An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Year 5                Number 127           May 15th  2004
6250  SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
Eleven years ago this year a group of young, talented and energetic students of English from Universidad Nacional de Cuyo had the courage and the determination to make their collective dream come true. They shared much more than classes and teachers in the campus outside the city of Mendoza. They shared a passion for the theatre, for music and for the arts in general, and for everything creative. They thought that they could offer a new meeting scenario for those teachers who also believed in innovation and change as the driving force in the process of teaching and learning English.
Rubén Scattareggi, the undisputable leader of that incredible group of students recruited local talent and talked to Oriel Villagarcía in Buenos Aires (at that time Oriel had a managerial position with Longman Group Argentina). Oriel, in turn, talked to a group of  friends and associates into contributing to the meeting and so we all headed to Mendoza to spend two unforgettable days of shared classroom experiences and warm comradeship. The First National Congress of Teachers and Students of English  had been born and it  certainly was a huge success.
The First Congress plenarists and workshop leaders were: Prof. Marcela Ramos and Prof. Patricia Palacios  from Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Rubén´s recruits), and Prof.Fernando Armesto, Ms. Susan Hillyard, Prof. Cristina Grondona White, Mr Denis Dunn  and Prof Omar Villarreal from various institutions in Buenos Aires (Oriel´s recruits).
The Congress went on growing strong and healthy with a number of ups and downs into the bargain, as it so often happens with all “living” organisms:
1993.- Mendoza
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo – President: Rubén Scattareggi
1994.- Mendoza
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo – President: Rubén Scattareggi
1995.- San Juan
Universidad Nacional de San Juan – President: Marcela Ramos.
1996.- Córdoba
Universidad Empresarial Siglo XXI – President: Julio César Jiménez.
1997.- Salta
Instituto Provincial de Lenguas Vivas – President: Irma Larrinaga
1998.- Santa Fé
Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Santa Fé - President: Eduardo Quintana
1999.- It was not held.
2000.- Necochea
Asoc. Necochea de Cultura Inglesa and Instituto“San Pablo” – President: Omar Villarreal
2001.- Mendoza
Universidad Nacional de Cuyo – President: Rubén Scattareggi
2002.- It was not held.
2003.- Buenos Aires
UTN, UMSA, CAECE, Consudec, UBA,UCALP,UNCuyo,: President: Omar Villarreal
2004.- Bahía Blanca
Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Bahía Blanca - President: Marcela Alvarado.
2005.- Rosario (Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Rosario)
2006.- Buenos Aires (Universidad CAECE).
Today, everything is ready to offer a new high quality Congress with top-notch speakers and an exciting social programme. We are sure the old familiar magic of these meetings will be at work again.
We hope to see you in Bahía Blanca in July. We are sure you will have a great time together.    
Omar and Marina
PS: If you want to have more information about the Tenth National Congress of Teachers and Students of English, double click on this link:
In SHARE 127
1.-    Strategies-based Language Strategies: A Brief Analysis.
2.-    How Babies acquire Languages between ages 0 and 3.
3.-    Haunted by a preposition. 
4.-    What do we mean when we talk about Educating for Peace?
5.-    Manos por Hermanos: A Message from Bethina Viale.
6.-    Iniciación en la Enseñanza de Español a Extranjeros.
7.-    Jornadas Torre de Papel de Capacitación Profesional.
8.-    Visualize to Learn.
9.-    “Much Ado about…” and Forthcoming Bs.As. Players Tours.   
10.-   Anglia Update.
11.-   News from “On the Road” Theatre Company.
13.-   International Brain and Education Congress.
14.-   Distance Learning for Teachers and Translators.
Our dear friend and SHARER Kenton Sutherland, Senior English Language Fellow United States Department of State at Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique, Chile, has sent us this article he has written on one of his areas of research. Kenton will be one of the keynote speakers at the Tenth National Congress of Teachers and Students of English to be held in Bahía Blanca next July. Kenton will address the plenary on 10th of July.
Strategies-based language instruction:  A brief analysis
     This article reviews current literature and attitudes towards  strategy training and concludes that students who have increased opportunities for strategic investment in their language training will be more successful.  Such strategy-based instruction  raises awareness of student learning preferences,  teachers them to identify, practice, evaluate, and transfer strategies to new learning situations, and promotes learner autonomy, enabling students to continue their learning after they leave the language classroom.  Seven models of strategy instruction are provided along with a list of what  “good learners” do and what teachers can do to improve student strategies. .  Rebecca Oxford´s comprehensive taxonomy, Strategic Inventory for Language Learning (SILL),  is also included.
     How do we explain the fact that certain students seem to have a special ability to learn a foreign language and advance very rapidly while others struggle and advance very slowly?  In the past, we have sometimes tried to explain this phenomenon with statements such as, “She has a good ear” or “He is just no good at languages.”    These kinds of explanations are no longer satisfactory.  What  seems to be happening  in the so-called ¨student with a good ear” may, in fact, be her ability to focus on language events using conscious or unconscious strategies and storing them for future use.  The so-called ”student who is no good at languages”  may simply not possess any  of these systematic strategies to help him learn more effectively.
