An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 7                Number 170             September 5th 2006

SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened.

Happiness never decreases by being SHARED




It´s all good news. We are thrilled. Scarcely a week after the launching of the 2006 SHARE Convention, enrolment forms have started to arrive from as distant places as La Rioja, Jujuy and Neuquén. We have even got our first Uruguayan teacher (Uruguay is normally a very strong delegation at the National Congress and we hope the SHARE Convention is no exception!). This modest downpour of early registrations plus the decided support of a large number of companies that market ELT related materials in our country

has dispelled all our doubts and has proved Marina and the kids (and our battalion of friends) right: we had to have a SHARE Convention.


So this is where we are…and we are happy about what we have got to offer:

Some of the finest lecturers in our country will be addressing the semi-plenaries.


The topics have been carefully chosen so as to answer that too often asked question: HOW TO…? 


The whole Convention will be centred around the provision of practical and down-to-earth examples that the REAL teacher can use in the REAL classroom.


A bonus section of three semi-plenaries (conveniently scattered around the timetable) on

Discipline and Classroom Management conducted by a psychologist, a psychiatrist, a mediator and a family counsellor.

And an incredibly hilarious play, “Gimme a Break”, by Celia Zubiri´s outstanding Bs As Players.


Have you visited our Website? We are very proud of it. Please follow this link and join us in an exciting academic tour and a photo tour of San Telmo (City of Buenos Aires) where the Convention will be held:


It will an unforgettable experience, Two days for our enormous SHARE family to celebrate teaching and learning, to get together and celebrate that sublime capacity of our readers to SHARE.


We really hope to see you there.



Omar and Marina



In SHARE 170


1.-    Developing reading comprehension questions.

2.-    EFL- Teaching English in an Argentinian Context.

3.-    Ploys to Play.

4.-    The Earlier the Better? Children learning Languages II

5.-    Primeras  Jornadas  Internacionales  de  Traductología

6.-    Writer Glenn Patterson in Argentina.

7.-    ELT Western Conference.

8.-    Philip Prowse at the British Art Centre.

9.-   Andrew Walkey´s Tour of Argentina and Uruguay.

10.-   Llamados a Concurso para Titularidades.

11.-   Mar del Plata: ElTteam Consultancy Forthcoming Course.

12.-   Positions Vacant.

13.-   Workshops for Kinder & Pre-kinder Teachers.

14.-   Forthcoming Activities at Universidad Del Museo Social Argentino.

15.-   The Bs. As. Players: September Performances.

16.-   Language Seminar in La Plata.

17.-   Becas de Postgrado en Australia.

18.-   Reseñas Educativas / Education Review.







The following is an article that our dear friend Sergio Damonte wanted to SHARE with all of us:


Developing reading comprehension questions


By Richard R. Day

University of Hawai`i at Manoa
and Jeong-suk Park

Gyeongsang National University





This article presents a detailed picture of six types of comprehension and five forms of questions that can be used to help students become interactive readers. The taxonomies of the types of comprehension and the forms of questions may also be used as a checklist for language teachers as well as materials developers. Teachers can use the taxonomies to make their own comprehension questions for texts that their students read to help them understand better what they read. In addition, they can be used to analyze instructional materials and to develop materials to ensure that the various forms of questions are used to help students respond to a variety of types of comprehension.

keywords: comprehension questions, teaching reading, materials development, evaluation



Some reading tasks


This article is somewhat different from most journal articles. We ask that you read the article, and then answer the questions in Appendix A. We also ask you to identify the type of comprehension and form of each question. The answers to the comprehension questions, identification of the type of comprehension each represents, and the form of the question are given in Appendix B. It may be useful to look over the questions in Appendix A before reading the article.


After you have finished answering the questions, identifying the types of comprehension and the forms of the questions, and checking your answers in Appendix B, we suggest you apply what you have learned by reading the short article in Appendix C and developing your own comprehension questions for the article. You might want to work with a colleague and discuss your responses and the article with each other. Appendix D contains a large number of comprehension questions that we developed for that text to illustrate the range of possibilities.





In the last several decades, theories and models of reading have changed, from seeing reading as primarily receptive processes from text to reader to interactive processes between the reader and the text (cf., Adams, 1990; Eskey and Grabe, 1988; Perfetti, 1985; Samuels, 1994; Stanovich, 1992; and Swaffar, 1988). Approaches to the teaching of foreign language reading have attempted to reflect this development through interactive exercises and tasks. The use of questions is an integral aspect of such activities, and in our experiences as language teachers we have seen that well-designed comprehension questions help students interact with the text to create or construct meaning.


We believe that it is critical that teachers help their students create meaning. In a study of first grade teachers, Pressley, Wharton-McDonald, Allington, Block, Morrow, Tracey, Baker, Brooks, Cronin, Nelson, and Woo (2001) found that exemplary first-grade teachers had their students actively engaged in actual reading and writing through activities that involved reading, writing, and doing things with the text. This active involvement contrasted sharply with other classrooms where the students' engagement was passive – taking turns reading aloud or listening to their teachers. In addition, we have seen well-developed comprehension questions help our students begin to think critically and intelligently.


The purpose of this article is to present a detailed picture of six types of comprehension. We also describe five forms of questions. The six types of comprehension and the five forms of questions can be used to help students become interactive readers. These types of comprehension and forms of questions are a result of our work in teaching foreign language reading and in developing materials for teaching foreign language reading.


The taxonomies of the types of comprehension and the forms of questions are designed to be used as a checklist for language teachers as well as materials developers. Teachers can use the taxonomies to make their own comprehension questions for texts that their students read to help them understand better what they read. In addition, they can be used to analyze instructional materials and to develop materials to ensure that the various forms of questions are used to help students respond to a variety of types of comprehension.


We look first at the six types of comprehension, with a brief description of each. Then we examine how the five question forms can be used to engage students in the six types of comprehension. Both the types of comprehension and the forms of questions are shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1: Grid for Developing and Evaluating Reading Comprehension Questions


Forms of Questions

Types of Comprehension






Personal Response















True or False







Who/What/ When/Where/ How/Why







Multiple Choice











Types of comprehension


As noted previously, the six types of comprehension that we propose and discuss are based on our experiences in teaching reading and developing materials. We do not intend this taxonomy to cover all possible interpretations of comprehension; we have found the six types to be useful in helping our students become interactive readers. Our taxonomy has been influenced in particular by the work of Pearson and Johnson (1972) and Nuttall (1996).1


Literal comprehension


Literal comprehension refers to an understanding of the straightforward meaning of the text, such as facts, vocabulary, dates, times, and locations. Questions of literal comprehension can be answered directly and explicitly from the text. In our experiences working with teachers, we have found that they often check on literal comprehension first to make sure that their students have understood the basic or surface meaning of the text.


An example of a literal comprehension question about this article is: How many types of comprehension do the authors discuss?




The next type of comprehension is reorganization. Reorganization is based on a literal understanding of the text; students must use information from various parts of the text and combine them for additional understanding. For example, we might read at the beginning of a text that a woman named Maria Kim was born in 1945 and then later at the end of the text that she died in 1990. In order to answer this question, How old was Maria Kim when she died?, the student has to put together two pieces of information that are from different parts of the text.


Questions that address this type of comprehension are important because they teach students to examine the text in its entirety, helping them move from a sentence-by-sentence consideration of the text to a more global view. In our experience, students generally find reorganization questions somewhat more difficult than straightforward literal comprehension questions.




Making inferences involves more than a literal understanding. Students may initially have a difficult time answering inference questions because the answers are based on material that is in the text but not explicitly stated. An inference involves students combining their literal understanding of the text with their own knowledge and intuitions.


An example of a question that requires the reader to make an inference is: Are the authors of this article experienced language teachers? The answer is not in the text but there is information in the third paragraph, page 2 of this article that allows the reader to make a good inference: "These types of comprehension and forms of questions are a result of our work in teaching foreign language reading and in developing materials for teaching foreign language reading." Readers are required to use their knowledge of the field, teaching foreign language reading, with what they have gained from reading the article, in particular that sentence, to construct an appropriate answer. That is, readers might understand that newcomers to the profession generally do not develop materials or write articles, so the authors are probably experienced language teachers.




The fourth comprehension type, prediction, involves students using both their understanding of the passage and their own knowledge of the topic and related matters in a systematic fashion to determine what might happen next or after a story ends.


