "blame-free" and the solution a shared responsibility. They must make clear that the serious issues we face in schools are not the fault of teachers. Nor are parents and students to blame. In the Harvard Institute for School Leadership, where I have taught for the past five summers, our credo has become "No shame, no blame, no excuses!"


Finally, leaders need to create time for educators to understand and discuss different kinds of data. Disaggregated student achievement data are obviously a starting point, as are dropout and ninth-grade failure rates, and so on. But these alone don't often persuade educators that there's a serious problem. The numbers are, after all, nothing new.


Teachers can gather and understand qualitative data, as well. They need to hear the voices of employers talking about the skills needed in the workplace today. They need to hear recent graduates talk about how unprepared they were for work and further learning. And they need to hear current students talk about the problem of lack of teacher respect for students and how cold and uncaring most schools seem. Though more time-consuming to collect, such data -- presented through panel discussions, videos of focus groups, and so on -- often create the sense of urgency many teachers need in order to begin to take risks and try new things in their classrooms.


Shared Vision


For many leaders, a shared vision begins and ends with a school or district mission statement pinned to a bulletin board somewhere. These statements have become "de rigueur" in most businesses, so educators feel they must have them, too. However, as a tool in the change process, such statements are virtually useless.

I believe a much more specific kind of vision is required to motivate teachers and to rally the community. First, we need clarity about what are the few most important things students should know and be able to do -- a short list of expectations for all students, which grows out of a new awareness of how the world has changed and of the essential skills needed for work and citizenship today. And then we need a deeper, shared understanding of the good teaching practices that can achieve those goals and of the performance-based assessments that best measure student progress. Developing this more explicit vision of academic goals, teaching methods, and assessments requires a very different kind of process from just putting together another blue-ribbon committee to write a district mission statement.


For the past 15 years, the dominant approach to school improvement has been "add-on." Various state mandates and local school boards keep adding to the list of what teachers are supposed to cover. And they never take anything off the list. This, in my opinion, is the tragic -- perhaps even fatal -- flaw in the standards movement as well.

Such an approach leaves most teachers feeling overwhelmed and creates completely unrealistic community expectations for what is possible. Education leaders must make clear that we can't do it all: we can't have 25 educational priorities -- or even 10 -- and expect success. Leaders can help establish more reasonable expectations by creating community discussions that seek consensus on a small number of key learning priorities.


Such discussions should include the voices of leaders from higher education and business. Too many parents and teachers still believe that higher learning standards must mean covering more material. But many college-level teachers and employers will tell you that the issue is not coverage -- it's competencies. Students can always look up the definition of a part of speech if they have to, but they must know how to write clearly.


College teachers and businesspeople agree that lack of writing skills, not lack of subject content, is the number-one failing of high school graduates.

In many places, leaders must also convince the community to give its permission for educators not to try to teach to all the new state learning standards and tests at once. There are too many, and telling educators that they have to succeed with all of them at once is a guaranteed recipe for failure. The work of Anthony Alvarado, former superintendent of District 2 in New York City, teaches us that raising the levels of literacy is the key to learning for all students. Literacy was his sole focus for seven years in District 2, and success with this effort created the student and teacher skill base needed for subsequent progress in the other subjects.


With a much sharper vision of what is most important for students to learn, educators are in a stronger position to explore "best practices" in teaching. But here again, the task of a leader is not to tell teachers what these are but to create opportunities for educators to discover them for themselves. A short lecture on group work or a motivational speaker proclaiming that all students can learn does not persuade veterans who have spent years honing their craft expertise to try something new.

Effective leaders give teams of experienced teachers -- the building leaders -- time to visit successful schools and to discuss what they've learned with colleagues. Teachers need to see models of much more successful classrooms in order to believe that all students can succeed. Over time and with a well-planned and well-funded program of peer supervision, this general understanding of best practice evolves into a more specific set of skills that the teachers in every building can master and then pass on to others as the new craft expertise.


Relationships Based on Mutual Respect and Trust


Bad relationships are the first problem to tackle, and different kinds of collaborative relationships among adults are the ultimate solution to the dilemma of school reinvention.

The problem of lack of respect in most schools -- especially middle and high schools -- is profound. As I suggested earlier, in countless focus groups I have conducted with high school students all over the country, the number-one criticism of schools is lack of respect. Students feel that many of their teachers do not respect them and often do not even respect one another. Most of our schools for older students are cold bureaucracies, not caring communities.


The importance of respect in the classroom is probably obvious to most educators -- at least in theory. Most students will not work hard for teachers who they feel do not respect them. And they will not try new things or take risks in classrooms where sarcastic comments are tolerated -- or worse, modelled -- by teachers.

Adult learning and dialogue are similarly inhibited by lack of respect. Younger teachers are often cowed into silence by the snide comments of their older peers in faculty meetings and lunchrooms. Just one or two cynical teachers can psychologically dominate an entire building and so cut off all meaningful conversation about school improvement. (One of the challenges for leaders is to distinguish between the skeptics and the cynics.


They may often sound alike but in fact have very different motives. The skeptics are usually experienced and committed educators whose concerns must be understood and addressed, while the cynics are the teachers who have given up and should be removed from the building as quickly as possible!)


A strong educational leader makes clear that the creation of a respectful environment for both students and adults is non-negotiable and is everyone's responsibility. Incivility is not tolerated from anyone. Conducting student focus groups and then holding small-group conversations about behaviors of concern and behaviors to be encouraged -- both adult and student -- is often an important starting point. New peer and school norms, or core values, result from such discussions.


Once a safer, more respectful environment has been established in a school, leaders can create teacher teams, suggest meaningful tasks or topics for them to pursue, and set up regular weekly times for discussions. Just as students learn social skills, or "emotional intelligence," through group work, so too do teachers learn how to work more collaboratively through regular problem-solving discussions in small groups.


Gradually, the sense of isolation and preference for autonomy give way to pride in the accomplishments of a team -- in making more of a difference for students. Over time, teacher groups progress from discussions of curriculum and student work to visiting one another's classes and, finally, to offering critiques of teaching. Creating such a collaborative culture takes years, but ultimately, this kind of peer supervision -- not evaluations by leaders -- is the key to improving instruction and is at the heart of successful school improvement efforts that I have observed.


Leaders help to establish such a culture by modeling respectful behavior, seeking critical feedback on their performance from teachers (mutual evaluations or "360-degree reviews," as they are called in business, should be the norm in every school and district), and providing the resources needed -- time to work together and released time for master teachers to coach colleagues.


Engagement Rooted in Commitment, Not Compliance


Throughout this article, I have tried to suggest what educational leaders must do to overcome the natural reluctance of teachers to try new things. Shared vision, understanding, and respectful relationships are all crucial elements of a culture that fosters adult learning, which, in turn, promotes thoughtful, responsible risk-taking (educational "R&D"), craft expertise focused on real competencies for all students, and collaboration.


But something more is needed to transform our schools -- a different kind of engagement on the part of everyone (students, teachers, parents, and the community) and a new understanding of the leadership qualities that nurture such engagement.