     Let´s take a brief look at  what some typical students do to help them learn English:
Juan Carlos attends the English Conversation Club meetings at his university every week so that he will have a chance to interact with native speakers of English.
María Eugenia puts stickers on objects all over her apartment with words in English written on them.
Herminia uses a yellow highlighter to mark important points in her textbook and her notebook.   She uses a pink highlighter for new vocabulary.
 Marcos likes to learn the words to popular  hip-hop songs and sing them along with the recordings.
Daniela regularly reads international magazines and newspapers in English at the library of the Chilean-North American Cultural Institute.  She also tries to read popular books such as the Harry Potter series.  She reads fast, does not look up unknown words in her dictionary, but tries to guess their meanings.
José Luis  loves to watch English language programs and movies on cable television and tries to guess the meaning of expressions that he is not familar with. 
 Victoria is a little shy, but she likes to make notes in the margins of her textbook and outline grammatical points.  She keeps an organized notebook of vocabulary by different categories:  house words, outdoor words, transportation words, professions, recreation and entertainment, etc.  
Timoteo spends hours every week in internet chat rooms, trying to understand and communicate in English with other young people around the world.   He has made some E-mail friends this way, and he writes to them as often as he can.  He uses a lot of emoticons  :-)  and internet abbreviations (IMHO)  when he writes
Isabel writes English words on one side of a card and the Spanish equivalent on the other side.  She studies them on the bus and when she has to wait in line, usually going from English to Spanish, but sometimes she will try to remember the English words by looking at the Spanish word.r
     These are only a few of the myriad ways that people go about learning a language.  Every one of the above activities is, in tact, a personal strategy for learning.  Oxford  (2002) defines a language learning strategy as ”specific actions, behaviors, steps, or techniques that  students (often unintentionally) use to  improve their progress in developing L2 skills.”  She states that these strategies not only facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval, or use of the new language  but are, in fact, necessary self-directed involvement for developing communicative ability.
     For a long time, language teachers have concerned themselves mainly with teaching methods and textbooks, considering teaching to be a “delivery system”  Recently, in light of research on successful and unsuccessful learners, language teachers are starting to consider the importance of the learner in the process.  According to Brown (2001), the “methods” that the learner employs to internalize and perform in the language are as important as the teacher´s methods.  He refers to this as the Principle of Strategic Investment¨:
     Successful mastery of the second language will be  due to a large extent
     to a learner´s own personal “investment” of time, effort, and attention to the
     second language in the form of an individualized battery of strategies for
     comprehending and producing the language. (Brown, 2001)
       What exactly is it that “good learners” do to contribute to their success in  
learning a foreign language?  Trying precisely to answer that question in the 1970s, early research in strategy-based instruction (SBI) had its roots in studies of successful learners, One of the early seminal studies was based on generalizations drawn over some years of research by Rubin and Thomson (1982)  According to them, good language learners
find their own way, taking charge of their learning 
organize information about language.
are creative, developing a “feel” for the language by experimenting with its grammar and words.
make their own opportunities for practice in using the language inside and outside the classroom.
learn to live with uncertainty by not getting flustered and by continuing to talk or listen without understanding every word.
use mnemonics and other memory strategies to recall what has been learned.
make errors work for them and not against them.
use linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of their first language, in learning a second language.
use contextual cues to help them in comprehension.
learn to make intelligent guesses.
learn chunks of language as wholes and formalized routines to help them perform “beyond competence.”
learn certain tricks that help to keep conversations going.
learn certain production strategies to fill in their own competence.
learn different styles of speech and writing and learn to vary their language according to the formality of the situation.     
     If  good learners use these strategies  (although not necessarily all of them) is it possible that  slower learners could also learn to use them?  According to a number of sources, the answer is a definite “yes.”           Cohen (2003) claims that “the most efficient way to heighten learner awareness is to provide strategy training – explicit instruction in how to apply language learning strategies – as parts of the foreign language curriculum.”  Brown (2001) believes that learners need to apply a whole battery of strategies for language learning.  Although  he states that some of these strategies are subconsciously applied, Brown argues that successful learners often have achieved their goals through conscious, systematic application of a battery of strategies, which suggests that they can   be learned by all students
     Cohen (2003) lists a number of goals of strategy training.  He claims that strategy training aims to provide learners with the tools to do the following:
Self-diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in language learning.
Become aware of what helps them to learn the target language most efficiently.
Develop a broad range of problem-solving.
Experiment with familiar and unfamiliar learning strategies.
Make decisions about how to approach a language task.
Monitor and self-evaluate their performance.
Transfer successful strategies for new learning contexts.