We use two varieties of prediction, while-reading and post- (after) reading. While-reading prediction questions differ from post-reading prediction questions in that students can immediately learn the accuracy of their predictions by continuing to read the passage. For example, students could read the first two paragraphs of a passage and then be asked a question about what might happen next. They can determine the answer by reading the reminder of the text.


In contrast, post-reading prediction questions generally have no right answers in that students cannot continue to read to confirm their predictions. However, predictions must be supported by information from the text. Generally, scholarly articles, such as this one, do not allow for post-reading prediction questions. Other types of writing, such as fiction, are fertile ground for such questions. To illustrate, consider a romance in which the woman and man are married as the novel comes to a close. A post-reading prediction question might be: Do you think they will stay married? Why or why not? Depending on a variety of factors including evidence in the text and personal experiences of the reader, either a yes or a no answer could be justified.


Having students make predictions before they read the text is a pre-reading activity. We do not see this type of prediction as a type of comprehension. Rather, it is an activity that allows students to realize how much they know about the topic of the text.




The fifth type of comprehension, evaluation, requires the learner to give a global or comprehensive judgment about some aspect of the text. For example, a comprehension question that requires the reader to give an evaluation of this article is: How will the information in this article be useful to you? In order to answer this type of question, students must use both a literal understanding of the text and their knowledge of the text's topic and related issues. Some students, because of cultural factors, may be reluctant to be critical or to disagree with the printed word. In such circumstances, the teacher might want to model possible answers to evaluation questions, making sure to include both positive and negative aspects.


Personal response


The sixth type of comprehension, personal response, requires readers to respond with their feelings for the text and the subject. The answers are not found in the text; they come strictly from the readers. While no personal responses are incorrect, they cannot be unfounded; they must relate to the content of the text and reflect a literal understanding of the material.


An example of a comprehension question that requires a personal response is: What do you like or dislike about this article? Like an evaluation question, students have to use both their literal understanding and their own knowledge to respond.


Also, like evaluation questions, cultural factors may make some students hesitate to be critical or to disagree with the printed word. Teacher modeling of various responses is helpful in these situations.


Summary of comprehension types


If we believe that reading is an interactive process in which the reader constructs meaning with the text, then we need to help our students learn to do this. This means moving beyond a literal understanding of a text, and allowing our students to use their own knowledge while reading. It may be challenging, however, for beginning and intermediate students to create their own understanding, if they are accustomed to reading word-for-word and focusing on meaning at the word- and sentence-levels.


When questions move beyond a literal understanding, students' answers have to be motivated by information in the text. Inference questions can have clearly correct and incorrect responses. In contrast, prediction, evaluation, and personal response answers are correct as long as they depend primarily on students' reactions to what they read. Evaluative and personal response answers not only depend primarily on students' reactions to what they have read, but they need to reflect a global understanding of the text.


Finally, research has shown that effective teachers and teachers in more effective schools are more frequently observed asking higher level questions, questions that go beyond a literal understanding of a text, than less effective teachers and teachers in less effective schools (Knapp, 1995; Taylor, Peterson, Pearson, and Rodriguez, 2002). This provides a solid reason for teachers to engage their students in all six types of comprehension.


There is another reason for using a variety of questions that involve different types of comprehension. Guszak (1967, cited in Pearson and Johnson, 1972: 154) found that students performed best when answering questions of factual recall, which was the type of question that their teachers asked most often. This means that students do best at what they have learned and practiced. Thus, if we would like our students to be able to go beyond a literal understanding of a text, then it is necessary to teach them how to do this and to give them opportunities to work with different types of comprehension.


This taxonomy of comprehension types is not an inventory of reading skills and strategies. It is, rather, an overview of types of understanding that foreign language learners need to have if they are to read a text with more than a literal understanding. How these types of comprehension can be approached through a variety of question forms is the focus of the next section.



Forms of questions


We present and discuss five forms that comprehension questions may take to stimulate students' understanding of texts. This is not a discussion of all possible ways of questioning students. For example, we do not discuss fill-in-the-blank activities or cloze, as such activities or tasks may be more appropriate for assessing, and not comprehending, the types of comprehension presented and discussed in the previous section.


Yes/no questions


Yes/no questions are simply questions that can be answered with either yes or no. For example, Is this article about testing reading comprehension? This is a common form of comprehension question, but it has the drawback of allowing the student a 50% chance of guessing the correct answer. So when using yes/no questions, we recommend following up with other forms of questions to ensure that the student has understood the text.


Yes/no questions can be used to prompt all six types of comprehension. When yes/no questions are used with personal response or evaluation, other forms of questions seem to follow readily. For example, Did you like this article? Why? The follow-up questions may be more useful in helping students than the initial yes/no questions.


Alternative questions


Alternative questions are two or more yes/no questions connected with or: for example, Does this article focus on the use of questions to teach reading comprehension or to test reading comprehension? Similar to yes/no questions, alternative questions are subject to guessing, so the teacher may want to follow up with other forms discussed in this section.


Alternative questions have worked best for us with literal, reorganization, inference, and prediction types of comprehension. We have found that they do not lend themselves as well to evaluation and personal response.


True or false


Questions may also take the form of true or false. While true or false questions are found frequently in commercially available materials, there is a potential danger in relying exclusively on them. As with yes/no questions, students have a 50% chance of guessing the correct answer. Teachers might simply accept a right answer, failing to ask why the answer is correct or the distracters (the wrong choices) are not correct.


An example of a true or false question focusing on literal comprehension is: Is this statement true or false?: The authors believe that the use of well-designed comprehension questions will help students become better readers.


True or false questions are difficult to prepare. The false answers must be carefully designed so as to exploit potential misunderstandings of the text. False answers that are obviously incorrect do not help teach comprehension because students do not have to understand the text to recognize them as incorrect. True or false questions may also be hard to write because sometimes, as written, both answers are plausible, regardless of the degree of comprehension of the text.


Like yes/no questions, true or false questions can be used to prompt all six types of comprehension. When used with personal response or evaluation, follow-up tasks are sometimes necessary. To illustrate, a personal response question about this article might be: Is this statement true or false? I like this article. Explain your choice.


Wh- questions


Questions beginning with where, what, when, who, how, and why are commonly called wh-questions. In our experience, we have found that they are excellent in helping students with a literal understanding of the text, with reorganizing information in the text, and making evaluations, personal responses and predictions. They are also used as follow-ups to other questions forms, such as yes/no and alternative.


In particular, wh- questions with how/why are often used to help students to go beyond a literal understanding of the text. As beginning and intermediate readers are often reluctant to do this, using how/why questions can be very helpful in aiding students to become interactive readers.




Multiple-choice questions are based on other forms of questions. They can be, for example, a wh-question with a choice:


When was Maria Kim born?

a. 1940

b. 1945

c. 1954

d. 1990



Generally, but not always, this form of question has only one correct answer when dealing with literal comprehension.


The multiple-choice format may make wh-questions easier to answer than no-choice wh-questions because they give the students some possible answers. Students might be able to check the text to see if any of the choices are specifically discussed, and then make a choice.


Multiple-choice questions may be used most effectively, in our experience, with literal comprehension. They can also be used with prediction and evaluation. However, when used for these types of comprehension, we suggest using follow-up activities that allow students to explain their choices.


As with true or false questions, developing good multiple-choice questions requires careful thought. We have found that developing a question with four choices works best for students with low proficiency in the target language. One of the four, obviously, is the desired answer; the others should be seemingly plausible responses.



An important consideration


Regardless of the level of comprehension or the form of the question, teachers and materials developers need to make sure that the questions are used to help students interact with the text. This can be done by making sure that students keep the text in front of them while answering questions on the text. They should always be able to refer to the reading passage, for we are interested in teaching reading comprehension, not memory skills.


Another element in ensuring that the questions actually teach is avoiding what we call tricky questions. If the goal is helping students to improve their reading comprehension abilities, teachers must resist the temptation to trick them with cleverly worded questions (e.g., a complex sentence in which one clause is true and the other is false). Negative wording in a question can also make it tricky. Such unclear or misleading questions tend to discourage students. It is better to ask about important aspects of the text in a straightforward, unambiguous fashion.





In our experience, the use of well-designed comprehension questions can be used to promote an understanding of a text. However, comprehension questions are only a means to an end. The use of questions by themselves does not necessarily result in readers who interact with a text utilizing the six types of comprehension discussed in this article. The teacher, through a combination of teacher-fronted and group activities, must promote a discussion of the answers, both the right and wrong ones, so that students are actively involved in creating meaning.