I suggested above that, in my experience, most American public schools are bureaucracies, not communities. And bureaucracies are often managed by leaders who rely on compliance, not commitment. Subservience to authority is valued above all else. Such an atmosphere fosters the mentality among students and teachers alike that one need do only the minimum to get by. When parents are faced with inflexible, bureaucratic schools and compliance-minded managers, they are more likely to take an advocacy or adversarial stance.


By contrast, a shared sense of community nurtures active engagement in learning and collaborative problem-solving. Both students and teachers learn more and do more when they feel a part of something important that is larger than themselves and that they have helped to create. Some of the best independent, magnet, charter, and new small high schools have this characteristic. And they are places in which everyone does much more than the minimum. These schools are also much more effective at involving parents, community members, and business partners in helping out and working with students through mentoring programs and internships. This extended community -- and the closer adult/student relationships it encourages -- is crucial. By themselves, educators cannot possibly solve the problem of motivating all students to want to achieve at high levels.

And so the biggest challenge for educational leaders is to nurture engagement and commitment rooted in community. To create such learning communities requires both new structures and a very different spirit.


Structurally, school units have to be reduced in size. Large schools need to be broken down into much smaller units within the same building -- autonomous schools-within-schools or academies in which a team of adults works with the same students (and their parents) over a longer period of time. These structures enable adults to work much more collaboratively. They also permit teachers to know students well and so better to tailor learning to individual student needs and interests. As Theodore Sizer has often said, "You can't motivate a student you don't know."

The spirit of a good learning community is one of shared responsibility and collaborative inquiry for both adults and students. Everyone's voice is valued. Developing such a culture requires a leader with qualities of heart and mind that are very different from those associated with the traditional role models. To get significantly better schools for all students, good management is not enough, and charisma gets in the way.


Today's successful educational leaders understand that they cannot make change alone or by edict. They motivate groups to learn and to solve problems together by asking tough questions and naming the big problems while refusing to offer easy answers. They are self-aware and reflective, they seek constructive criticism, and they freely admit their mistakes. They are leaders who, above all, model good teaching every single day.

But there are far too few of them. Can more of our educational leaders learn to say, "I don't know"? Can they learn to trust groups to find the best solutions to the pressing challenges of "reinventing education"? Are they willing to take risks themselves and to become learners and collaborators? The future of American public education may well depend on growing numbers of new leaders who answer these questions with a confident "yes!" and who have the courage to act on their convictions.




About the Author:


Tony Wagner is co-director of the recently created Change Leadership Group at the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. He also chairs the Harvard Seminar on Public Engagement and is a consultant to numerous school districts and foundations in the United States and internationally. He is the author of How Schools Change: Lessons from Three Communities (2nd ed., Routledge, 2000) and the forthcoming The New Village School: Winning the Hearts and Minds of Kids and Teachers (Routledge, 2001), from which this article is adapted. He would like to acknowledge the influence on his thinking of the following individuals: Richard Elmore, Ronald Heifitz, Susan Moore Johnson, Kirsten Olson Lanier, Dan Lortie, Michael Maccoby, Deborah Meier, Theodore Sizer, Tom Vander Ark, Daniel Yankelovich, and former colleagues at the Public Agenda Foundation. 



Kappan Professional Journal - URL:

© Copyright 2001 by Tony Wagner








Our dear SHARER Marcela Montilla has sent us this article which we SHARE with all of



The Impact of Content-Based Instruction: Three Studies

by Barbara A. McDonald



The "in content-based instruction can vary widely. One area that has embraced content-based instruction is vocational education. By simultaneously teaching vocational and academic skills, - reading, writing, mathematics, or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) - students can move through a program more quickly than if these skills are taught sequentially, academics first. In addition, since vocational skills are usually taught in a hands-on manner, and are directly linked to gainful employment, the content-based approach should provide motivation: learners learn more, faster.

Empirical research should prove this to be true. The impact of content-based instruction, however, has not been a priority in the field of adult literacy, as Tom Sticht points out in the article that begins on page 6. Studies have been done of discipline-based approaches to learning language in college, and of the Canadian French immersion programs, in which English-speaking students were put directly into public school classes (Wesche, 1993). These show increased learning. Not much is known about students with lower-level basic skills.

Similarly, few empirical studies examine the impact of adult basic education methods. Those that are done are often difficult to interpret for methodological reasons. For example, many studies use an "after the fact" methodology, surveying individuals who have been in a program about how they liked it. Usually the only people who answer such a survey are those who liked it. The result is findings that are biased towards the favorable. And this tells us nothing about the gains students have made. Sometimes a post-test is given, with no pre-test available for comparison. In that case, we don't know whether or not people entered the program with the prerequisite knowledge or if the program can take credit for the change in scores.

A Better Methodology

A study that used both a pre-test and a post-test would be better. We would know how much knowledge and skills people bring to class and how much they gained from the instruction. Of course, we still have potential sources of error. For example, we do not know exactly what happened to the learners from the start of the study to the end. We would be able to say that people learned in our program, but not that they learned more than they would have in some other program.

We have done research using a methodology that tries to address these issues. We used a comparison group: one group received the treatment - content- instruction - and was compared to a group which did not. Otherwise, the groups were treated in the same ways. Both received a pre- and a post-. Both groups, or classrooms, were already running, which allowed us to study naturally-occurring variation.

Three Questions

The three studies in this article used the comparison group methodology. We asked several questions about content-based instruction and used different pre- groups to answer them. All the classes we studied were participating in a larger project and were answering the same surveys and taking the same tests. Each class differed in either content or process of instruction. Our first question was whether the content the student wanted to learn was related to the course in which the student enrolled. The second question was whether opportunity to immediately use the information had an effect on retention in the course. And finally, we wanted to know how much """ and how much " knowledge" is learned in content- instruction.

Why Attend?

To gain insight into why adults want to go to school, we conducted a survey of adult students in three different types of ESOL programs. The first type was Vocational English as a Second Language (VESL), in which the teaching of English was accomplished using job- terminology and tasks. Students in this class were Latino, Chinese, Russian, Vietnamese, and African, and were at the low-intermediate to low-advanced levels of ESOL. The second program type was Communicative English as a Second Language (CESL), in which general conversational and school- English was emphasized. These students were also ethnically diverse, with ESOL levels ranging from low intermediate to low advanced. The third was Family English as a Second Language (FESL), a special program that emphasized how parents could help with their children's learning and schooling. These students were primarily Latina and at low-beginning to low-intermediate ESOL levels.

Figure One shows that, in general, adults' stated reasons for wanting to attend ESOL paralleled the type of ESOL program in which they were enrolled. The participants could choose from seven choices. The respondents could check as many of the seven reasons as they wanted. The analyses of the data provided a glimpse into the reasons adults attended school, and also the degree of focus the learners had in choosing their courses. For example, 58% of the 121 enrolled in VESL were there to get a job. They marked an average of 1.85 choices out of seven. This rate (1.85) was computed by dividing the number of responses given by the number of respondents. A rate of 1.85 shows a high degree of focus; if the respondents thought all reasons for attending were equally important the rate of response would be seven.