    To date, no best method appears has been empirically researched for strategy training although Cohen  describes several that have been proposed: (Pearson and Dole, 1987; Oxford et al., 1990; Chamot and O’Malley, 1994), with the same goals in mind:  (1) to raise student awareness of the purpose and rationale of strategy use;  (2) to give students opportunities to practice the strategies they are being taught; and (3) to help them use the strategies in new learning contexts.
     As a result of the current interest in strategy development, various instructional models now exist for language strategy training.  Cohen  describes seven different models:
     General Study Skills Courses.  These courses are sometimes intended for students with academic difficulties but successful students can also benefit.  Many general academic skills can be transferred to  language learning, i.e. using flash cards, overcoming anxiety,  and learning good note-taking skills.
     Awareness Training:  Lectures and Discussions.  Separate lectures and discussions  which provides students with a general introduction to strategy applications and the ways they can be used to accomplish various language tasks.
     Strategy Workshops.    A more intensive approach to increasing learner awareness of strategies.  They often combine lectures, hands-on practice, and discussions about the effectiveness of strategy use and are sometimes a required part of a foreign language program.  They may help students with specific language skills or present ideas for learning certain aspect of  a language. 
     Peer Tutoring.  “Tandem” or peer tutoring programs began in Europe in the 1970s and are now flourishing in many universities across the United States.  Students of different language backgrounds pair up for mutual tutoring sessions.  They must spend equal amounts of time with each language and alternate roles as teacher and learner.  They often exchange suggestions about the strategies they use.  Another approach is to encourage students studying the same language to meet together in study groups.  Less proficient students can benefit from the language skills of more proficient students, who can also provide strategy insights, sometimes better than a teacher can.
     Strategies in Language Textbooks.  Textbook publishers are beginning to embed strategy training in language texts although students may not be aware of it.  A few textbooks provide explanations and benefits of the strategy involved.  The advantage here is clear:  students learn strategies while involved with contextualized learning.  They also will not need separate extracurricular strategy training courses.  Students are directly reinforced in the classroom to use strategies to the extent that they will be able to continue to apply them later  on their own.
     Videotaped Mini-Courses.  Rubin (1996) developed a video program aimed at raising students´ awareness of learning strategies and the learning process in general, to show students how to transfer strategies to new tasks and to help them take charge of their own progress while studying a language.  Materials are structured to expose students to various strategies for use in many different
     Strategies-Based Instruction.  SBI is a learner-centered approach to teaching that extends classroom strategy training to include both implicit and explicit integration of  strategies into the course content.  Students apply strategies and share their preferred strategies with other students.  They increase their strategy use in the tasks they are asked to perform.
     According to Oxford in a more recent work (2002),  studies have indicated that L2 strategy training is frequently successful, but  she states that this has not been consistently confirmed (see, for example O´Malley and Chamot, 1990).  Some strategy training, according to Oxford, has been effective in various skill areas but not in others, even within the same study.  Oxford believes that problems in the research methodology might have obscured some potentially important findings, e.g.  too short a strategy training period, disproportionate ease or difficulty of the training task, lack of integration into the course work and perceived irrelevance of the training, and inadequate pretraining  assessment of learners´ initial strategy use and needs.
     Oxford goes on to indicate that the most effective strategy training is explicit:
      Learners are told overtly that a particular behavior or strategy is likely to be 
      helpful, and they are taught how to use it and how to transfer it to new
      situations.  Blind training, in which students are led to use certain strategies
      without realizing it, is less successful, particularly in the transfer  of
      strategies to new tasks.  Successful training succeeds best when it is woven   
      into regular class activities on a normal basis, according to most research.
     Another important observation that Oxford makes is that language learning style determines strategy choice.  When allowed to learn in their favorite way, students often use strategies that directly reflect their preferred learning.  For example, students with an analytical learning style  prefer strategies such as contrastive analysis, rule learning, and dissecting words and phrases.  Students with a global style use strategies that help them find the big picture, such as  guessing, scanning, and predicting, and which assist them in conversing without knowing all the words, such as paraphrasing and gesturing.  Visually oriented students  use strategies such as listing, word grouping, and so on.  Students with an auditory preference like to work with tapes and practice aloud.  Students who are tolerant of ambiguity use quite different strategies from students  who are intolerant of ambiguity.  Indeed, statistical links between students´ L2 learning strategies and their underlying learning styles have been shown by Ehrman and Oxford (1990) and Ely  (1989).
     In spite of the prominence of learning style on strategy choices, research has also shown that students can stretch beyond their learning style to use a variety of valuable L2 strategies that are initially uncomfortable ( Scarcella and Oxford, 1992).   Strategy training is particularly useful in helping student use these new strategies which are beyond their normal stylistic boundaries. 