We would like to end on a note of caution. Beware of the death by comprehension questions syndrome. The use of comprehension questions in teaching reading can be overdone. Even the most highly motivated student can become bored having to answer 20 questions on a three-paragraph text. As with most things in life, moderation is the best course of action.





1. For other treatments of comprehension, see Applegate, Quinn, and Applegate (2002), Bartlett (1932), Barrett (1972, cited in Smith and Barrett, 1974 pp. 53-58), Keene and Zimmerman (1997), Nuttall (1996), and Pearson and Johnson (1972).





We would like to express our appreciation for the insightful comments and suggestions by two anonymous reviewers.





Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Applegate, M. D., Quinn, K. B., & Applegate, A. J. (2002). Levels of thinking required by comprehension questions in informal reading inventories. The Reading Teacher, 56(2), 174-180.


Barrett, T. C. (1972). Taxonomy of reading comprehension. Reading 360 Monograph. Lexington, MA: Ginn & Co.


Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Eskey, D. & Grabe, W. (1988). Interactive models for second language reading: Perspectives on instruction. In P. Carrell, J. Devine, & D. Eskey (Eds.), Interactive approaches to second language reading (pp. 223-239). New York: Cambridge University Press.


Guszak, F. J. (1967). Teacher questioning and reading. The Reading Teacher, 21, 227-34.


Keene, E. O. & Zimmermann, S. (1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a reader's workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.


Knapp, M. S. (1995). Teaching for meaning in high-poverty classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.


Nuttall, C. (1996). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language. (2nd ed.) Oxford: Heinemann.


Pearson, P. D. & Johnson, D. D. (1972). Teaching reading comprehension. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.


Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.


Pressley, M., Wharton-McDonald, R., Allington, R., Block, C. C., Morrow, L., Tracey, D., Baker, K., Brooks, G., Cronin, J., Nelson, E., & Woo, D. (2001). A study of effective first-grade literacy instruction. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 35-58.


Samuels, S. J. (1994). Toward a theory of automatic information processing reading, revisited. In R. B. Ruddell, M. R. Ruddell, & H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed.) (pp. 816-837). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.


Smith, R. J. & Barrett, T. C. (1974). Teaching reading in the middle grades. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


Stanovich, K. E. (1992). The psychology of reading: Evolutionary and revolutionary developments. In W. Grabe (Ed.), Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 12 (pp. 3-30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Swaffar, J. K. (1988). Readers, texts, and second languages: The interactive process. Modern Language Journal, 80, 461-477.


Taylor, B. M., Peterson, D. S., Pearson, P. D., & Rodriguez, M. C. (2002). Looking inside classrooms: Reflecting on the "How" as well as the "What" in effective reading instruction. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 270-279.



Appendix A: Comprehension Questions


Instructions: After reading the article, answer these questions. Then, identify the form of each of the ten questions and their type of comprehension. The answers are found in Appendix B.


1. Why do the authors believe that it might be difficult for beginning and intermediate students to answer evaluation questions?


2. True or False: The authors believe that the use of well-designed comprehension questions will help students become better readers.


3. How many types of comprehension do the authors discuss?


4. What are the strengths of the article? What are its weak points?


5. Is the purpose of the article to present information on teaching reading or to explain how comprehension questions can be used to teach reading?


6. Why did the authors write this article?


7. Would you recommend the article to a colleague?


8. Did you like the article? Why or why not?


9. What is the motivation for the use of comprehension questions?


a. It helps students to learn more vocabulary.

b. It helps students to develop their sight or hearing vocabularies.

c. It helps students interact with the text to construct understanding.

d. It helps students develop important strategies such as skimming.



10. What was the most important thing you learned from reading this article?



Appendix B: Possible Answers and Identification of Forms of Questions and Types of Comprehension




Type of Comprehension

1. Because the answers are not found in the text.



2. True

True or False


3. Six



4. (possible) strength: well written; (possible) weakness: too many tasks



5. To explain how comprehension questions can be used to teach reading



6. There are a number of possible answers. One is: They wanted to share their experiences with other reading teachers.



7. Yes!



8. Yes, because it will be useful in developing my own comprehension questions.

Yes/no with a wh- follow up.

personal response

9. c

Multiple choice


10. I have learned how to develop comprehension questions.


personal response


Appendix C: Community Service


I was reluctant to go there on that first day, and as I waited outside the director's office, my anxiety only increased. My legs felt like lead. "There" was a rehabilitation residence for mentally and physically ill people. My dad, a doctor, had insisted on my volunteering at the residence. He wanted my high school community service requirement to be filled in a productive way. I felt the same. The previous summer I had gardened and picked up trash, activities that didn't really seem to make the meaningful difference that I thought I wanted to make. Still, I was scared imagining what the realities of working at the residence would be.


The director was brief. She told me about the need to establish emotional connections with the residents, then rushed to introduce me to a group of 15, their ages ranging from 8 to 21, that I was asked to supervise. My charges welcomed me graciously. Some tried to clap but couldn't bring both hands together; some tried to say hello, but their speech was so impaired that I really only guessed at what they said. Most conspicuous among them was Young-il. He was older than I, and he was the only one who spoke clearly enough for me to understand fully. Young-il had the face of a 30 year-old, but he was barely four feet tall. He took me in charge at first and, stumbling as he walked, showed me around and taught me the basics of the residents' routine. I was embarrassed when he told me what to do; to be frank, I felt as if I were being instructed by a child. Later, thinking back on my condescension toward that kind, intelligent man, I felt a much deeper embarrassment.


The youngest was Sung-Min. He was eight years old, only three feet tall, and his fingers were all odd shapes and sizes. A teacher told me that Sung-Min's fingers used to be fused, but he had recently had an operation. Sung-Min now had five discrete digits on each hand, but their irregular forms still made it very hard for him to grasp things. In spite of his physical struggles, Sung-Min was the brightest and most energetic person at the residence. On my second day of work, he was the first to greet me, something I was grateful for, since not all of the residents remembered my face.


Helping at lunch was my most difficult task. It required considerable patience. Some residents had trouble focusing on eating and would often start shaking their heads violently as I tried to feed them. But whatever their physical challenges and discomforts were and however unappealing the food was, none of the residents ever complained. I couldn't help contrasting the residents' behavior with mine. I was again embarrassed to think about my regular pickiness, my refusal to eat this or that or at all, my demands for particular foods; and I began to hope that the road to wisdom was paved with such small embarrassments.


After my first lunch at the residence, a teacher took over the group. Everyone in the room said goodbye in his own way, and Sung-Min, the little guy with the mismatched fingers, accompanied me to the door and hugged my knees. I walked home, my legs much lighter than they had been that morning. My fears and worries had disappeared; in their place were the surprising beginnings of an emotional connection that I had thought was beyond me. I was looking forward to seeing the residents again, to helping them, I hoped, and having them help me.


(This is adapted from a college essay written by Jun-Min Kim, November 2003, and used by permission.)



Appendix D: Questions for Community Service


(Note: We have developed a large number of questions to illustrate the variety of types of comprehension and forms of questions. For an article the length of "Community Service" – about 600 words – we would recommend no more than ten questions. A = the Author)




1. A's father was a doctor. T/F


2. The residents of the rehabilitation home were mostly old men. T/F


3. Did the director of the residence think it was necessary that A learn sign language or establish an emotional connection to work with the residents?


4. Who was the youngest resident at the home?


5. Who taught A the basic routines of the home?


6. What was A's most difficult daily assignment?


7. When did A garden and pick up trash in his neighborhood?


8. Why did A's father want A to work at the residence?


9. How many residents did A supervise?


10. How did A feel when he first arrived at the residence?


11. Did A first go to the home by himself?


12. The institution where A worked was:


a) a hospital

b) a school

c) a rehabilitation residence

d) a job training center



13. When A was leaving the residence after the first day, Sung-Min ______


a) sang a song.

b) hugged A's leg.

c) showed him around the residence.

d) gave A some food.





14. Is Young-il a child?


15. How did most the residents communicate with A?


16. Was the operation on Sung-Min's hands a complete success?


17. A suspects that "the road to wisdom is paved with small embarrassments." What embarrassments is he referring to?


18. In what way did A's legs feel different at the beginning and end of his first day at the residence?




19. Was Sung-Min able to speak clearly?


20. Sung-Min hugged A's leg:


a) because they were playing a game

b) because he wanted to be fed

c) to help him understand the residents' daily routine

d) as his way of saying goodbye



21. How has A's attitudes toward and understanding of disabled or disadvantaged changed through his experience at the residence?