Figure 1: Reasons Students in Three Classes Gave for Enrolling in an ESOL Program.




The VESL students were less interested in ESOL for college or self- purposes, while these were the most important reasons for those taking CESL, where the average rate was 2.45 choices marked out of seven. Those enrolled in the FESL class were primarily interested in taking ESOL to help their children. Their average rate was 2.24 choices out of seven, which is less focused than those taking VESL.

Focus and Completion

We next investigated whether the learners' purposes for taking an ESOL course and the closeness of it of the course to these purposes was related to whether students completed the course. To do so, we examined three different VESL classes. One class was in electronics assembly, was very strong in placing people in jobs, and lasted only ten weeks. Students in this class were Vietnamese, Laotian, Chinese, and Latino, and were at the high- to low- ESOL levels. This class was considered the most "" focused. The second class was in office technology, and lasted 18 weeks. Students were Latino, Somalian, Vietnamese, and Laotian, and ranged from low-intermediate to low-advanced ESOL levels. It was less strongly focused than the Electronics Assembly class. The third class was a general pre-vocational introduction to different fields such as office technology, automotive trades, and electronics assembly, and lasted 18 weeks. These students were all Latino, with ESOL levels ranging from low intermediate to low advanced. This class was considered the most general.

Figure Two reveals that, in general, the closer the fit between the learners' reasons for taking the ESOL course, in this case, to get a job, the more likely the learners are to complete a greater percentage of the course. This is clearest for the electronics assembly program. Almost 60% of the students who enrolled in week one of the ten-week course completed all ten weeks, and more than 80% completed nine weeks, by which time, many already had jobs in electronics assembly. For the other two courses, both of which were 18 weeks long, the course with the closer link to a particular job field, office technology, had greater persistence rates.


Figure 2: The Percentage of Week One Enrollees in the Course as a Factor of Intensity of Focus in VESL Class.



The foregoing data on the closeness of fit between adult learners' reasons for taking an ESOL course and their persistence and completion rates are based on a very small sample, 37, 42, and 47, for the high, medium, and low groups, respectively. Another limitation of the study is the difference in the length and hour requirements of the courses. It may well be that course length has an effect on persistence. However, the medium and low focus VESL classes, which show quite a difference in attendance rates, both last 18 weeks. So, in this case, the different levels of attendance is not explained by course length. This study suggests that closeness of between learners' reasons for enrolling and course content and duration of course may both lead to higher persistence on the part of the student. Both possibilities merit more research.

Learning Gains

The third study we conducted investigated learning gains in the content area as well as those in general reading. This study compared the ten- electronics assembly VESL class with a vocational class in electronics assembly that had no ESOL instruction, and a conventional ESOL class. As Figure Three indicates, the ten- instructional program produced more gain in vocational vocabulary and general reading than did a conventional electronics vocational program or a conventional ESOL program. Vocational vocabulary was measured by a test developed by three electronics technology teachers; general reading was measured by the Adult Basic Learning Exam (ABLE).


Figure 3 Gains in Vocational and General Reading in Three Classes.




In this study, students in the six-hour-a-day, ten-week Electronics Assembly VESL program completed more hours of instruction between pre- and post-tests than did the three---, 18- electronics class with no ESOL, or the three---, 18- ESOL class. To standardize the number of hours between the three classes, the programs were compared in terms of rate of gain per 100 hours of instruction. Following this procedure, the vocational vocabulary gain for the VESL program was 13.45, for the conventional vocational course was 10.22, and for conventional ESOL, 10.8. This indicates that the rate of improvement in vocational vocabulary was greater than that in either of the other two programs.

Following similar procedures for the general reading gains gives a rate of 5.32 months per 100 hours of instruction for the integrated VESL program, 1.24 months for the electronics program, and 3.21 months for the ESOL program. Thus the content- VESL program had a gain rate per 100 hours of instruction some 65% higher for general reading than the general ESOL program, and more than 300% greater than the vocational program.


These data lend support to the theory that content-based instruction can lead to equally high gain in general literacy skills as well as job related skills. If one's goal is job training, by combining general basic skills classes with specific content, the amount of instructional time can be reduced. Rather than first raising students' basic skills to some pre- level and then enrolling them in vocational skills classes, learners can improve their academic skills while learning a vocation.

These findings need to be replicated with larger samples. In addition, it would be useful to replicate the findings with classes that are of the same duration. While we have some confidence in the findings because they replicate early work, more research is needed.


Wesche, M.B. (1993). "- Approaches to Language Study: Research Issues and Outcomes." In Krueger, M. & Ryan, F. (eds.), Language and Content: Discipline- Content- Approaches to Language Study. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company.



About the Author

Barbara McDonald is an experimental psychologist and the director of the CWELL Action Research Center. She is also a lecturer in the Department of Psychology at San Diego State University. For the past 25 years, she has conducted applied research in the areas of adult learning, literacy, and motivation.


© 2005 by NC SALL – National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy.







Our dear SHARER Gerardo Santomauro wants to SHARE this article with all of us:


New words in English

By Paul Kaye, British Council, Syria


New words enter the English language all the time - the exact number is uncertain but there are thousands appearing every year. The focus of this article and the accompanying lesson plan will be on how we make new words. If we know this, then we can find ways of giving our learners strategies to help them cope with language that is new to them.


The ability to grow

There are various factors behind the ability of English to grow at such a significant rate:


Words, however they are created, can become part of the language very easily. They only need to be used by enough speakers. This may be an unfamiliar concept for some learners, as other languages have systems which are more controlled.

Native speakers enjoy playing with the language and actively invent new vocabulary.

English is a common language in many specialised areas such as science, technology and the Internet, and as these areas grow so does the vocabulary needed to express new ideas and objects.

English has many points of contact with other languages. Here words can cross over.

There are many ways in which new words come into existence.

Below are some of the ways in which new words come into being.




Many words in English seem to have a Latin quality to them - this is because some of them have developed from French vocabulary learnt during the Norman occupancy many years ago. However, words have been borrowed from many languages, not just French - some of them are now extinct or almost never used. Learners can be asked to match words that are familiar to them with languages - and suggest what their origins might be.


Examples (from unusual languages):

capsize (Catalan)

apartheid (Afrikaans)

billiards (Breton)

saga (Icelandic)

funky (Congo)

panda (Nepali)



The use of prefixes and suffixes is one of the most common ways in which new words are created, so common in fact that a speaker will be unsure if a word exists or they have just created it. A key skill for learners developing their vocabulary is knowing how prefixes and suffixes change meaning and form.


Example (with the root use):







abuse etc.



This is the creation of entirely new words - quite unusual given the competition from all the other, perhaps easier ways of creating words. These can be based on similar sounding words - 'Hobbit' was based on rabbit - or change from a brand or product to common usage - Kleenex and Hoover. They can also of course have no roots in anything, such as the scientific terms 'googol' and 'quark', or slang terms such as to 'chug' a drink.


Onomatopoeia and reduplicatives

Words can be invented to describe sounds and the things that make sounds, such as 'cuckoo', 'splash', 'plop' and 'whoop'. They can also be invented by duplicating a sound, e.g. 'honky-tonk', 'wishy-washy', 'mish-mash' and 'ping-pong'. More recent new words of this kind include 'analysisparalysis' and 'chick-flick'.