    Let us return now to one of Cohen´s seven models for teaching language learning strategies, specifically the seventh model:  Strategy-Based Instruction or SBI.  Brown (2001) gives us a slightly different viewpoint on SBI.  He asks us to consider  how our language classroom techniques can encourage, build, and sustain effective language learning strategies in our students.  He goes on to state that in an era of communicative, interactive, learner-centered teaching, SBI simply cannot be overlooked.  In effect, Brown, chastizes teachers who are so consumed with “delivery” of language to students that they neglect to spend any effort to prepare learners to “receive” the language.  “And students, mostly unaware of the tricks of successful language learning, simply do whatever the teacher tells them to do, having no means to question the wisdom thereof.  In an effort to fill class hours with fascinating material, teachers might overlook their mission of enabling learners to eventually become independent  of the classroom -- that is, to become autonomous learners.” (Brown, 2001, p. 208)
     In a language course that contains a strong SBI component,  students experience the advantages of systematically applying the strategies to the learning and use of the language they are studying (Cohen, 2003).  They also have the opportunity to share their preferred strategies with classmates and to increase their strategy performance in daily class work.  Teachers can also individualize strategy training when learning styles are known and reinforce strategies with the regular course work.  Here are some things Cohen lists as things that teachers do in a typical SBI classroom:
Describe, model, and give examples of potentially useful strategies.
Elicit additional examples from students, based on students´ own learning experiences.
Lead small-group and whole-class discussions about strategies.
Encourage students to experiment with a broad range of strategies.
Integrate strategies into everyday class materials, explicitly and implicitly embedding them into language tasks to provide for contextualized strategy practice.
     Cohen goes on to state that “teachers may conduct SBI instruction by starting with established course materials, then determining which strategies to insert and where; starting with a set of strategies they wish to focus on and design activities around them; or inserting strategies spontaneously into the lessons whenever it seems appropriate (e.g., to help students overcome problems with difficlt material or to speed up the lesson).” .
     What specifically are these things called strategies that  we are supposed to teach in order to create autonomous language learners of our students?  In an important work in this field, Rebecca Oxford (1990) provided us with the most comprehensive taxonomy of learning strategies currently available. (Brown, 2001)  These strategies are divided into what have come to be know as direct or cognitive strategies, which learners apply directly to the language itself, and indirect or metacognitive strategies, in which learners manage or control their own learning process.
 Direct (cognitive) strategies include and number of different ways of
remembering more effectively,
using all your cognitive processes
compensating for missing knowledge.
Indirect (metacognitive) strategies include different  ways of
organizing and evaluating your learning,
managing your emotions,
learning with others.
      In the same work, Oxford provided a Strategic Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) which provides fifty statements which learners are to answer on a five-point scale (1. Never true of me,  2. Usually true of me,  3. somewhat true of me, 4. usually true of me,  5. always or almost always true of me).  The statements which the students answer 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 are grouped into Oxford´s six areas above and attempt to determine how often a student uses specific strategies, if at all.  Here is the entire list of statements from SILL , from the Version for Speakers of Other Languages Learning English:
Part A
1. I think of relationships between what I already know and new things I learn in  English.
2. I use new English words in a sentence so I can remember them.
3. I connect the sound of a new English words and an image or picture of the word to help me remember the word.
4. I remember a new English word my making a mental picture of a situation in which the word might be used.
5. I use rhymes to remember new English words.
6. I use flashcards to remember new English words.
7. I physically act out new English words.
8. I review English lessons often.
9. I remember new English words or phrases by remembering their location on the page, on the board, or on a street sign.
Part B
10. I say or write new English words several times.
11. I try to talk like native English speakers.
12. I practice the sounds of English.
13. I use the English words I know in different ways.
14. I start conversations in English.
15. I watch English language TV shows spoken in English or go to movies spoken in English.
16. I read for pleasure in English.
17. I write notes, messages, letters, or reports in English.
18. I first skim an English passage,read over the passage quickly, then go back and read  carefully.
19. I look for words in my own language that are similar to new words in English.
20. I try to find patterns in English.
21. I find the meaning of an English word by dividing it into parts that I understand.
22. I try not to translate word-for-word.
23. I make summaries of information that I hear or read in English.
Part C
24. To understand unfamiliar words, I make guesses.
25. When I can´t  think of a word during a conversation, I use gestures.
26. I make up new words if I do not know the right ones in English.
27. I read English without looking up every new word.
28. I try to guess what the other person will say next in English.
29. If I can´t think of an English word, I use a word or phrase that means the
      same thing.
Part D
30. I try to find as many ways as I can to use my English.
31. I notice my  English mistakes and use that information to help me do better.
32. I pay attention when someone is speaking English.
33. I try to find out how to be a better learner of English.
34. I plan my schedule so I will have enough time to study English.
35. I look for people I can talk to in English.
36. I look for opportunities to read as much as possible in English.
37. I have clear goals for improving my Engljsh skills.
38. I think about my progress in learning English.
Part E
39. I try to relax whenever I feel afraid of using English.
40. I encourage myself to speak English even when I am afraid of making
41. I give myself a reward or treat  when I do well in English.
42- I notice if I am tense or nervous when I am studying or using English.