22. Did the residents only play or did they also study?


23. Do you think that A's work at the residence made a meaningful difference to the people there?


24. Why do you think A's work at the residence made a meaningful difference to him?


25. Why did A feel as if he were being instructed by a child when Young-il taught him about the residence?




26. Do you think that A will continue to volunteer at the residence after his school requirement is satisfied?


27. Imagine that next summer A is offered the opportunity to either return to his volunteer work at the residence or to participate in a foreign-language study program abroad. Which do you think he will choose?


28. While feeding the residents, A is embarrassed remembering his own behavior at mealtimes. Do you think that A will change the way he behaves?




27. This essay was written as part of a college application. Is the essay effective in presenting the author as an attractive or interesting candidate to an admission officer in a college?


28. Is this article well-written?




29. Was A's decision to work at the rehabilitation residence a good choice for satisfying his school community-service requirement?


30. How do you feel about A? Do you like him?


31. Which person in the essay do you find most interesting? Who, in the essay, would you like to meet?


32. What experiences have you had with disabled or disadvantaged people?


33. Would you like to or be willing to volunteer at the residence?


34. What other activities do you think would be good community service activities?



About the Authors


Richard R. Day is a Professor in the Department of Second Language Studies, University of Hawai`i. He is the co-editor, with Julian Bamford, of Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language (Cambridge University Press, 2004), and a co-author of Impact Values (Longman Asia ELT, 2003). He is the co-founder and chair of the Extensive Reading Foundation (


Jeong-suk Park teaches at the School of Language Education and International Programs at Gyeongsang National University in Korea. She is a member of the Board of Directors of the Extensive Reading Foundation.


© Reading in a Foreign Language

Volume 17, Number 1, April 2005







Our dear SHARER Karina Elbey has sent us this article that she wroteletter which we SHARE with all of you:


EFL- Teaching English in an Argentinian Context

By Karina Elbey


The purpose of this work is to describe the factors that might account for the individual differences in achievement of a group of twenty-seven false–beginner learners, whose ages range from eighteen to twenty-two, and who attend evening lessons after a full-time job.


In the last twenty years the emphasis of research has shifted from the study of methods for the teaching of English, to the observation of what goes on in the classroom. Much time has been devoted to studying the influence of different factors on success in learning a new language. The study of these variables is important to make teachers aware of the complexity and diversity of their learners, and how these contribute to their learning.


We can begin by noting that Gardner and McIntyre (1992) have classified learner’s variables into cognitive, affective and miscellaneous categories. The first category involves different aspects of cognition, from intelligence to language aptitude, to language learning strategies, to previous language training and experience. These factors are considered to be internal to the learner, so they are very difficult to be observed by a third person. This can be solved in two ways: one, through the use of diary studies where the individual learners keep daily records of their experience in learning an L2, and the other, when teachers use questionnaires and interviews with individual learners.


The second category is affective variables, those attributes that involve individuals’ reactions to any situation. These can refer to attitudes and motivation, language anxiety, feelings of self-confidence about the language, ambiguity tolerance and learning styles. Hahn (1989,9) states that “affective characteristics have at least as much influence on learning as do ability factors”.


The  final miscellaneous category includes factors like age, or socio-cultural experiences which can have either cognitive or affective implications. Even though it is assumed that the route of acquisition of a foreign language is not influenced by age, adults seem to acquire primary levels more rapidly because of their greater cognitive abilities, but very seldom a native- like pronunciation as children do so easily. Depending upon the socio-cultural context, these variables might play roles of differing importance as they facilitate learning.


Let us turn now to the aspects that affect the language learning process of a group of false-beginner adults –fifteen female and twelve male students- in a school in Olavarria, Argentina. As regards certain traits of this group, it can be observed that their previous knowledge of English is very poor- only one year of formal learning- and that they do not seem to possess any special aptitude for languages. This is a drawback because, as Hahn (1989) explains, this factor is very important for formal learning, which is the situation in which these students are. Nevertheless, a few of them, who come from other schools, have been exposed to two or three years of systematic teaching of the language, and have, therefore, a higher level.


Furthermore, attitude , which has  great effect on acquisition, is in most cases negative because learners consider English a very difficult language. As a possible effect of the characteristics described above, they also seem to possess few language learning strategies to facilitate their learning.


A positive aspect which can be detected is motivation, which seems to be strong as in most of the learners, who, with the exception of the four youngest girls, consider English crucial for their personal development. The importance of this aspect in language teaching is well known and can be used by the teacher to personalise instruction.


Some of them seem able to pick things up quickly and remember them, while others are slower, lack study skills and generally experience more difficulties in learning. There are also remarkable differences in the students’ background knowledge, not only of the world but also of their skills and talents in other areas. Some of these differences may be linked to age, sex, different levels of maturity, different interests and so on.


Their language anxiety is lowered making them work in groups. To be in an environment which allows them to interact freely without feeling ashamed of their errors, helps them to develop the positive attitude they need. Also, with a clear understanding of what they are doing and why, students can have confidence in their teacher and in the subject, key elements mentioned by students in studies quoted by Harmer (1991: 5-6). The student-centred approach is one of the main aims in my teaching methodology because it leads to the aim of enabling students to develop the tools they would need to further their

independent study of English. Furthermore, if materials are interesting and varied, if teacher and student roles do not become static, and if there is an element of challenge and the unexpected in lessons, then the students will rarely become bored.


The performance of this group does not seem to be affected by age, as none of them is in what is considered “the critical age” (up to 12). Nevertheless, it may affect the type of motivation they have. According to this and taking into account Maslow’s pyramid, we can conclude that these learners are characterised as persuing a long term motivation, because their purpose for studying English- to acquire proficiency to get a better job- is a long term goal. It is clear that we are referring to an “instrumental” motivation : to learn the language for utilitarian and practical reasons.


As a result of these strategies described previously, one of the positive signs I have noticed during this year is that I could be able to cope with almost all the obstacles found at the beginning of the year and, fortunately, problems of absences that occur in other subjects are not present in English.


To finish with, as we could see, the individual learner is a complex and many-sided phenomenon, and this individuality, as Littlewood (1981) expresses, must be respected and encouraged to find _expression. To conclude we can say that it is important that teachers of foreign languages should take students personalities and cognitive variables into account because ultimately “what is learned is controlled by the learner, and not the teacher, not the textbooks, not the syllabus” (Ellis, 1993, 4).




•Ellis, R (1993) “Second Language Acquisition Research: how does it help teachers?” ELT Journal, vol.47/I,4

•Hahn,C. (1989) “Dealing with variables in the Language Classroom” English Teaching Forum, XXVII 4, pp 9-11.

Gardner,R.C. and P.D. MacIntyre (1992) “A student’s contributions to second language learning. Part 1: Cognitive variables”. Language Teaching, 25: 211-220.

•Harmer, J. (1991) The practice of English Language Teaching, New edition, London and New York: Longman.

•Littlewood, W. (1981) Communicative Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


About the author:


Karina Elbey is a teacher and translator and a Licenciada en Educación from Universidad Nacional de Quilmes. She is currently persuing postgraduate studies at the University of Leicester. She a teacher trainer in the area of Olavaria,Azul,Bolívar and Tapalqué.






Our dear SHARERS Mónica Valicenti and María Laura Conte have sent us this article to SHARE with all of you.


Ploys to play

Mónica Valicenti, María Laura Conte, Argentina


The value of play

Most dictionaries coincide that the word "ploy" refers to clever methods of getting an advantage especially by pretending something that is not true. We will definitely adopt these "clever methods" but we will try to redefine the term "pretending" with the purpose of attaining some practical teaching goals. If pretending meant "making someone believe", if pretending meant "diving into an imaginary world", then we would recoin the term to get ready to play along.


Important advances in research on human behaviour have brought about significant innovations in the teaching field. Parents, teachers, and all others concerned with the challenge of human growth have finally reached practical conclusions that are gradually being poured into the context of the classroom. A refreshed concern of the role of play in the learning context is coming to light and all teachers are invited to reflect on its importance.


Play appeals to everyone. It is inborn in the human being. It is pleasurable, enjoyable and it is this feature that makes the player value it as a source of relaxing output. Although in utilitarian terms, play may appear to be inherently unproductive, it in fact affords unlimited possibilities. It is spontaneous and voluntary and it involves active engagement on the part of the player. For all these factors, play has historically been linked with creativity, problem-solving and language learning. It is the need to delve into the nature of the latter link that has motivated us to reflect on the potential of game-like resources in the FLT field.


The question is then: Why games for language learning?

