An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 3                                   Number 60                    December 6th 2001



Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED





A really big “thank you” for all the messages we got congratulating us on the return of SHARE. There are those from our close friends, also the ones from the very well known figures in our ELT scene and the ones from our anonymous dear SHARERS.

You know we appreciate them all, but you also know that we cherish especially the ones from our dear  SHARERS “without a face”, the ones that have always been there  faithfully by our side. Today SHARE has more than 4,600 members. Most of them are our VIP´s , the real professionals at the chalkface that silently make the wheels of the ELT world go round.




Omar and Marina







1..-     Appropriate Pedagogies in a Global Age.

2..-    English Speaking Scholastic Association of the River Plate.

3.-     A Day in Mom´s life.

4..-    Literature for Young People.

5.-     The Tale of the Little Gray Rock.

6..-    BRAZTESOL 2002.

7..-    Epistemology and the Teaching Profession.

8.-     Workshop on Teaching English to Children.







Our dear SHARER, Fabiana Constantino sends us this article of professional interest

(a handout of Isobel´s successful presentation at Colegio Marín).



Appropriate Pedagogies in a Global Age


by Isobel Rainey, University of Surrey, Guildford, England & Colegio Marín, Buenos Aires



 (1)              Relationship between society and foreign language teaching aims


Contrary to popular belief, the aims of foreign language teaching programmes are dictated not by linguists, applied linguists and foreign language teachers but by society. Research by linguists and applied linguists usually reflects the prevailing concerns of society, however, and foreign language teachers respond to these in turn in the form of a 'technology' which is designed to attain the prevailing aims i.e. those dictated by society and refined by linguists and applied linguists.


 It is commonly acknowledged that society identifies 3 main aims for foreign language teaching:


(I) literary/artistic/aesthetic;


(II) philosophical (ideological/political);


(III) social (interactional/transactional).



(2)                        The influence of different historical circumstances on the aims of  foreign language teaching.    


 At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, society  regarded a knowledge of foreign languages as a manifestation of a person's artistic/literary merit in as much as the individual would be  considered a more cultivated person if he/she could read and discuss  the great literatures of other languages. Thus, Grammar Translation  was the method which was applied to achieving society's aim.


 In contrast, during the period before, during and after WW2, the need to learn foreign languages was closely associated with getting to know,  controlling and dominating the enemy. That is, it had urgent ideological and political aims. Applied linguists and teachers responded to this aim in terms of the Audio Lingual method which promised the efficient programming of  the learners into mastery of the foreign language.     


In the late sixties and seventies, the world - or at least the industrialised West - experienced a completely different era. It was an era of hope, optimism, and enormous economic growth, which appeared to herald prosperity and equality for all. It was accompanied by a dramatic increase in international travel and communication, which led to a view of foreign language learning which was seen primarily in terms of social aims:


(i) interactional; (ii)transactional.    


 This was the historical moment which spawned CLT. (Communicative Language Teaching)


 (3)    Brief review of CLT     


Responses to society's need for a form of foreign language teaching which would respond to its demands for social English resulted in the now familiar preoccupation with theories of language competence and these have undergone modifications, as linguistics refine their theories.     


Hence, the developments and modification to the concept of  'communicative competence' from Hymes' basic concern with appropriacy through Canale and swain's appeal for strategic  competence to Bachman's broader definition of communicative ability.     


This, in turn, led to the development of the concomitant classroom 'technologies' in the form of the needs analysis, functional syllabus, information and opinion gap activities and process syllabuses, etc.


In their enthusiasm for CLT and for seeking ways in which to effect it, applied linguists and teachers overlooked some important facts:


 (i)     Not all countries were experiencing the same economic boom as the economically vibrant West, and some that were not experiencing it at the same rate;


(ii)     One aim for foreign language teaching - even a major aim - does not automatically preclude another; some things never change, the need, for example, of human  beings for affective support in the face of problems. In  contrast, other things are unlikely to last for ever, economic booms, for instance.


(iii)    The techniques evolved for implementing CLT reflected the priorities of societies which encouraged individualism and  these were being applied in societies which believed in community and group efforts.


(iv)    Historical moments are precisely that - historical moments - and one moment leads to another.