43. I write down my feelings in a language learning diary.
44. I talk to someone else about how I feel when I am learning English.
Part F
45. If I do not understand something in English, I ask the other person to slow
      down or say it again.
46. I ask English speakers to correct me when I talk.
47. I practice English with other students.
48. I ask for help from English speakers.
49. I ask questions in English.
50. I try to learn about the culture of English speakers.
     Oxford does not claim that this is a comprehensive list of English learning strategies, but it is certainly quite an impressive assortment that has stood the test of time and is quite useful for teachers as well as for students who take the test.   According to Brown (2001), “the SILL has now been used with learners in a number of different countries including the US, and has proven to be exceptionally enlightening to learners as they are exposed, perhaps for the first time, to so many different strategic options.”  Its only drawback is that scoring and interpretation are a bit tricky and care must be taken to follow the scoring directions exactly.
     According to Brown, such strategies can be taught, and because of their specificity, they are actually easier to learn than more general learning styles. Brown claims that many strategies are related to, and actually become, the outward manifestation of style.  For example, a risk-taking style would result in seeking practice opportunities, making conversation even when it isn´t ”necessary,” trying out language language you´re not sure of, asking for correction, making guesses about  what  someone said, etc.  Brown provides an interesting list for strategy building in the classroom¨:
Building Strategic Techniques (Brown, 2001)
To lower inhibitions:  play guessing games and communication games; do role-plays and skits; sing songs; use plenty of group work; laugh with your students; have them share their fears in small groups.
To encourage risk-taking:  praise students for making sincere efforts to try out language; use fluency exercises where errors are not corrected at that time; give outside-of-class assignments to speak or write or otherwise try out the language.
To build students´self-confidence:  tell students explicitly (verbally and nonverbally) that you do indeed believe in them; have them make lists of their strengths, of what they know or have accomplished so far in the course.
To help them to develop intrinsic motivation:  remind them about the rewards for learning English; describe (or have students look up)  jobs that require English; play down the final examination in favor or helping students to see rewards for themselves beyond the final exam.
To promote cooperative learning:  direct students to share their knowledge; play down competition among students; get your class to think of themselves as a team; do a considerable amount of small-group work.
To encourage them to use right-brain processing:  use movies and tapes in class; have them read passages rapidly; do rapid “free writes”; do oral fluency exercises where the object is to get students to talk (or write) a lot without being corrected.
To promote ambiguity tolerance:  encourage students to ask you, and each other, questions when they don´t understand something; keep your theoretical explanations very simple and brief; deal with just a few rules at a time; occasionally resort to translation into Spanish  to clarify a word or meaning.
To help them use their intuition:  praise students for good guesses; do not always give explanations of errors—let a correction suffice; correct only selected errors, preferably just those that interfere with meaning.
To get students to make their mistakes work FOR them:  tape-record students´ oral production and get them to identify errors; let students catch and correct each other´s errors; do not always give them the correct form; encourage students to make lists of their common errors and to work on them on their own.
To get students to set their own goals:  explicitly encourage or direct students to go beyond the classroom goals; have them make lists of what they will accomplish on their own in a particular week ; get students to make specific time commitments at home to study the language; give “extra credit” work.
     Brown stresses that we should seize every opportunity to teach our students how to learn every time an appropriate opportunity occurs in class.  By doing so, we increase our students´ opportunities for strategic investment in their learning process.  The SBI Model, which introduces strategy training as part of the regular course work, seems offers an excellent working model for language strategy training.  In the final analysis, whichever model we choose, according to Cohen (2003), should accomplish the following:  (a) introduce the strategies to the students and raise awareness of their learning preferences; (b) teach them to identify, practice, evaluate, and transfer strategies to new learning situations, and (c) promote learner autonomy to enable students to continue their learning after they leave the language classroom.
Brown,  D. Teaching by Principles:  An interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy, Second Edition. White Plains, NY:  Pearson Education
Chamot, A. and O´Malley, J.The CALLA Handbook:  Implementing the Cognitive
Academic Language Learning approach.  Reading,MA:  Addison-Wesley.
Cohen, A.Strategy Training for Second Language Learners.ERIC Digest EDO-03-02.  Washington, DC:  ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics
Ehrman, M. and Oxford,R. 1990. Adult Language Learning Styles and Strategies
in an Intensive Training Setting.  Modern Language Journal, 74, 311-327
Ely, C.  Tolerance of Ambiguity and Use of  Second Language Learning Strategies.  Foreign Language Annals, 22, 437-445 .
Oxford, R. Language Learning Strategies:  What Every Teacher Should Know.  New York:  Newbury/Harper Collins
Oxford, R., Crookall, D., Cohen, A., Lavine, R., Nyikos, M., & Sutter, W.