No doubt, learning a language is a huge dynamic challenge. When learning a language we are plunged into the pool of the unknown; and this causes anxiety. We are compelled to struggle to understand, to apply the newly understood language in context and to produce what we have learnt as accurately as possible. A significant dose of commitment and effort is demanded to cover the jump and even more to sustain it over a somehow longish period of time. In a word, to undergo this process successfully we need to find some spices that work. Games are handy resources that comply with all what we need: engagement, spontaneity and enjoyment- three essential requirements to make language learning a bit easier. Thus, playing opens a crucial pathway to language learning not only because it grants the opportunity to use the language in a flexible and meaningful way but also and above all because it nourishes both the intellect and the soul. Learners engaged in a motivating game want to participate and in so doing they need to understand what others are saying and they need to communicate their own viewpoint or bridge some information gap to put the message across. When playing, all the learner's attention is directed towards the outcome of the game and in this unconscious effort of being in action, inhibition vanishes altogether.


Moreover, following any game procedure guarantees the development of cooperative behaviour. Teachers who resort to games in their classes have to set basic ground rules that little by little help to build the learners' kingdom of values. Game rules have to be interpreted, accepted and finally respected by all the participants. In a word, by using games teachers are fulfilling their ultimate aim: instruct and educate.


If we still add to this the fact that it is widely accepted that games provide intense and meaningful practice, we firmly believe that they should be a must in all teachers' repertoire. For all this, we are all for games.


Having agreed on these basic premises, we can now dive into the realm of games and try to find the answers to some of our most recurrent questions:


- 1 Are games suitable for all age groups and levels?

- 2 In what moment of the class should I use them?

- 3 Which skills can I practise?

- 4 Do all games provide communicative practice?


Are games suitable for all age groups and levels?


1-Playing should not be restricted by age, least by levels. As we have been trying to show throughout, play is inherent to man, it is in his nature; so both young learners and adults are always eager to play games. Adolescents, however, may be more reluctant to participate when they are presented with a game, since they may feel ridiculous and find no purpose in the game itself. The key factors in this matter lie in the appropriateness of the game and the ability of the teacher to present it. The more enthusiasm she shows, the better response she will get. Group and pair work help overcome this situation.


In what moment of the class should we use games?


2-Games can be used in all stages of the learning process. Though they are mainly effective during the practice and consolidation period, skillful teachers can also profit from them to present new material. Some games are particularly useful for the presentation stage since they cater for systematic repetition of models in natural contexts.


Which skills can we practise?


3- All four skills. It is a misconception to believe that games are only suitable as oral activities; they can provide intense practice in the four skills. Most games, even the most traditional ones, can be easily adapted to encourage students´ practice in both receptive and productive skills alike.


Do all games provide communicative practice?


4- No, not all of them. Though some games may present appealing dynamics, not all of them focus on communication.

The traditional Tic Tac Toe, a popular choice among teachers, can be easily spoilt if meaning is neglected. If the challenge to draw the winning straight line just involves making sentences in isolation or recognizing words at random, we will be probably ruining a handy tool. Yet, if each frame suggests a task - in order to mark a square students have to solve a riddle, produce a piece of discourse such as a poem or lecture, narrate a past event or even invent a song- we will be then succeeding in enlarging the students´ communicative scope of action.


Another example may be a Memotest. If this memory procedure is just used to elicit discontextualized words, we will be limiting its potential. Instead, if the visual stimuli provided by a memotest were used to encourage students to perform a task, to solve a problem or to overcome an obstacle, then the game would turn out to be communicatively profitable. (e.g Pictures of professionals could be matched to incomplete CVs, lyrics of songs to unfinished letters or landscapes to incomplete brochures)


Demos at:


Just click into these demos to see for yourself.



In conclusion, play is a crucial ingredient in the life of man since it helps him develop and foster his creativity, his imagination and even his self-esteem. Play allows him to train himself for life skills and among these life skills, communication is primary. It is apparent that learners who are not given opportunities to engage in "real" language interaction through play are being deprived of a vital and essential aspect not only of the language experience but also of their integral development. We then invite teachers to supplement and reinforce their basic language programmes with games that will not only help students practise the language meaningfully but also and above all grow as human beings.


Many questions are still unanswered, yet the words below will surely lead you into the first move in this direction.


He gave me only puzzled looks,,

I tried to teach my child with words, ,

They passed by him often unheard, ,

despairingly, I turned aside, ,

how shall I teach this child I cried, ,

into my hand he put the key, ,

come he said and play with me!







The child as a learner 2

Isela Shipton, Alan S. Mackenzie and James Shipton, British Council


In the first part of this two part article we looked at how children learn a language and how to create the right environment for learning. In this second part we will look at techniques to help develop their language and how to deal with errors.


Involving the whole child

Children have highly inquisitive minds and enjoy learning through play and using their imagination by observing and copying, doing things, watching and listening.


Children also learn a lot of their first language by physically responding to their parents' instructions in real and meaningful contexts. The parent says, "Look at that dog" or "Give me the ball" and the child does so.


These interactions between parent and child always have a clear reason for the communication.

This is very a different learning situation from asking, "What is the past tense of 'give'?" The only reason for this question is to test the child's memory. It is not fun and it does not involve the child's senses.


Tips to parents


Parents can help by providing a rich learning environment and placing learning in context. They can help by making English fun to practice at home by using songs, games, drama and drawing. Here are some things you can suggest for them.



Create an 'English Corner' by providing materials in English at home such as comics and books, cable TV and Internet (with parental guidance!)

Play language-based games in English such as Scrabble and bingo, I-spy, 20 questions, Memory, Simon says etc.

Use sticky labels or 'post-it' notes to label objects at home in English. For example, in the kitchen you can label table, chairs, refrigerator, etc.

Collect music in English, get the lyrics from the Internet and sing along!

Do craft activities in English. Make puppets and invent a little show in English. Make posters (about their favourite star, sport, etc.); make picture dictionaries with drawings and cut-outs.

Take an 'English adventure outing'. Take your children to a park. Using English only they have to say what they see such as, "The children are riding their bikes", "The man is selling fruit", "There are some boats on the lake" and so on. Other locations where you can do this are: the supermarket, an office, a shopping centre.

Make reading a habit:

Read to your children in English. A short story or a few pages of a book daily creates a life-long habit.

You do not have to buy the books, you can join a library or download text from the Internet.

If you are concerned with your own pronunciation, there are plenty of materials on the Internet that have the text read to the viewer. Also, there are books that come with cassettes or CDs, so that children can read and listen at the same time. You could do this together.


Helping children with vocabulary


Encouraging children to memorise random vocabulary lists is not very helpful. The more associations you can make between different parts of the language the better. Methods that are likely to help the child are:


Grouping words in contexts (foods, occupations, animals) or by meaning (boiling, hot, warm, cool, cold) or opposites (open, closed).

Ask the child to say the word out loud, or read a story aloud that contains the new word

Have them write words down

Ask them to draw a picture of the word

Have them listen to new words in context on a tape

Ask them to tell you about other words it sounds like

Have them keep a vocabulary notebook, or word scrap-book. Review it regularly by:

Asking your child to tell you about the words in the book

Telling a story using the words

Reading the words without looking at their vocabulary book

Make a story yourself and have the child read or listen to it.


Dealing with mistakes

For children, making mistakes is part of the natural process of learning.


A five year old speaking his mother tongue may still make grammar mistakes.

They will frequently 'invent' their own rules and over generalisations like "my car breaks", or "my friend camed to the party yesterday". So, learning another language will also involve a lot of mistakes.

This is a natural part of learning. In fact, for effective communication it is a good idea to concentrate on learning words, not grammatical accuracy. If a foreigner comes up to you and asks, "Train station where please?" you can understand and help, even though the grammar is awful. Now, imagine if he says, "Can you please tell me where to find... uh... er...oh?"

There's plenty of time later for learning the grammar; but knowing the words will help your child communicate now, and help them in learning the grammar later.

Repeating, encouraging, praising and building confidence are what is needed to help a child to overcome mistakes. Avoid overtly correcting your child or you might discourage them. Some techniques that you can use are:


Don't correct, 'model' the correct form of the language. So if your child says "The boy wented home," you can say, "Yes. The boy went home. What did he do then?"

Encourage children to correct themselves, this will build confidence and deepen the learning process. Say "Almost right, try again…" or show the child where the mistake is but do not give them the answer.

Some correction is okay but be careful not to over-correct. A page full of crossing out and corrections can be very demotivating, as is always being told, "Wrong! Do it again!"