These words can be fun to learn and motivating, as sound often guides learners to meaning.



Phrases that are reduced to acronyms often enough become words in their own right and the original phrase is often forgotten. Some are still written as acronyms such as AIDS and VDU, but others are not, radar, yuppy and scuba, for example. Some acronyms become familiar very quickly, such as SARS and WMDs.




This is the shortening of a longer word, often reducing it to one syllable. Examination becomes exam, laboratory lab. Many examples are very informal or slang, like 'bro' from brother, 'dis' from disrespect and 'maxing' , from maximising.




This is another interesting area to explore with learners. Blends are words created by combining elements from two words - normally beginning and end - and so combining their meaning to create a new one.



electrocute (electrify and execute)

smog (smoke and fog)

transistor (transfer and resistor)

brunch (breakfast and lunch)

There are also newer words such as 'televangelist', 'rockumentary' and 'dancercise' which are more or less clear from the structure. Others are not so clear, for example 'Cubonics' (the combining of Cuban Spanish and English) and 'acrobranching' (a new sport involving acrobatics in trees).



Exploring this area of new words can be a useful way of equipping our students to deal, not only with the way English evolves and the new words they are likely to encounter but can also help them to understand the way the words they already know have evolved and developed. An understanding of this area can be a key skill in helping them to become more independent in their language learning and develop a greater enjoyment and engagement with the language.


© BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK  © British Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK







*Docentes no tendrán "responsabilidad legal" por las excursiones escolares*

Lo establece una resolución de la dirección de Educación. Se busca
librar a los docentes de la "responsabilidad civil" y fomentar las
lecciones fuera del espacio escolar. El Estado y las empresas que
administran colegios privados serán responsables por eventuales accidentes.

Una resolución de la *Dirección General de Cultura y Educación*
bonaerense busca generar confianza en los docentes para reinstalar las
lecciones paseo. Por ese motivo, la cartera educativa dispuso que serán
el Estado (en el caso de las escuelas de gestión estatal) y las empresas
(en los colegios privados) los responsables civiles por cualquier hecho
que pudiera afectar a los alumnos durante una salida de estudio.

El Código Civil establece en el artículo 1.117 que "los propietarios de
establecimientos educativos privados o estatales serán responsables por
los daños causados o sufridos por sus alumnos menores cuando se hallen
bajo el control de la autoridad educativa, salvo que probaren el caso
fortuito". La dispersión de la reglamentación a nivel administrativo
hacía que, ante un hecho de esas características, en algunos casos el
responsable fuera el docente. Además, el Código Civil determina (art.
114) que la responsabilidad de los padres sobre sus hijos "rige respecto
de los tutores y curadores, por los hechos de las personas que están a
su cargo".

Ante esta situación, muchos maestros optaron por dejar de lado las
lecciones paseo para evitar procesos judiciales que podían terminar con
fuertes sanciones económicas.

*Más autonomía*

Para los responsables del área, "las experiencias directas, lecciones
paseo o salidas organizadas bajo el control de la autoridad educativa,
constituyen un marco propicio para el desarrollo de la autonomía,
creatividad y sentido crítico del educando". De esta forma, el Consejo
General de Educación bonaerense unificó la reglamentación vigente en la
resolución 426/06 y estableció los requisitos a tener en cuenta para una
"salida" programada.

Si en una lección paseo se produjera un accidente o algún alumno
sufriera algún tipo de daño, "se hace cargo la Dirección de Cultura y
Educación, en el caso de las escuelas de gestión estatal, o el dueño del
colegio en la gestión privada", explicó a Hoy el vicepresidente primero
del Consejo General de Educación, Jorge Ameal.

"Esta resolución protege a los docentes, porque se había instalado mucho
temor. Primero se hace cargo la Dirección de Educación, luego se
investigará si se cumplió con toda la reglamentación", agregó.

La resolución 426/06 establece que las salidas que se realicen en el
marco del programa educativo de cada escuela "implican que los menores
de edad se encuentran bajo control de autoridad educativa". Por eso la
de Educación tiene "obligaciones específicas de deber, de

cuidado y vigilancia activa del menor". La norma agrega que esa
situación "implica que las mismas son organizadas, promovidas y
vigiladas por la Dirección General de Cultura y Educación y ejecutadas
por parte del personal educativo".

De esa forma, las autoridades de la cartera intentan poner a resguardo a
los docentes de eventuales acciones legales posteriores en su contra.
Sin embargo, maestros y autoridades de cada escuela deberán cumplir con
una serie de requisitos Por ejemplo, la norma establece que para cada paseo de

Nivel Inicial deberá estar presente un docente por cada 6 alumnos (entre 5

como mínimo y 7 como máximo). Para primaria y secundaria, deberá garantizarse

la presencia de un educador por cada 11 alumnos (entre 10 y 12); y en Polimodal

(en todas las orientaciones y modalidades), un docente entre 12 y 15 alumnos.

Para la Educación Especial, la relación variará según la modalidad.

La resolución diferencia tres tipos de salidas: "experiencia directa"
(durante el horario de clase dentro del radio de la escuela); "lecciones
paseos" (por la distancia a recorrer, obliga a la contratación de
transporte público de pasajeros); y los "campamentos".

Fuente: *Diario Hoy* - 4/6/2006






A practical slant on the subject of Collocations:

Firstly, collocations are words that typically hang together.


Lexical Collocations: Words such as clinical symptoms in the sentence: "The

patient showed clinical symptoms of jaundice."


Grammatical Colligations (words that co-occur in grammatical environments):

Words such as ARE and STILL in sentences such as: "There are still problems

associated with the analysis of situation."


Grammatical colligations relate words that hang together due to grammatical

requirements, semantic requirements and / or pragmatic requirements (E.g., an

interlocutor replying to someone by being polite and appropriate: "NOT THAT I

can think of any particular thing at the moment. However...").


Mr Ilangovan (Mr),
Freelance ELT Teacher Trainer, India.







In the next few weeks Omar will be giving four presentations in different parts of the country. All these presentations by Omar Villarreal are ad-honorem and form part of the Programa de Apoyo de SHARE al Desarrollo de los Recursos Humanos en la  Escuela Pública.


Tuesday 26th September – 18:00 hours  


Creativity: Painting with all the colours of the wind


Venue: Instituto Superior de Formación Docente Nº 16 de Saladillo

Avenida Rivadavia y Juan B. Justo


Free of Charge

Registration: Maria Rosa Salinardi


Wednesday 27th September -


Grammar Pilates or How to teach Grammar with a twist


Venue: Instituto Superior de Formación Docente Nº 49 de Brandsen
Paso 120 – Bradsen


Free of Charge

Registration: Patricia Copello


Thursday 28th September


Encuentro de Consulta sobre el Nuevo Diseño Curricular de Inglés para la Provincia de San Luis.

Consultant -

Morning - Universidad Católica de Cuyo.