(4)             The present moment: globalisation and foreign language learners' needs in a global age       


 There are basically two views of globalisation: globalisation which promotes diversity, which encourages a view of the world where the nations learn from one another without becoming like one another. And globalisation which reflects an economic system which marginalises less industrialised nations and aggravates the gap between the rich and the poor.


 Some linguists and applied linguists (Phillipson, Pennycook,  Kramsch) sustain that what we have experienced over the past 20 years is a form of globalisation which imposes, through the teaching of  English, among other things, not just one economic system but one view of the world - a view which is fundamentally Anglo-Americancentric.


 It is urgent, therefore, that, in the interests of the enriching view of  globalisation, that views which encourage true diversity, more  appropriate pedagogies be devised to respond to the demands of this present moment.




Holliday, A. (1994) Appropriate Methodology and Social Context Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Pennycook, A. (1994) The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. Harlow, Essex: Longman.


Phillipson, R. (1992) Linguistic Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 







ESSARP is perhaps one of the most prestigious institutions in the River Plate. Over the last few weeks we received a number of enquires about the nature of ESSARP so we decided to request our  dear friend and SHARER Bertie Noble´s cooperation.  Today he explains to us what ESSARP is.


Dear Omar and Marina,

I know how dear cyber space is, so am sending you a very brief account of ESSARP activities.

Anything else you need, please email requests, and I shall gladly provide whatever answers I can cover. Delighted with the return of SHARE. 

Kindest regards,



ESSARP, a non-profit-making organization, was founded in 1926 as the British Scholastic Association to provide a forum for interchange between the heads of British-type schools in Argentina and Uruguay.


For many years ESSARP has been responsible for the organization of a wide range  of interschool student activities. In 1976 the Association launched what was to become its Annual Conference, and in 1982 it was invited by the University of Cambridge to take over the administration of Cambridge O and A level examinations, as well as English language examinations at school level. More recently it has been responsible for the administration of IGCSE and AICE examinations in Argentina, and has become a fully-fledged “international partner”  of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate.


The ESSARP Centre started its days in 1985 in cramped, rented quarters, but its expansion was such that the Association purchased its current premises in town,  providing a first class facility with five large meeting rooms, a well-stocked educational library and reading room,  auditorium, exhibition area and video library, cafeteria service, and a number of smaller rooms for interviews and informal gatherings. Within a relatively short time the ESSARP Centre has acquired a solid reputation for the quality of its in-service training courses and for the success rate of its own Diploma course. The facilities and services of the Centre, through affiliate membership, are open to the full constituency of bilingual schools in Greater Buenos Aires, approximately one hundred (representing fifty thousand students),  seeking the constant replenishment and professional upgrading of their staff.


The Association is governed by an Executive Committee of five honorary members, and employs a full-time Executive Officer, Mr. Jeremy Simpson, an  Academic Coordinator, Dr. Cristina Banfi,  and a staff of ten.  






Our dear friend and SHARER , Annie Altamirano sends us this “recipe” with the following message for all our mommy-teachers-SHARERS : 

We know what this is about






Remove teddy bear from oven and preheat to 375.

Melt 1 cup margarine in saucepan.

Remove teddy bear from oven again and tell child "No, no!"

Add margarine to 2 cups sugar and blend.

Take shortening can away from child and clean cupboards.


Measure 1/3 cup cocoa into mixing bowl.

Take shortening can away from child again and bathe cat.

Apply antiseptic and bandages to cat scratches.


Assemble 4 eggs, 2 tsp. vanilla, and 1-1/2 cups sifted flour.

Take smouldering teddy bear from oven and open doors and windows for ventilation.

Take telephone away from child and assure party on the line the call was a mistake.

Call operator and attempt to have direct dialled call removed from bill.


Measure 1 tsp. salt, 1/2 cup nuts into bowl.

Remove plastic toy from bowl, rinse toy in sink, and beat all ingredients well.

Let cat out of refrigerator.


Pour mixture into well-greased 9x13-inch pan.

Bake 25 minutes.

Rescue cat and take razor away from child.

Explain to kids that you have no idea if shaved cats will sunburn.

Throw cat outside while it's still able to run away.


Mix the following in saucepan for frosting:

1 cup sugar, 1 oz unsweetened chocolate, 1/4 cup margarine.

Take charred teddy bear out of the $#%! broiler and throw it away.

Answer the door and explain to nice policeman that you didn't know child had slipped out of the door and was heading for the street.

Put child in playpen.