Particularly in speech it is much better to let the child develop their ideas and fluency than to keep interrupting with corrections. The ideas are more important than the grammar.

Keep their age and level of English in mind. Give lots of praise and encouragement for every effort - they can't know everything.


Top ten requests for parents


Here is a list of advice you can give to parents


Be involved. Parent involvement helps students learn and helps teachers work with your child to help them succeed.

Be positive. Encourage children to do their best, but don't pressure them by setting goals too high or by scheduling too many activities.

Be a good role model. Show your children by your own actions that you believe English is both enjoyable and useful. Read more and use television, videos and game systems creatively for education.

Accept your responsibility as parents. Don't expect the school and teachers to take over your obligations as parents. Teach children self-discipline and respect for others at home -- don't rely on teachers and schools to teach these basic behaviours and attitudes.

Encourage students to do their best in school. Show your children that you believe education is important. Ask about homework, check it has been done. Don't let them miss classes unnecessarily.

Find a balance between schoolwork and outside activities. Emphasise your children's progress in developing the knowledge and skills they need to be successful both in school and in life.

Be aware of things that affect classroom performance:.Try to limit the negative effects of late nights and long hours of extra activities.

Provide resources at home for learning. Make sure you have English language books, comics and magazines available in your home.

Understand and support school rules and goals. Take care not to undermine school rules, discipline, or goals.

Speak to the teacher! As soon as you think there's a problem, contact the school. Don't wait for the end of term or parents' day.



We hope that this article has given you some useful insights into how to make learning more effective and enjoyable for young children and some tools to help you encourage and engage parents in the learning processes of their children.


Further Reading

Children Learning English, Moon. J.

Young Learners, Philips, S.

Very Young Learners, Reilly, V and Ward, S.



This article published: 26th July, 2006


BBC | British Council site, teaching English.


© BBC World Service, Bush House, Strand, London WC2B 4PH, UK.

© British Council, 10 Spring Gardens, London SW1A 2BN, UK.





Primeras  Jornadas  Internacionales  de  Traductología

Hacia un Encuentro de Lenguas y Culturas


21, 22 y 23 de setiembre de 2006

Facultad de Lenguas, UNC, Córdoba, Argentina


El Centro de Investigación en Traducción de la Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba convoca a las Primeras Jornadas Internacionales de Traductología que se realizarán los días 21-22-23 de septiembre de 2006 en la Facultad de Lenguas.


 Estas Jornadas constituirán una manera de crear un espacio de discusión, reflexión e intercambio de experiencias y enfoques sobre las disciplinas involucradas en el ámbito de la Traducción, promoverán la investigación y contribuirán a implementar acciones conducentes a mejorar la producción y difusión del conocimiento en el área  objeto del encuentro.




Docentes, investigadores y alumnos de grado y postgrado y de nivel terciario cuya área de interés o especialización sea la Traductología y demás disciplinas que interactúan con ella.



Esp. Ana María Granero de Goenaga

Prof. Marta Arróniz

Prof. Ángela Brígido

Lic. Marta Celi

Lic. Emma Lupotti

Lic. Ana María Maccioni

Prof. María Teresa Toniolo


Informes: Centro de Investigación en Traducción (CIT)

Av. Vélez Sársfield 187, Tel: 4331073/75 int. 19 - E-mail:

Secretaría de Extensión y Relaciones Internacionales • Facultad de Lenguas • Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

Av. Vélez Sarsfield 187 • Córdoba • Argentina • CPA X5000JJB • Tel/Fax +00 54 0351 4331073 al 75 int. 30






Our dear SHARER May Godward from the British Council has got an important announcement to make:

Writer Glenn Patterson in Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Mar del Plata


Glenn Patterson came to prominence during the 1980s as one of the younger generation of novelists whose work began to develop fresh perspectives on the representation of the Northern Irish troubles since 1969. In his fiction he tries to recover the ‘lost’ history of Northern Ireland’s existence before the onset of the troubles and chart the trajectories which ultimately led to the crisis of the present.


Events in Buenos Aires

•       Memory, history and society


Interviewed by Susana Groisman, Glenn Patterson explores how the interaction between memory, history and society is reflected in his books.

Tuesday 5 September – 1800-1915

IES en Lenguas Vivas Juan Ramón Fernández – Salón 400, Carlos Pellegrini 1515, Buenos Aires

Registration: (011) 4311 9814



Events in Córdoba


•       Ficción y política

Chaired by Andrew Graham.-Yooll, Glenn Patterson and Vicente Battista exchange views on politics in their fiction. Simultaneous interpretation available.

Wednesday 6 September – 2000-2100

Feria del Libro de Córdoba, Auditorio Obispo Mercadillo, Córdoba



•       Cultural memory


Presentation on Belfast by Glenn Patterson at the Cultural Memory Symposium

Thursday 7 September – 1030-1200

Cultural Memory Symposium, Facultad de Lenguas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Avda Vélez Sarsfield 187, Córdoba



Events in Mar del Plata


•       New writing from the UK: Glenn Patterson

Jorgelina Carlassare facilitates a reading group focusing on Glenn Patterson


Friday 8 September

Jornadas de Inglés, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata.



•       Memory, history and society

Interviewed by Jorgelina Carlassare, Glenn Patterson explores how the interaction between memory, history and society is reflected in his books.


Saturday 9 September – morning

Jornadas de Inglés, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata


Glenn Patterson was born in Belfast in 1961, and still lives there having studied on the Creative Writing MA at the University of East Anglia. His first novel, Burning Your Own, was published in 1988 and won a Betty Trask Award and the Rooney Prize for Irish Literature. His second, Fat Lad, was shortlisted for the Guinness Peat Aviation Book Award in 1992 and he has since published three more novels: Black Night at Big Thunder Mountain (1995); The International (1999); and Number 5 (2003). His new novel, That Which Was, will be published in 2004.Glenn has been Writer in Residence at the Universities of East Anglia, Cork and Queen's University, Belfast, and was one of two writers selected by the British Council and the Arts Council to attend the Literaturexpress Europa 2000 international literature tour. He has also presented a number arts and culture documentaries for television.



If you would like further details on Glenn Patterson, please check our web pages (, where you will find links to interviews, extracts, New Writing resources and a session on Writing Believable Dialogue by Patterson and published by the BBC. If you would like to receive copies of the three pieces published in New Writing, please let us know ( so we can post them to you. Otherwise, if you live near the office in Buenos Aires, you may prefer to fetch them directly from the reception at Marcelo T de Alvear 590 – 4th Floor (Mondays to Thursdays: 0900 to 1700 and Fridays: 0900 to 1330).


Hope to see you all at the events!



Mary Godward

Manager Knowledge and Learning - British Council

M T de Alvear 590 - 4th Floor - C1058AAF Buenos Aires

T +54 (0)11 4311 9814 - F +54 (0)11 4311 7747

Access our online information service from Monday to Friday between 1000 and 1400 at and get an immediate reply to your queries about the UK





Our dear SHARERS from Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata have sent us this invitation:


Saturday 16th of September ELT Western Conference 

Resources that work in practice!
with Andrew Walkley (UK), Prof. Alfredo Biloposky (UTN) and  Lic. Mady Casco (At Home) and a play by Magic Tales!


Venue: Liceo Cultural Británico- Sede Moreno – Avda Gaona and Victoria, Moreno


Follow the links for:

General Information, Fees and Registration


Biodata & seminars







Our dear SHARER Mónica Levi from Macmillan has written to us:


Join us at his one and only presentation of Philip Prowse in Buenos Aires at BAC


Academic Talk

Inspiring teenagers: issues of motivation and discipline in the classroom


Motivation and discipline problems loom large in the lives of many teachers. We will see how we can use the power of language to address these problems. Specifically, we will look at the creation of a positive learning environment through the language which the teacher uses to manage the class. We will consider the significance of intonation and non-verbal signals, the importance of choice, presuppositions behind what we say, constructive praise, motivation building and anger management. We will also reflect on appropriate use of the mother tongue and how to look after our own voices.


Learning in Style!


Left brain, right brain or no brain? Is learning style identification a fad or a useful tool? What does recent research tell us? In this practical workshop we’ll do a learning styles questionnaire and see whether you agree with its ‘diagnosis’. Then we’ll carry out a range of activities which you can use in your own classroom and decide how far they reflect different learning styles. Examples will be taken from Inspiration (Macmillan).


Philip Prowse

Philip taught and trained teachers for the British Council in Egypt, Portugal, Greece and Poland.

He then became Principal of Bell College, Saffron Walden and has been a full-time writer and trainer since 1994.