Strategy training for Language Learners:  Six Situational Case Studies and a Training Model. Foreign Language Annals, 22(3), 197-216
Pearson, P.and Dole,J. 1987.Explicit Comprehension Instruction:  A Review of
Research and a New Conceptualization of Learning.  Elementary School Journal, 88, 151-65.        
Rubin, J. and Thompson,I. 1994. How to Be a More Successful Language Learner.
Boston, MA:  Heinle and  Heinle.  Second Edition: 1994.
Rubin, J. Using Multimedia for Learner Strategy Instruction. In OXFORD, R.L. (Ed.), Language Learning Strategies around the World:  Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. 151-56).  Honolulu;  University of Hawaii, Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center.
Scarcella, R. and Oxford,R. 1992.The Tapestry of Language Learning:  the
Individual in the Communicative Classroom.Boston, MA:  Heinle & Heinle.
© 2004 by Kenton Sutherland. All rights reserved
Our dear SHARER Juana Lopez Barrera from Lima has sent this article by the celebrated specialist in Early Teaching of English Helen Doron. Juana also sends a warm regards to all the SHARERS in our country.
Child Neurolinguistic Development from 0 - 3
A child's brain begins as a chaotic pool of unconnected neurons waiting to be stimulated, directed and wired in some logical pattern. This complex wiring creates an excessive number of connections, causing the brain to rapidly overdevelop between the ages of two and 10. Although trillions and trillions of neurons are connected during this burst of discovery, more than half of the excessive connections will eventually be eliminated. The trick, according to Dr. Chugani, is to keep desired connections alive and permanent to allow for efficient processing of a variety of functions.
During the first decade of life, the cerebral cortex undergoes a dramatic curve in energy consumption. Metabolic rates in the brain rapidly increase beginning at birth and begin to reach adult values around age two. At age three, a child’s metabolic brain energy far exceeds adult levels, and by age four, a "plateau" is reached which lasts until about age nine. This plateau is the result of hyperconnectivity, where cortical neurons have formed excessive connections, which are later either preserved or selectively eliminated depending upon exposures and stimuli. Around age 10, plasticity of the brain begins a gradual decline until 16 or 18, at which point, the levels of glucose utilization have reached adult values.
Because the regions of the brain develop systematically, there are critical windows of opportunity for learning. Different regions become more malleable during particular phases. "Our brains are particularly open to certain stimulations at certain times," said Dr. Chugani. "Once that time is up, you can never recapture that unique ability."
So if your little girl wants to play a musical instrument, she shouldn’t wait until age 20 when the cortex is already developed. She should begin at age five when her cortex is being wired specifically for such skills. The connections then become part ofthe brain’s formation. Dr. Chugani explains it this way. If a child has done something many times before, it becomes easier, not just physically but biologically, too. The pathway in the brain becomes very clearly drawn or wired over time. So if a child learns a second language or plays a musical instrument very early, the connections for that task are very clear and unobstructed. If the child has never encountered a situation before, the brain has to try several different pathways, and may be re-routed several times before making the appropriate connection.
Dr. Chugani also stresses the importance of repeated and reinforced learning. Research suggests that crash courses in a second language are much less effective than continuous learning over four or five years. It doesn’t do much good to enroll a child in a French class for one semester, because the brain benefits from repeated exposures, not intense isolated hits. This same reasoning explains how children become wired for positive or negative behaviors.
They learn what is reinforced throughout their childhood.
Why do all members of some families seem to continually explode or overreact to simple situations? A child’s automatic response mechanisms are learned through collected past experiences over a lasting period, so if you are raised in a hostile environment with parents who often yell or exhibit violent behaviors, you will probably become "hard-wired" for hostility. The brain doesn’t screen out negative behaviors. This is just one reason Dr. Chugani is opposed to television violence. "It becomes a passively learned behavior," he said. "You learn what you see--and again the brain doesn’t differentiate between good and bad." All exposures are registered and stored until they become reinforced or contradicted by others.
Levels of Language
intonation and rhythm
pure sounds
sounds arranged into units of meaning
word grammar
sentence structure
0 - 10 months
The path leading to language begins even before birth, when a developing fetus is bathed in the muffled sound of its mother's voice in the womb. Newborn babies prefer their mothers' voices over those of their fathers or other women, and researchers recently have found that when very young babies hear a recording of their mothers' native language, they will suck more vigorously on a pacifier than when they hear a recording of another tongue.
At first, infants respond only to the prosody--the cadence, rhythm, and pitch--of their mothers' speech, not the words. But soon enough they home in on the actual sounds that are typical of their parents' language. Every language uses a different assortment of sounds, called phonemes, which combine to make syllables. (In English, for example, the consonant sound "b" and the vowel sound "a" are both phonemes, which combine for the syllable ba, as in banana.) To an adult, simply perceiving, much less pronouncing, the phonemes of a foreign language can seem impossible. In English, the p of pat is "aspirated," or produced with a puff of air; the p of spot or tap is unaspirated. In English, the two p's are considered the same; therefore it is hard for English speakers to recognize that in many other languages the two p's are two different phonemes. Japanese speakers have trouble distinguishing between the "l" and "r" sounds of English, since in Japanese they don't count as separate sounds.