Consult: Prof. Liliana Macello at



Grammar Pilates or How to teach Grammar with a twist


Time and Venue: Evening - Instituto de Formación Docente Contínua de San Luis

Free of Charge

Registration: IFDC-SL



Friday 29th September


Closing Plenary: Creativity: Painting with all the colours of the wind


II Jornada Provincial de Actualizacion para  Docentes de Ingles.


Workshop leaders:

Mag. Silvia Gioia (UNSL) Teaching ESP

Ardriana Mallo M.A.(UNSL)

Graciela Bertazzi M.A.(UNSL)

Helping Students Develop Reading Comprehension Skills in EFL

Prof. Renata Cardinale (UNRC) 

Mag. Mabel Cieri (UNRC)


Venue: Instituto de Formación Docente Contínua de San Luis

Lafinur 997    San Luis- Ciudad

Fee: Teachers: $15  - students $8


Lic. Omar Villarreal

Profesor de Inglés e Inglés Técnico from Instituto Nacional Superior del Profesorado Técnico. INSPT. Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educación con especialización en educación formal (summa cum laude) from Universidad Católica de La Plata and  Licenciado en Tecnología Educativa (summa cum laude) from Universidad Tecnológica Nacional.

He is a candidate to the Doctorate in Modern Languages at Universidad del Salvador  and is  currently working towards his Maestría en Gestión del Conocimiento from

Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.

University Chair in the Area of Applied Linguistics at Universidad Tecnológica Nacional and Lecturer in Language I and IV and Head of Department at ISFD Nro 41. 
Lecturer in Didactics of  ESP at Licenciatura en Inglés Universidad Católica de La Plata. Former Lecturer in Cultural Studies at Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa -Facultad Regional Villa María, Córdoba.
Teacher–trainer for Red Federal de Formación Docente Continua, Centro de Pedagogías de Anticipación del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires and the Ministry of Education of Provincia de Buenos Aires.
Former Head of the School of English of Universidad Austral and Principal of Instituto Superior del Profesorado Modelo de Banfield
Principal of Licenciatura en Lengua Inglesa INSPT-UTN.

Teacher Trainer for Red Federal de Formación Docente Continua, Centro de Pedagogías de Anticipación del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires and the Ministry of Education of Provincia de Buenos Aires.
He is a member of the Editorial Board of Editorial Universitaria de la UTN and has served as Consejero Titular Docente at INSPT-UTN.

He has lectured extensively in all Argentinian provinces as well as in Chile, Perú, Uruguay and Paraguay. He is the author and co-author of more than 20 textbooks for TEFL.

He is the editor of SHARE, an e-magazine, with over 11,000 subscribers.





Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires - Ministerio De Educación

Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas “Juan Ramón Fernández”


Primer Congreso Internacional “Formación e investigación en lenguas extranjeras y traducción” -  Mayo 2007


Primera Circular


El Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas Juan Ramón Fernández tiene el placer de anunciar la organización del primer congreso internacional sobre Formación e investigación en lenguas extranjeras y traducción, a realizarse en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, los días jueves 24, viernes 25 y sábado 26 de mayo de 2007. 


Conferencia de apertura: miércoles 23 de mayo de 2007, 19 hs.



Regente del Nivel Superior: Patricia H. Franzoni


Comisión organizadora

María Gabriela Gutiérrez

Estela Klett

Susana Lezcano

Nélida Sosa

Astrid Wenzel




Generar un ámbito que permita la divulgación y el intercambio de las diferentes prácticas y culturas de formación de profesionales en lenguas extranjeras.


Contribuir a elaborar el estado de la cuestión acerca de políticas, enfoques, metodologías y resultados de investigación en el campo de la didáctica de lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de la traducción.


Consolidar y enriquecer diferentes proyectos de formación e investigación a través de la discusión y el intercambio.


Promover la aproximación de los estudiantes de profesorado en lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de traductorado a prácticas de iniciación científica.




Docentes, traductores, investigadores y alumnos del campo de la didáctica de lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de la traducción.


Ejes temáticos


La construcción del lugar social de los profesores en lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de los traductores en las carreras de formación.


El vínculo teoría-práctica en las carreras de profesorado en lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de traductorado.


La investigación en el campo de la didáctica de lenguas extranjeras y segundas y de la traducción.


La enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras y segundas en contextos formales (niveles primario y medio) y no formales (extensión).


El traductor y su práctica profesional.




Conferencias plenarias y cursos a cargo de especialistas argentinos y extranjeros.



Estarán conformados por ponencias agrupadas de acuerdo con cada uno de los ejes temáticos.


Las ponencias serán presentadas en español, exclusivamente por su(s) autor(es) y, en la medida de lo posible, se evitará su lectura. El tiempo de exposición será de 15 (quince) minutos por ponencia, con el fin de poder contar con un espacio de 30 (treinta) minutos de debate para el panel en su totalidad. Cada participante podrá presentar un máximo de 2 (dos) ponencias.




Destinados a la presentación de propuestas didácticas y experiencias áulicas.


Foro de alumnos

Este espacio se propone contribuir a la divulgación de los diferentes tipos de trabajos que los alumnos realizan durante su carrera. Sabemos de la alta calidad de numerosos trabajos cuyo conocimiento queda frecuentemente reducido al autor y al docente a cargo de su corrección. Por ello convocamos a los alumnos de profesorado y traductorado a decidir cuál de sus trabajos ya terminados o en vías de realización se adecua a uno de los ejes temáticos del congreso para luego ajustarlo a las normas que pautan la presentación de las ponencias.


El tiempo de exposición será de 15 (quince) minutos por trabajo y, al igual que en los paneles, cada grupo tendrá su espacio de debate.



Normas para la presentación de trabajos


Los trabajos deberán ser inéditos y no haber sido expuestos en otros encuentros científicos.

Cada trabajo podrá tener un máximo de 3 (tres) autores.




Se presentarán en español y tendrán una extensión de 1500 palabras incluidos notas y gráficos, sin considerar la bibliografía. Los trabajos de investigación deberán consignar objetivos, metodología, corpus y conclusiones.


Papel tamaño A4, con letra Times New Roman, cuerpo 12, interlineado 1,5.

Título centrado, en letra mayúscula.

Debajo del título, encolumnado sobre el margen derecho y en minúscula, nombre del/los autor/es, institución de pertenencia y dirección electrónica.

Notas numeradas correlativamente a pie de página.

Indicación del nombre de los autores citados en el texto, año de publicación e indicación de página, entre paréntesis.


Ejemplo: (VENUTI, 2004), (VENUTI, 2004:17)


Bibliografía en orden alfabético, de acuerdo con las siguientes pautas:





CORRÊA, M. L. G. & F. BOCH (orgs.), 2006, Ensino de Língua: representação e letramento, São Paulo, Mercado de Letras.




REVUZ, C., 1991, “La langue étrangère entre le désir d’un ailleurs et le risque de l’exil”, Éducation Permanente, 107, pp. 23-35.