He is co-author, with Judy Garton-Sprenger of Inspiration among other publications.

He is Reviews Editor of English Language Teaching Journal.


Venue BAC British Arts Centre - Suipacha 1333 - Ciudad de Buenos Aires

Date September 20th, 2006 - Time 6 p.m.

Free of Charge

Registration Macmillan Publishers S.A.

Phone: (011) 4717 0088 / 0810 555 5111







Our dear SHARER Karina Medaglia has sent us all this invitation:


Andrew Walkley's Tour - Argentina and Uruguay


Andrew Walkley is a teacher and teacher trainer at the University of Westminster, where he's setting up an innovative new ELT training course. He is co-author of the coursebook series Innovations (Thomson) and the on-line training course Teaching Lexically ( ).




Date: Sept 16th



Learning a foreign language takes a long time and progress is dependent on learning, remembering and eventually using a lot of language. This talk looks at how teachers and coursebooks often underestimate the amount of revision and recycling which is required for students to improve and offers a number of practical activities to revise language.


Venue: ELT Western Conference - Moreno , Buenos Aires

Time: To be confirmed




Date: Sept 18th



The main destination for most students of English is a degree of oral fluency. In this talk, I will argue that many students never get close to their destination in part because materials still focus too much on the teaching of grammar rules plus words with not enough attention to usage. I will suggest an alternative route to fluency with reference to my teaching, some sources of inspiration outside EFL and the coursebook series Innovations.


Venue: Universidad Abierta Interamericana - San Juan 951, Capital Federal

Time: 6.30 PM

Registration: Thomson Learning Argentina S.A. - Tel: (011) 4582-0601/7 o




Date: Sept 20th


Why do so many students stop learning English at low levels? In this talk I suggest the typical Elementary syllabus is partly to blame. By reflecting on L1 acquisition, we can rethink the language taught in elementary courses, the contexts used and the way we address students' questions. The talk offers practical advice and possible ways of thinking about material.

Venue: KEL Ediciones , Emilio Frers 2228 - Martinez,  Provincia de Bs. As

Time: 5.00 PM


Registration: Thomson Learning Argentina S.A. - Tel: (011) 4582-0601/7 o




Date: Sept 21st - 23rd

"CHALK AND TALK? Using the whiteboard in the language classroom"

Whiteboards have been described as 'the most versatile piece of teaching equipment', yet remarkably little has been written about their use. Training tends to look at organising the board, the use of coloured pens and the like, while largely ignoring the subject of what is actually written on the board, how teachers and students interact through the board, and what students actually write down in their notes. Based on classroom observations, questionnaires and interviews, this talk explores these areas and also raises questions about what it means to be student-centred, and theories of language and language learning.


Venue: FAPPI: Colegio San Bartolome - Entre Rios 419, Rosario.

Time: To be Confirmed





Date: Sept 19th



Learning a foreign language takes a long time and progress is dependent on learning, remembering and eventually using a lot of language. This talk looks at how teachers and coursebooks often underestimate the amount of revision and recycling which is required for students to improve and offers a number of practical activities to revise language.


Venue: Hotel Lafayette - Soriano 1170, Montevideo.

Time: 6.30PM


Registration: Thomson Learning Argentina S.A. - Tel: (005411) 4582-0601/7 o






Concursos para cargos de Profesor Titular  del Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas “Juan Ramón Fernández”


De acuerdo con el Reglamento Orgánico del Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas “Juan R. Fernández” (art. 13.6), el Rectorado y el Consejo Directivo llaman a concurso público y abierto de antecedentes y oposición para la provisión de cargos titulares de las siguientes cátedras del nivel superior:


Inscripción: desde el miércoles 30 de agosto hasta el martes 19 de septiembre de 2006.


Profesorado en Inglés

Metodología y Práctica de la Enseñanza III (Turno Mañana y Turno Vespertino)

Seminario de Literatura Inglesa (Turno Mañana “A”)


Traductorado en Inglés

Lengua Inglesa III (Turno Tarde)

Análisis del Discurso (Turno Mañana)

Traducción Literaria I (Turno Tarde)

Lengua IV (Turno Tarde y Turno Vespertino)


Materias comunes

Pedagogía PA (Turno Mañana)

Sujetos de la Educación PI (Turno Vespertino)

Problemas del Conocimiento PF (Turno Mañana)



Si al cierre del llamado a un concurso, el número de inscriptos fuera menor a tres (3), el llamado permanecerá abierto hasta el 10 de octubre de 2006


Informes e inscripción: Secretaría de Rectorado

IES en Lenguas Vivas “Juan Ramón Fernández” - Carlos Pellegrini 1515 Capital

de lunes a viernes de 9:30 a 18 hs.







American Expressions worth knowing!


What would an American say if s/he wants to know what alcoholic beverage you usually have? The answer is "Name your poison"

A workshop which leaves textbook English behind...

Venue: Rio Negro 4413 (MDP) - September 23rd 10:00-11:30

Fee: $10 (ELTeam Members $ 8)


Please confirm attendance - (0223)475-8631








La Universidad Blas Pascal convoca a cubrir cargos de docentes para dictar clases de Inglés deingles en el Programa de Lenguas Extranjeras de la UBP.

Aquellos que esten interesados por favor enviar su CV a o solicitar entrevista al 4144444 int. 422 los martes y jueves de 11.30 a 14.30hs.


Posted by : Silvina Cragnolino, Coordinadora del Programa de Lenguas Extranjeras




Call for Teachers 2007

If you are a fresh gratuate planning to move to Comodoro Rivadavia and would like to work at Teacher Training School level submit an introductory letter, CV, referees & updated photo to

State what subjects you would be interested in co-teaching and visit our website at


Call for Director of Studies 2007

If you are a seasoned gratuate planning to move to Comodoro Rivadavia and would like to work both at Teacher Training School level (methodology, trainees, class plans, workshops, etc.) and at the Extension Department (London 3, 4 & 5, CFC,

CAE, parents' meetings, etc.) submit an introductory letter, CV, referees & updated photo to and visit our website at


Posted by Adriana Eugui






Our dear SHARER Maria Marta Suarez has got an invitation to make:


Workshops for Kinder & Pre-kinder Teachers

By Prof. María Marta Suárez


At Instituto de Argentino Europeo de Formación Docente Comenius

Freire 1882 - Buenos Aires


September & October 2006


During these series of experiential sessions...


…nursery school and kindergarten teachers will be actively engaged in stories, dances, finger-plays, songs and drama which they will be able to adapt and use in their own classes. Teachers will also be introduced to the theoretical background that supports a rich and early start in language learning.


September 13th from 6.30 to 8.30 p.m.

The Earlier the Better: English for babies.

Find out how you can make the most of the huge language learning potential of babies.


A foreign language is easy to learn along with the mother tongue rather than after the mother tongue. So, during this workshop you will learn about the natural capacity that young children have to acquire a foreign language. Through stories, play, singing and dancing you will be introduced to the methodology that is being used at the moment with groups of babies from 4 months to three years of age.


September 27th from 6.30 to 8.30 p.m.

When it comes to teaching the little ones...think BIG!

We see them little and we teach them little…but why teach little if they can have the whole?

Discover the huge learning potential of the little geniuses trapped in the small bodies of your young learners. Find out how a multi-sensory holistic approach to language teaching and learning can help you make the most of the magic chamber held in the child’s brain. During this session you will learn the why and the how of teaching English to the very young and you will take home a bagful of classroom tips, rhymes, songs, finger-plays, stories and musical games that will enrich your repertoire and fill your classrooms with creativity and fun!


October 4th from 6.30 to 8.30 p.m.

Story Telling: from the cradle to kindergarten and beyond.

The easy way to teaching and learning the whole of the structural system of the language!

Find out how you can exploit story telling as a tool to facilitate the learners’ internalisation of the so-called “difficult” structures. Experience how a multi-sensory approach to story telling can make your classes with young learners fun and effective.   


October 18th from 6.30 to 8.30 p.m.

Look, Move, Sing and Say in Kindergarten

Action and music based activities to enjoy with the young ones!

During this workshop you will learn a series of games, rhymes and finger-plays, which together with music and songs can enrich your classes with learners at the pre-literacy stage. You will also learn about the theoretical principles that support the choice of content and grading for such activities. 




October 25th from 6.30 to 8.30 p.m.