Polyglot tots. Infants can perceive the entire range of phonemes, according to Janet Werker and Richard Tees, psychologists at the University of British Columbia in Canada. Werker and Tees found that the brains of 4-month-old babies respond to every phoneme uttered in languages as diverse as Hindi and Nthlakampx, a Northwest American Indian language containing numerous consonant combinations that can sound to a nonnative speaker like a drop of water hitting an empty bucket.
Kuhl, Williams, Lacerda, Stevens and Lindblum in 1992 (Science) found that by 6 months of age, babies recognized the phonemes of their mothertongue as distinct from those of other languages.
By the time babies are 10 months to a year old, however, they have begun to focus on the distinctions among phonemesof their native language and to ignore the differences among foreign sounds. Children don't lose the ability to distinguish the sounds of a foreign language; they simply don't pay attention to them. This allows them to learn more quickly the syllables and words of their native tongue.
An infant's next step is learning to fish out individual words from the nonstop stream of soundthat makes up ordinary speech. Finding the boundaries between words is a daunting task, because people don't pause . . . between . . . words . . . when . . . they speak. Yet children begin to note word boundaries by the time they are 8 months old, even though they have no concept of what most words mean. Last year, Jusczyk and his colleagues reported results of an experiment in which they let 8-month-old babies listen at home to recorded stories filled with unusual words, like hornbill and python. Two weeks later, the researchers tested the babies with two lists of words, one composed of words they had already heard in the stories, the other of new unusual words that weren't in the stories. The infants listened, on average, to the familiar list for a second longer than to the list of novel words.
The cadence of language is a baby's first clue to word boundaries. In most English words, the first syllable is accented. This is especially noticeable in words known in poetry as trochees--two-syllable words stressed on the first syllable--which parents repeat to young children (BA-by, DOG-gie, MOM-my). At 6 months, American babies pay equal amounts of attention to words with different stress patterns, like gi-RAFFE or TI-ger. By 9 months, however, they have heard enough of the typical first-syllable-stress pattern of English to prefer listening to trochees, a predilection that will show up later, when they start uttering their first words and mispronouncing giraffe as raff and banana as nana. At 30 months, children can easily repeat the phrase "TOM-my KISS-ed the MON-key," because it preserves the typical English pattern, but they will leave out the the when asked to repeat "Tommy patted the monkey." Researchers are now testing whether French babies prefer words with a second-syllable stress--words like be-RET or ma-MAN.
Decoding patterns. Most adults could not imagine making speedy progress toward memorizing words in a foreign language just by listening to somebody talk on the telephone. That is basically what 8-month-old babies can do, according to a provocative study published in 1996 by the University of Rochester's Newport and her colleagues, Jenny Saffran and Richard Aslin. They reported that babies can remember words by listening for patterns of syllables that occur together with statistical regularity.
The researchers created a miniature artificial language, which consisted of a handful of three-syllable nonsense words constructed from 11 different syllables. The babies heard a computer-generated voice repeating these words in random order in a monotone for two minutes. What they heard went something like "bidakupadotigolabubidaku." Bidaku, in this case, is a word. With no cadence or pauses, the only way the babies could learn individual words was by remembering how often certain syllables were uttered together. When the researchers tested the babies a few minutes later, they found that the infants recognized pairs of syllables that had occurred together consistently on the recording, such as bida. They did not recognize a pair like kupa, which was a rarer combination that crossed the boundaries of two words. In the past, psychologists never imagined that young infants had the mental capacity to make these sorts of inferences. "We were pretty surprised we could get this result with babies, and with only brief exposure," says Newport. "Real language, of course, is much more complicated, but the exposure is vast."
Innate Language Capacity of Newborns
Learning words is one thing; learning the abstract rules of grammar is another. When Noam Chomsky first voiced his idea that language is hard-wired in the brain, he didn't have the benefit of the current revolution in cognitive science, which has begun to pry open the human mind with sophisticated psychological experiments and new computer models. Until recently, linguists could only parse languages and marvel at how quickly children master their abstract rules, which give every human being who can speak (or sign) the power to express an infinite number of ideas from a finite number of words.
Universal Grammar:There also are a finite number of ways that languages construct sentences. As Chomsky once put it, from a Martian's-eye view, everybody on Earth speaks a single tongue that has thousands of mutually unintelligible dialects. For instance, all people make sentences from noun phrases, like "The quick brown fox," and verb phrases, like "jumped over the fence." And virtually all of the world's 6,000 or so languages allow phrases to be moved around in a sentence to form questions, relative clauses, and passive constructions.