Una copia impresa de la ponencia, acompañada del disquette rotulado con el nombre del/los autor/es y el título de la misma, podrá entregarse personalmente o enviarse por correo postal a la siguiente dirección:


Congreso LENGUAS VIVAS 2007

I.E.S. en Lenguas Vivas Juan Ramón Fernández

Carlos Pellegrini 1515

C1011AAE Buenos Aires


Se solicita, asimismo, el envío del trabajo por correo electrónico, en formato RTF. El documento adjunto deberá identificarse solamente con el apellido del/los autor/es. La dirección electrónica se confirmará en la próxima circular.





Para la participación en la sesión de posters, se presentará una síntesis que será evaluada por la comisión de lectura. Como en el caso de las ponencias, las síntesis de posters podrán ser entregadas personalmente o enviadas por correo postal y por correo electrónico, de acuerdo con las indicaciones del apartado anterior.


La sesión de posters será de 2 horas (dos horas) de duración en los días y horarios que se fijarán oportunamente. La presencia del/los autor/es para responder preguntas, ofrecer explicaciones acerca del contenido e intercambiar con los asistentes es condición sine qua non para su exhibición.


El poster se presentará en un panel de 1.00 x 0.70 metros. El texto será breve y podrá acompañarse de soporte visual (gráficos, fotos, dibujos, etc.). Incluirá título del trabajo, nombre completo e institución de pertenencia del/los autor/es.


Pra facilitar la confección del poster se presentan las siguientes sugerencias:


a)       Título del trabajo (Arial negrita, 72)

b)       Nombre y apellido del/los autores (Arial 48)

c)       Institución de pertenencia

Para el resto del trabajo se recomienda utilizar cualquier tipo de letra legible a un metro de distancia e incluir: (i) contextualización del trabajo; (ii) objetivos; (iii) metodología; (iv) materiales; (v) resultados; (vi) observaciones; (vi) bibliografía sugerida.



                                           Trabajos de alumnos


Como las ponencias, tendrán una extensión de 1500 palabras y se presentarán en español.


Papel tamaño A4, con letra Times New Roman, cuerpo 12, interlineado sencillo.

Título centrado, en letra mayúscula.

Debajo del título, encolumnado sobre el margen derecho y en minúscula, nombre del/los autor/es, dirección electrónica, materia, carrera, docente a cargo de la cátedra, institución de pertenencia.


Los alumnos tendrán la opción de presentar:


a) la versión definitiva del trabajo hasta el 15 de diciembre de 2006, o

b) una versión preliminar hasta esa fecha y la definitiva al 30 de marzo de 2007.



Las ponencias completas, las síntesis de posters y las versiones preliminares de trabajos de alumnos se recibirán hasta el 15 de diciembre de 2006. Durante diciembre y febrero la comisión de lectura evaluará los trabajos y en marzo se enviará información acerca de la aceptación de las propuestas. Los alumnos podrán enviar las versiones definitivas de sus trabajos hasta el 30 de marzo de 2007.


Con el fin de poder entregar las ACTAS al inicio del congreso, se solicita respetar los plazos anunciados.






Maestría en Inglés


Seminario de Posgrado (en Inglés): "Sociolingüística"

Dra. Isolda E. Carranza

(Cupos Limitados)


Fechas: 29, 30 de septiembre; 13 y 14 de octubre de 2006

Horario: 9 a 19 hs - Duración: 40 horas reloj –

Créditos: Dos (2) - Modalidad: Presencial (80 % de asistencia)


Destinatarios: Profesores, traductores y licenciados en inglés o con título equivalente.

Material de lectura previa

Costo: $220*


* Consultar descuentos en la página web de la Facultad de Lenguas.


Requisitos para la inscripción:


Fotocopia de la 1ª y 2ª página del DNI y Fotocopia legalizada del título.

Completar el formulario que se encuentra disponible en la página web de la Facultad: y enviarlo adjunto a

o presentarlo en la Secretaría de la Maestría en Inglés, Facultad de Lenguas, UNC.


Informes e inscripción: Secretaría de Posgrado - Av. Vélez Sársfield 187 – Terraza, 1º piso - Secretaría de la Maestría en Inglés:



Curso de Posgrado (en Inglés); "Teoría Literaria"

Mgtr. María Elena Aguirre

Colaboradora: Mgtr. Mirian Carballo


Fechas: 29, 30 de septiembre; 13, 14 de octubre; 3 y 4 de noviembre de 2006

Horario: 9 a 19 hs - Duración: 60 horas reloj

Créditos: Tres (3) - Modalidad: Presencial (80 % de asistencia)


Destinatarios: Profesores, traductores y licenciados en inglés o con título equivalente.


Material de lectura previa.

Costo: $330*

* Consultar descuentos en la página web de la Facultad de Lenguas.


Requisitos para la inscripción:

Fotocopia de la 1ª y 2ª página del DNI y Fotocopia legalizada del título.

Completar el formulario que se encuentra disponible en la página web de la Facultad: y enviarlo adjunto a

o presentarlo en la Secretaría de la Maestría en Inglés, Facultad de Lenguas, UNC.


Informes e inscripción: Secretaría de Posgrado - Av. Vélez Sársfield 187 – Terraza, 1º piso

Secretaría de la Maestría en Inglés:






Our dear SHARERS from AIELE – Asociación Internacional de Estudios - have sent us all this invitation:



Legal English Courses




- Contracts Case Law -

* This course introduces you to the language issues and practical legal method matters through cases, which are so important in a subject like contracts.

Duration: 4 months (16 classes)

Timetable: Monday – 19 p.m to 21 p.m

Requirement: English – Intermediate/advanced.

Fee: $ 1200. or 3 payments $ 370.

Lecturer: Dra. Silvia Garea


- International Business & The Law -

This is a four-month, post-graduate level seminar combining material from the University of London's LLM in such a way as to provide a broad scope of study. It is particularly suited for lawyers who wish to further their studies in their own field applied to international business pursuits.


Silvia A. Garea

President of Asociación Internacional de Estudios – Lawyer, Mediator,  Diploma in Law.

Nicolás Eliaschev

Lawyer, MSc in Public Policy,  University of London, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).

Dr. Alejo Monner Sans

Lawyer, specialisation in Public International Law (UBA), LLM (Master in Law), University of London, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).

Maria Soledad Casals

Lawyer, PHd in Legal Sciences (University of Buenos Aires),

Master in Environmental Law (University of Andalucia, Huelva , Spain). Postgraduate Studies in Research Methodology (Columbia University), New York, USA.

Georgina Schemberg

BSc in Economics. MSc in Environmental Protection, University of London, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, (LSE).

Daniel Nieto

BSc Economics (University of Buenos Aires)

Master in Economics, specialisation in Political Sciences, University of London, London School of Economics and Political Sciences, (LSE). Experienced in teaching at the Unversity of Buenos Aires.

César Fernandez

BSc in  Economics. Experience in teaching: specialisation in Australia and Asia Pacific. President of the Australian Chamber of Commerce

Dra. Silvia Parise

Lawyer, Professor of English Language. Professor of International Trade Law.



Duration: 4 months (16 classes)

Timetable: Thursday – 19 p.m to 21 p.m

Requirement: English – Intermediate/advanced.

Fee: $ 1600. People enrolling before 16 th. August 1 payment of $ 1400. or 3 payments $ 500.