Dances for the Young

Join this Circle Dance journey that will enrich your brain, give flexibility to your body and inject your teaching repertoire with joy and creativity:


Join this session and learn dances and songs that you can share with your young learners in class or at school celebrations. Following the brain-friendly premises that “we learn by doing,” and that  “we learn best when our heart is touched, María Marta Suárez will guide your process of learning simple steps to dance to the melodies of traditional music of different cultures, which have been adapted to be used in ELT classes for or at school celebrations.


María Marta Suárez


Prof. María Marta Suárez is a teacher, teacher trainer, curriculum designer, and a text-book writer. She has run holistic immersion and teacher training courses throughout Argentina and at the Findhom Foundation College in Great Britain. She has developed ALL Alternative Language Learning, a humanistic methodology on which she has based her EFL courses and trainings in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Scotland, Spain, Mexico and in Uruguay

She was a Methods teacher at ISP Joaquín V. Gonzalez.  At present she is a lecturer of Didáctica Inglesa para Nivel Inicial at Instituto Argentino Europeo de Formación Docente Comenius.


Informes e Inscripcion:

Administración del Colegio Pestalozzi, Freire 1882 de 14.00 a 18.30 Hs.

Tel: 4555-3688 – Belgrano, Buenos Aires. E-mail:  


Costo por Taller: $25 - Costo por taller cancelando el pago al 8 de septiembre: $20

Costo por los cinco talleres: $100 - Costo por los cinco talleres cancelando el pago al 8 de septiembre: $ 80

Consulte telefónicamente por inscripción a través de depósito bancario.






Our dear SHARERS from UMSA announce:


Universidad del Museo Social Argentino

Av. Corrientes 1723 - C1042AAD - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina

Teléfono: (54-11) 4375-4601 - Fax: (54-11) 4375-4600 - E-mail:


Cursos De Extensión Universitaria 2006


Las Preposiciones En General y su Especificidad en el Lenguaje Jurídico

Idioma: INGLÉS

Profesoras: Julia Suárez Maceyra – Silvia Sehinkman

Estudiantes avanzados, profesores, traductores e intérpretes

Sábado 2, 9, 16 y 23 de septiembre, Av. Corrientes 1723 - C1042AAD - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

11.00 a 13.00 hs.

Arancel: $ 120


Taller De Traducción, Traducción Literal Vs Traducción Idiomática. Interferencias Lingüísticas Y Técnicas De Traducción

Idioma: INGLÉS

Profesora: Norah Marcela Azúa

Dirigido a: Estudiantes de traductorado

Viernes 8 y 15 de septiembre, Av. Corrientes 1723 - C1042AAD - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

15.00 a 17.00 hs.

Arancel: $ 50


Análisis Y Cotización De Proyectos De Traducción

En castellano

Profesora: Patricia García Ces

Dirigido a: Traductores, intérpretes y estudiantes de las carreras de traductorado /interpretariado en inglés, francés, italiano o alemán

Viernes 15 y 22 de septiembre, Av. Corrientes 1723 - C1042AAD - Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

16.00 a 18.00 hs.

Arancel: $ 45







Our dear SHARER Celia Zubiri has sent this tempting invitation:



The plays we are staging now will not be shown next year. So... it is now or never!

Performances at Teatro Santamaría, Montevideo 842, Ciudad de Buenos Aires.


Moppyland - a 50-minute musical comedy for children aged 3 - 6.

Sat 23/09 – 10.30 a.m.

Wed 27/09 – 10 a.m.


The Sleeping Princess - a 55-minute musical comedy for children aged 5 - 8.

Tues 12/09 - 10 a.m.

Thur  14/09 – 10 a.m.

Wed 20/09 – 2.30 p.m.


Pandora's Box - a 60-minute musical comedy for children aged 9 - 12.

Tues 12/09 – 2.30 p.m.

Fri 15/09 – 2.30 p.m.

Sat 16/09 – 10.30 a.m.


Dead Buddies - a 60-minute hilarious thriller for adolescents and adults (Intermediate level).

Wed 13/09 – 1.30 p.m.

Fri 15/09 – 10 a.m.

Sat 16/09 – 12.15 p.m.


Gimme A Break! - a 60-minute comedy for adolescents and adults (Intermediate level).

Sat 23/09 – 12.15 p.m.

Tues 26/09 – 10 a.m.


Taming Caterina - a 75-minute musical comedy for advanced students.

Fri 8/09 - 7 p.m.

Wed 13/09 - 10 a.m.

Thur 14/09 – 2.30 p.m.

Fri 15/09 - 7 p.m.


Reservations: (011) 4812-5307 / 4814-5455 /


More information and workpacks:







Our dear SHARER  Leandro Paladino has sent us this invitation for all our SHARERS:


A full-day seminar on 9th September in Instituto Terrero (Calle 11 Nro 675), La Plata, from 9 am to 5 pm. The overall theme is 'Language to teach, language to learn', and it consists of four separate, but inter-related workshops:


This whole day of learning will provide two strands of English language analysis and practice: the first will explore the quantity and quality of English used in the classroom (by teachers and students); the second will consist of a number of clinics on very advanced-level language brush-up, with an emphasis on grammar and speaking.

The constant interaction between the two, and the variety of materials and resources to be used, will yield a perfect blend of thinking, sharing and enjoyment – all in Leandro’s usual upbeat style!


• Teacher talk

How much should a teacher speak in class? Is (teachers’) speech the only way to give instructions, explanations, corrections…? Not only will this workshop critically mirror teachers’ little ‘vices’, it will also help you experiment with the ways silence, gestures and the body can be harnessed to great effect!

• The mother tongue – to use or not to use?

20th century EFL methods have in turn vilified or deified the mother tongue. Given the paradigm change, it may be difficult to know where to stand in the realities of a new millennium. Can students’ native language be put to any use? can a principled eclectic approach exist? Can any fun be had in the L1-L2 midst?


• Nitty-Gritty grammar

New findings now show certain grammar aspects to be more-or-less idiomatic, more-or-less likely, rather than plain right-or-wrong. There comes a moment in every language teacher/learner’s life where the belief sets in that ‘there’s hardly any more grammar to still learn’. This workshop will set the record straight!


• Speaking matters

Rusty speaking, formal small talk, bookish English… If these reflect the way you ever feel your spoken English sounds, this workshop will give you a boost to shape it up! Results (and enjoyment) guaranteed!



Enrolment is at NEL Inglés La Plata: Diagonal 77 No 883 (10 & 42). Tel: (0221) 423-1205 or NEL Inglés City Bell: 473 bis No 1417 (20 & 21). Tel: (0221) 472-3733

There are discounts for group enrolments. Those interested can write us on or visit






Denominación de la beca : Becas de posgrado en Australia 

Destinatarios : Egresados universitarios con título superior . 

Tipo/Finalidad : Cursos de posgrado. 


Descripción de la beca 


El Commonwealth Scholarships Program Student Financing Unido. Department Of Educación, Science And Training (DEST) de Australia ofrece becas para licenciados de cualquier nacionalidad que quieran iniciar estudios de posgrado o de doctorado a tiempo completo de dedicación en alguna universidad australiana o llevar a cabo investigaciones junto con investigadores australianos.


Requisitos de la beca 

Ser estudiante extranjero, cumplir con los requerimientos para solicitar visa en Australia, no estar recibiendo otra beca.

Dotación de la beca 

La dotación incluye gastos de matrícula y seguro médico. 

Nacionalidad de los destinatarios : Argentina. 

Convocante :  Gobierno de Australia 

Pais/Región en el que se disfruta la beca : Australia. 


Plazos : Final Plazo Solicitud:  01/12/2006


Información de contacto

Url: ... 






Reseñas Educativas / Education Review es una publicación académica con formato electrónico de reseñas de libros sobre educación. Se creó en 1998 y desde entonces ha publicado casi 1.500 reseñas que pueden ser consultadas en la siguiente dirección:




We would like to finish this issue of SHARE with this mail that a dear SHARER

From Fort Lauderdale sent us:   


Hola Omar y Marina un placer recibir toda esta información de ustedes. Soy una ex profesora de ingles egresada del profesorado nacional de Moreno,Ricardo Rojas, ex alumna de Efraín Davis....como olvidar...tan magnifica persona.Vivo hace 9 años en Fort Lauderdale Florida USA...Sigo y leo todo lo que me llega sobre profesores y profesorados y estoy al tanto de todo...por esto te agradezco el envío de todo este material que me encanta leer y me hace tanto bien. El motivo de esta carta es ese...decir gracias a una persona que tanto hace por el bien común....una vez mas gracias a los dos.....


Marta Rodriguez de Alemann




Omar and Marina.



SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.