Add 1/3 cup milk, dash of salt, and boil, stirring constantly for 2 minutes.

Answer door and apologize to neighbour for child having stuck a garden hose

in his front door mail slot.

Promise to pay for ruined carpet.

Put child back in playpen.


Remove burned brownies from oven.

Open package of cookies, serve those instead!



Marina: Annie´s very right

Omar:   I had no idea. Anyway, you never bake brownies!





Our dear SHARER Teresa Fernandez from the Britush Council sends us this information. We are delighted to hear our dear SHARER Claudia Ferradás Moi will co-chair such important event.


17th Oxford Conference on the Teaching of Literature

7-13 April 2002, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, United Kingdom


The conference will look at ways of developing projects and networks to bring 'fresh air' to teaching materials and methods around the world and keep up-to-date with changing trends. It will examine how to build on live literature events and encourage young people to read regularly through initiatives such as reading groups hosted by schools and local libraries.


Speakers include Alan Pulverness and Claudia Ferradas Moi (Chairs), Anne Fine, Matthew Sweeney, John McRae, Bob Eaglestone, Jeff Wood, Paul Munden (National Association of Writers), Barbara Bleiman (English and MediaCentre).


Participant profile

Teachers of English literature at secondary level in an ELT or ESL context (we will also consider applications from teachers at primary and tertiary levels), those involved in curriculum design and materials development and teacher training.



A range of workshops, plenaries and discussions on general issues, with readings by writers for children and young people.

Deadline for applications : 31 January 2002

Further Information &  downloadable application forms and flyers:


The British Council
Marcelo T de Alvear 590 - 4to
C1058AAF Buenos Aires
Tel: +54 (0)11 4311 9814/7519 / Fax: +54 (0)11 4311 7747




Our dear SHARER Rubén Pignataro from Chajarí, Entre Ríos sends us this story.


We thought it would be nice material to work with students at an intermediate level upwards, especially to help them to put their “famous” Critical Thinking Skills into action. Here are a few questions that Marina and I suggest:


Was what the  little gray rock did right or wrong?.

Do people do these things to other people? How often?

Has anyone ever done something like this to you? How did you feel?

Have you ever done something like this to somebody else? How did you feel?

Is there any way we can stop/ prevent people from doing this to us or to other people?

Can you write a new moral to the story?


Here is Ruben´s story:


Once upon a time, there lived a little gray rock in a fish tank. His dream was to be a driveway rock.


The little gray rock had two friends that lived with him in the fish tank, a red rock and a blue rock.


Everyday the fish that lived in the fish tank with them, would come over and make weird faces at them.


The little gray rock really started to get bugged by this, so he formulated a plan with his friends. They decided the next time that fish came over, the little gray rock would climb onto his friends and smash the fish.


Well, that's just what they did and it killed the fish. The owners of the fish saw that the fish was dead so they flushed the fish down the toilet, and threw the rocks out onto the driveway.


MORAL: Use your friends, smash your enemies, and you get what you want.




6.-     BRAZTESOL  2002


Our dear SHARER Sara Walker writes to us:


BRAZ-TESOL would be most grateful if you could let your friends and colleagues  know about the 2002 National Convention  "ELT- A Bridge to Understanding"
to be held in Florianopolis from  July 15 (evening) to  July 18 (evening) 2002.

The Call for Presentations for the 2002 BRAZ-TESOL National Convention
is now available on the BRAZ-TESOL website at

If you have any difficulty printing the Call from the website, let me know and I will email it to you as a file attachment.

Warm regards from BRAZIL,

Sara Walker, BRAZ-TESOL Advisory Council member
Hangar 5 
SHIS QI5 Area Especial
Lago Sul - Brasilia DF 71615-040
Tel: +61 364 2331 / Fax: +61 364 2332
Email: / /





Our dear friend and SHARER Andrea Ogilvie writes to us. Andrea is a Teacher of English and Licenciada en Gestión Educativa and is currently working towards her M.A. in Scientific Research. She can be contacted at>

Dear Omar and Marina:
Thank you for sharing Share, an enriching experience to us all!!!
If this is all about sharing, I would like to share this article entitled  "Epistemology and The Teaching Profession" with you and all our SHARERS.

Here it goes:

Epistemology and the Teaching Profession

Something has been hovering in my head lately, that is, why are there some  teachers who seem to fall into the do what I say but not what I do category?