Coffee Break, Study Material and Certificate of Attendance Included

Montevideo 681 Piso 1er “A” - TE: 4371-9671






Our dear SHARER Mady Casco has got an invitation to make:


Workshop: Adults as Learners of a Foreign Language

12-hour workshop ( 3 sessions)

When? September 23 rd, September 30 & October 7th

Where? At Home-Buenos Aires - Av Sta. Fe 3946 – Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

Registration: - (011) 4833-2965/2645 -  or 



“At Home” was created and is directed by Mady Casco who has a BA in Education (Universidad Nacional de Quilmes) and is a qualified teacher of English as a Foreign Language (Instituto Superior del Profesorado “J.V. González”).

She has taught at different levels and institutions such as ISP “J.V. González”, Universidad de Belgrano, Escuela Normal en Lenguas Vivas “J.F. Kennedy” and Grupo Medanito.

She has lectured widely on “Whole Language” and “Andragogy” and has developed her own teaching system. She designs her own teaching material applying constructivist principles.

Mady is also the head of the English Training Department of Medanito S.A, an oil and gas company with its headquarters in Buenos Aires.







I CLAFPL I Latin-American Congress on Language Teacher Education


The Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina and the

Special Interest Group on Teacher Education of the

National Association of Post-graduation and Research

in Letters and Linguistics (ANPOLL) have the pleasure

to announce the I CLAFPL I Latin-American Congress
On Language Teacher Education to be held at Praiatur

Hotel, Praia dos Ingleses, Florianopolis, Santa

Catarina, Brasil, November 9-11, 2006, whose theme is:

‘Challenges for the teacher educator’


The event comprises conferences, round tables,

symposia, individual and coordinated paper sessions

given by well-known researchers in the field of

teacher education in Brazil and abroad (to be

announced later).




- Before or by September 31, 2006 R$ 110,00


R$ 80,00 (students with Student ID)

- From October 1st, 2006 R$ 140,00


R$ 110,00 (students with Student ID)


Information on Proposals submission, place,

accommodation, transportation and congress program

will be available at 


More information:

- (Local Committee)

- (National Committee)


National Organizing Committee

Deise Prina Dutra (UFMG -ccordinator SubGT)

Solange T. Ricardo de Castro (UNITAU- vice-coordinator


Maria Helena Vieira Abrahao (UNESP-president National


Telma Nunes Gimenez (UEL)

Ines K. de Miller (PUC-Rio)

Ana Maria Ferreira Barcelos (UFV)

Heliana Mello (UFMG)


Local Organizing Committee:

Gloria Gil (UFSC-President Local Committee)

Viviane M. Heberle (UFSC)

Rosana D. Koerich (UFSC)

Adriana K. Dellagnello (UFSC)

Leda Tomitch (UFSC)

Susana M. Fontes (UFSC)









Hacia un Encuentro de Lenguas y Culturas


21, 22 y 23 de Septiembre de 2006

Facultad de Lenguas, UNC, Córdoba, Argentina


El Centro de Investigación en Traducción de la Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba convoca a las Primeras Jornadas Internacionales de Traductología que se realizarán los días 21-22-23 de septiembre de 2006 en la Facultad de Lenguas.

 Estas Jornadas constituirán una manera de crear un espacio de discusión, reflexión e intercambio de experiencias y enfoques sobre las disciplinas involucradas en el ámbito de la Traducción, promoverán la investigación y contribuirán a implementar acciones conducentes a mejorar la producción y difusión del conocimiento en el área  objeto del encuentro.



Docentes, investigadores y alumnos de grado y postgrado y de nivel terciario cuya área de interés o especialización sea la Traductología y demás disciplinas que interactúan con ella.



Esp. Ana María Granero de Goenaga

Prof. Marta Arróniz

Prof. Ángela Brígido

Lic. Marta Celi

Lic. Emma Lupotti

Lic. Ana María Maccioni

Prof. María Teresa Toniolo


Informes: Centro de Investigación en Traducción (CIT)

Av. Vélez Sársfield 187, Tel: 4331073/75 int. 19







Presentation of GLOBAL ISSUES, the Resource Book for Teachers - Oxford University Press.


This presentation examines the concept of the Knowledge Society and questions the relevance and validity of the content base of EFL teaching. It suggests that the dichotomy of life faced today between the two poles of Net and Self can be bridged through teaching Global Issues in the global language. In addition it stresses teaching thinking skills, particularly critical, comparative and creative thinking which are all necessary to move adolescent learners into finding a place of their own in the Knowledge Society.

The theory and the activities will be selected from the Book “Global Issues” written by Ricardo Sampedro and Susan Hillyard, published by Oxford University Press 2004.


Lecturer: Susan Hillyard.

She was awarded a B.Ed. from Warwick University (U.K.) in 1972 in Dramatic Arts and Sociology and has lived and worked, since then, as a classroom teacher, a coordinator, a Head of Sector or a teacher trainer in five different countries. She taught Language IV at I.S.P. en Lenguas Vivas and at U.T.N., teacher training colleges in Buenos Aires. She is Educational Advisor for The Performers and an Educational Consultant. She has co-authored a Resource Book for Teachers “Global Issues” for OUP, and teaches a course on Creativity on-line for Net-Learning


Date: September 19th - Timetable: 5.30 pm. to 7 pm.
Venue: Conde 1990, Belgrano R.

Fee: FREE of charge - Confirm your attendance: 4302-8000






Our dear SHARER Ana Villar from Perú has sent us this announcement:

The `Critical Literacy and ELT´ event is organised by English Language Teaching Professionals from Brazil and Peru in partnership with the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice of the University of Nottingham and the British Council Brazil.

`Critical literacy´ (CL) is an innovative way to approach global issues in the ELT curriculum. It is also a term that is associated with approaches to intercultural and global citizenship education internationally.


In ELT it prompts questions about our identities as ELT professionals, about the role of culture in the classroom, about globalisation and the role of ELT in the broader educational agenda. This seminar will give participants the opportunity to examine CL in depth, to review the implications of CL for ELT (especially in relation to material development) and to engage in projects related to this concept (e.g. material design, research and dissemination).


During this two-day event, participants will be invited to reflect on issues such as intercultural and global citizenship education and the role of culture and ELT in a globalised world. It will also focus on methodological strategies, teacher training and material development in order to support teachers who want to work in this field.

This project is being supported by the British Council, ELTeCS and the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice - Nottingham University, UK. 


The event will take place in Lima, Peru on 27-28 October 2006. The speakers/facilitators are Vanessa Andreotti, Educational/Outreach Coordinator and Research Fellow at the University of Nottingham and Lynn Mario de Menezes, Associate Professor in English at the University of Sao Paulo .

Participants will receive a certificate of attendance issued by the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice (the University of Nottingham) and the British Council.

For further information and download of application form, please visit the British Council Online Community.


Chris Lima






Our dear SHARER Carolina Figliola from KEL Ediciones wants to invite all SHARERS to

Dr Puchta´s presentations:


September 25th - 5.30 pm.

British Arts Centre - Suipacha 1333 - Capital Federal

More than Little Parrots...

Developing young learners' speaking skills.

Young learners love imitating. Short rhymes, chants, songs and dialogues offer an important basis for the development of speaking skills. Yet learning a foreign language successfully requires more than just repeating sentences. Learners need to learn to negotiate meaning and to express themselves in English.

In this talk we will look at practical ways for teachers to achieve this.

Free of charge but attendance should be confirmed


September 26th - 5.30 pm.

Barker College - Mitre 131- Lomas de Zamora-

Students' Attention Span ? Where Has It Gone?

Teachers often complain about students' lack of concentration in order to learn effectively.

In this presentation, various suggestions will be made on how teachers can help students at primary and lower secondary level to extend their attention span and achieve significantly better results in language learning.


Free of charge but attendance should be confirmed



September 28th - 5.30 pm

Colegio Jesús en el Huerto de los Olivos - Ricardo Gutierrez 1251- Olivos -

If You Can Teach Teenagers, You Can Teach Anyone Else

Motivating Students At Secondary Level.

As teens explore the world in search of their own distinct identity their interests change and develop and are invariably quite different to what we believe should appeal to them. Latest findings from developmental and cognitive psychology stress the important influence of the content of our teaching on the level of our students' involvement.

We will look at a model of teaching that takes these aspects into consideration while catering for students' multiple intelligences and different learning styles.


Free of charge but attendance should be confirmed


Information and Registration: or 4717-5603


Herbert Puchta holds a Ph.D. in ELT Pedagogy. He is Professor of English at the Teacher Training University in Graz.

He has been a plenary speaker at various international conferences and has conducted workshops and given seminars in more than 30 countries.


Herbert is a Master Practitioner in Neuro Linguistic Programming. For almost two decades, he has done research into the practical application of findings from cognitive psychology to the teaching of English as a foreign language. Herbert has co-authored numerous textbooks as well as articles and resource books.








Our dear SHARER  Celia Zubiri has sent us all this invitation:


The Bs. As. Players on tour!


Awesome productions to be enjoyed by everybody.

Choose the play that suits your students' needs and interests, make the reservations and get ready to dive into the magic world of theatre led by the hand of a professional team.





Saturday, 23rd: Cutral-Có

Sales Representative: Silvia Sclar - 

Sunday, 24th and Monday, 25th: Bariloche

Sales Representative: Moira Thomas - (02944) 461434 - 

Wednesday, 27th: Gral. Roca

Sales Representative: Leticia Pisani - (0299) 154-051062 - 

Thursday, 28th: Neuquén

Sales Representative: Juan Carlos Ressia - (0299) 4427945 -  

Friday, 29th: Rincón De Los Sauces

Sales Representative: Juan Carlos Ressia - (0299) 4427945 

Saturday, 30th: Catriel

Sales Representative: Juan Carlos Ressia - (0299) 4427945 



Monday, 2nd: Santa Rosa

Sales Representative: Natalia Muguiro - (02954) 458674 -


The Sleeping Princess - a 55-minute musical comedy for children aged 5-8.*

Pandora´s Box - a 60-minute musical comedy for children aged 9-12.*

Dead Buddies - a 60-minute hilarious thriller for adolescents and adults.*(Intermediate level)

Taming Caterina - a 90-minute comedy for Advanced students. Based on "The Taming of the Shrew", by William Shakespeare.*


*Scripts and lyrics by Celia Zubiri *Original music by Marcelo Andino


Our Sales Representatives can provide you with the interactive CD rom that comprises the songs, lyrics and activities.

Headquarters >011- 4812-5307 / 4814-5455 /

Lis Gandolfo - Assistant Sales Department







The James Joyce Society will continue meeting at KEL´s  Belgrano Branch on the final Friday of every month to continue reading and discussing James Joyce.


Lecturer: Michael Geraghty, teacher, writer, journalist and radio broadcaster.

Fee: $ 10.- per meeting

Venue: Conde 1990, Belgrano R.- Timetable: 5.45 pm. to 6.30 pm.


September - 29th  The Dead (James Joyce)

October - 27th  Waiting for Godot (Samuel Beckett)

November - 24th  Happy Days (Samuel Beckett)







El próximo sábado 7 de octubre, entre las 7 de la tarde y las 2 de la madrugada, tendrá lugar la tercera edición de La noche de los museos , organizada por la Dirección General de Museos dependiente del Ministerio de Cultura del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.


Más de sesenta museos y espacios de arte de Buenos Aires -públicos, privados, nacionales, universitarios y del Gobierno de la Ciudad- han confirmado a la fecha su participación en esta actividad, que a partir del gran éxito obtenido en sus anteriores ediciones ha pasado a integrar el calendario anual de festivales culturales de nuestra ciudad.


Durante esta jornada especial el público recorrerá gratuitamente las salas de exposición de los museos disfrutando, además, de obras de teatro, música clásica, electrónica, jazz, danza, cine y video arte, en un collage de múltiples expresiones y una gran fiesta de cierre con grupos musicales y DJs en Puerto Madero, frente al Centro de Museos de Buenos Aires.

Una larga noche de arte y encuentros. Una fiesta que conectará a museos de distintos barrios de Buenos Aires en un apasionante recorrido .



Más de 110 mil personas participaron en la segunda edición de La noche de los museos. El sábado 1º de octubre 53 museos de Buenos Aires abrieron sus salas de exposición y ofrecieron más de 300 actividades a sus visitantes.

La noche se inauguró oficialmente en La Boca a las 19 hs, cuando ya en todos los puntos de encuentro había cuadras de público esperando el comienzo del evento.


Visitas guiadas, conciertos de música de cámara, jazz, rock, electrónica, tango, folklore, espectáculos teatrales e intervenciones audiovisuales y performáticas, cine & video fueron parte de una larga noche donde el patrimonio cultural de la ciudad fue protagonista.


La noche de los museos, organizada por la Dirección General de Museos de la Secretaría de Cultura del Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires fue una gran fiesta que continuó más allá de la medianoche con La Portuaria, Sexteto Irreal, Kabusacki - Rudy Martínez y el ensamble de tambores Terrestr3s, DJ Rudy Martínez y DJ Daniel Nijensohn frente al Centro de Museos de Buenos Aires en Puerto Madero.


Con la enérgica respuesta del público a esta iniciativa, confirmamos la presencia de La noche de los museos en el calendario anual de actividades culturales de la Ciudad, oportunidad en la cual todos pueden aproximarse, deleitarse y recrear el espíritu en ellos.


La Dirección General de Museos agradece a todos los que hicieron posible, con su colaboración y participación, La noche de los museos.






We would like to finish this issue of SHARE with this note that a dear SHARER

from Perú sent us:  


Dear Omar,


I am an English teacher from Cusco Peru. I work for the Bi-National Center here. I just wanted to say "Congratulations" for the great job you are doing.

I really enjoy reading SHARE. And I am amazed by the number of events you have in Argentina in the EFL field.

I hope I can attend one your Conferences!

Best regards

Amparo Garcia  

BNC Cusco Peru



Omar and Marina.



SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.