The answer to this question, at least in part, came to me in a sort of  revelation while I was attending a class delivered by Dr. Samaja who was dealing with the great American philosopher Charles Pierce. He states that human cognition or the natural tendency of thought, has evolved as a result of paving its way through four methods in order to reach the capacity of scientific reasoning. The first of these is known as the method of tenacity where the most instinctive beliefs or internal drives are deeply ingrained.

Contrary to this, the method of authority refers to the adoption of prevailing beliefs, as a result of forming part of a certain community.

Following it, the a priori method consists of a reflective attitude towards weighing the limitations and relativity of the deeply rooted beliefs together with those imposed by others. Finally, the method of scientific investigation proper, has been reached.

All of these ways of settling opinion seem to coexist and interact with each
other in different levels along any individual´s life.

Some teachers are regarded to be prestigious in terms of holding excellent academic qualifications, of having lectured on Multiple Intelligences, the Independent Learner, Forms of assessment, Task-based learning and the like, and in the best of cases, those same ones who have even written books and published articles.


Yet, why is it that when it comes to adapting and putting that same knowledge into practice in their classroom with their own students, they are unable to do so, even though they prove to be remarkable theoreticians?. Maybe, Charles Pierce in his work “The Fixation of Belief” has a point to make in this respect. It would be possible to say that some teachers have unconscious impulses (method of tenacity) that may not be consistent, in whole or in part, with the theory of learning and the learner´s role and the theory of teaching and the teacher´s role, to follow Meighan in Ridley (1988), posited by authors such as Nunan, Willis, Armstrong and Genesee, just to mention some. They resort to these authors´ authority (method of authority) and they even reflect upon these authors´ theoretical stance (a priori method). But still, they adopt the method of tenacity and shut themselves out from all influences.

As Pierce puts it, "... it is the nature of the process to adopt whatever belief we are inclined to..." or in Ridley´s words, after all "... we teach who we are..."


Juan Samaja (1999) Epistemología Y Metodología.
Charles S. Pierce (1877) The Fixation of Belief. Popular Science monthly 12,
1-12 taken from
Keith Morrison & Ken Ridley (1988) Curriculum Planning & The Primary School.PCP





Our dear friend Marina Ulloa, sales and Promotion Manager for Macmillan Heinemann, send us this invitation:


Escuela Argentina Modelo and Macmillan Heinemann ELT invite you to share ideas, information and inspiration for teaching young children


When? Wednesday 12th December, 2001 from 5 pm to 7.30 pm

Where? Escuela Argentina Modelo, Riobamba 1059 – Capital Federal


Building a Wonderful World for Children Learning English.


In this workshop José Luís Morales will examine the principles that underlie successful language teaching in schools that believe that the whole is much more than the sum of its parts. Participants will then be invited to take part in activities that make learning English more meaningful, memorable and fun.


José Luis  is a teacher and teacher educator with 20 years’ experience in the field of EFL/ESL.  He is a founder and board member of the Centro de Estudios Jean Piaget of Montevideo. He has recently moved to Argentina to take the position of Academic Services Manager for the Southern Cone countries with Macmillan Heinemann ELT.


Free Admission but please reserve your place  on Tel/fax 4711-5111. Certificates of attendance will be issued upon request.




Time to say goodbye. This time  we wanted to leave you a message which might accompany you through the week. Very appropriate for these difficult moments when we sometimes lose sight of all the good things that we have and very often look hard without actually seeing. 


Un hombre susurró: "¡ Dios, habla conmigo!"

Y un Ruiseñor comenzó a cantar

Pero el hombre no oyó.


El hombre repitió: "¡ Dios, habla conmigo!"

Y el eco de un Trueno se oyó

Mas el hombre fue incapaz de oír.


El hombre miró enrededor y dijo: "¡ Dios, déjame verte!

 Una Estrella brilló en el cielo

Pero el hombre no la vio.


El hombre comenzó a gritar:" ¡ Dios, muéstrame un milagro!"

Un Niño nació

Más el hombre no sintió el latir de la vida.


El hombre comenzó a llorar y a desesperarse:

"Dios, tócame y déjame saber que estás aquí conmigo..."

 Y una Mariposa se posó suavemente en su hombro


El hombre espantó la mariposa con la mano y desilusionado

Continuó su camino, triste, solo y con miedo




Omar and Marina.


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