Statistical wizards. Chomsky posited that children were born knowing these and a handful of other basic laws of language and that they learn their parents' native tongue with the help of a "language acquisition device," preprogrammed circuits in the brain. Findings like Newport's are suggesting to some researchers that perhaps children can use statistical regularities to extract not only individual words from what they hear but also the rules for cobbling words together into sentences.
Computational linguists have designed computer models called artificial neural networks that are very simplified versions of the brain and that can "learn" some aspects of language. Artificial neural networks mimic the way that nerve cells, or neurons, inside a brain are hooked up. The result is a device that shares some basic properties with the brain and that can accomplish some linguistic feats that real children perform.
But neural networks have yet to come close to the computation power of a toddler. Ninety percent of the sentences uttered by the average 3-year-old are grammatically correct.
10 - 13 months: First Words
one or two syllables.
Consonant clusters (e.g. st) and diphthongs (e.g. you) are rare.
Most consonants are in front of mouth, e.g. p, b, d, t, m, n.
Most common vowels: are those in "stop" and "eet".
Reduplication common e.g. baba for "bottle"
Meanings of first words

(Nelson, 1973)
general nominals
e.g. ball, doggie, snow
specific nominals
e.g. mommy, pet names
e.g. give, byebye, up
e.g. red, dirty, outside, mine ….
personal social words
e.g. no, yes, please
function words
e.g. what, for ….
These are the number of terms in each category, not necessarily the frequency of use. Selective: food, clothing, animal, toy and vehicle names.
Change is important: objects that move and change themselves. The rest is “part of the furniture” e.g. not common TV, table, window, tree but common clock, blanket, key, car etc..
Overextension  most common between 13 – 30 months.
Words or sentences?
Children use first words in several ways.
Seldom simply as a name e.g. sees ball and says ball. This happens, but rarer.
More typical is child who sees his father’s slippers and says daddy. i.e. comment on object or event in the environment.
Child says airplane when he sees plane in sky and byebye when it’s gone, i.e. the importance of a transition point / change in child’s environment.
Location,e.g. when an object is moved, child says down.
Description or commanding herself, i.e. child blows nose and says nose.
Negatives: not just using word no, but more complex forms of negation too.
Holophrastic speech = words that are sentences.
Back to neurolinguistics: Children may be noticing grammatical morphemes when they are as young as 10 months and have just begun making connections between words and their definitions. Gerken recently found that infants' brain waves change when they are listening to stories in which grammatical morphemes are replaced with other words, suggesting they begin picking up grammar even before they know what sentences mean.
Such linguistic leaps come as a baby's brain is humming with activity. Within the first few months of life, a baby's neurons will forge 1,000 trillion connections, an increase of 20-fold from birth. Neurobiologists once assumed that the wiring in a baby's brain was set at birth. After that, the brain, like legs and noses, just grew bigger. That view has been demolished, says Anne Fernald, a psycholinguist at Stanford University, "now that we can eavesdrop on the brain." Images made using the brain-scanning technique positron emission tomography have revealed, for instance, that when a baby is 8 or 9 months old, the part of the brain that stores and indexes many kinds of memory becomes fully functional. This is precisely when babies appear to be able to attach meaning to words.
Other leaps in a child's linguistic prowess also coincide with remarkable changes in the brain.For instance, an adult listener can recognize eleph as elephant within about 400 milliseconds, an ability called "fast mapping" that demands that the brain process speech sounds with phenomenal speed. "To understand strings of words, you have to identify individual words rapidly," says Fernald. She and her colleagues have found that around 15 months of age, a child needs more than a second to recognize even a familiar word, like baby. At 18 months, the child can get the picture slightly before the word is ending. At 24 months, she knows the word in a mere 600 milliseconds, as soon as the syllable bay has been uttered.
Fast mapping takes off at the same moment as a dramatic reorganization of the child's brain, in which language-related operations, particularly grammar, shift from both sides of the brain into the left hemisphere. Most adult brains are lopsided when it comes to language, processing grammar almost entirely in the left temporal lobe, just over the left ear. Infants and toddlers, however, treat language in both hemispheres, according to Debra Mills, at the University of California--San Diego, and Helen Neville, at the University of Oregon. Mills and Neville stuck electrodes to toddlers' heads to find that processing of words that serve special grammatical functions, such as prepositions, conjunctions, and articles, begins to shift into the left side around the end of the third year.
From then on, the two hemispheres assume different job descriptions. The right temporal lobe continues to perform spatial tasks, such as following the trajectory of a baseball and predicting where it will land. It also pays attention to the emotional information contained in the cadence and pitch of speech. Both hemispheres know the meanings of many words, but the left temporal lobe holds the key to grammar.
Sign Language
This division is maintained even when the language is signed, not spoken. Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima, a wife and husband team at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, Calif., recently demonstrated this fact by studying deaf people who were lifelong signers of American Sign Language and who also had suffered a stroke in specific areas of the brain. The researchers found, predictably, that signers with damage to the right hemisphere had great difficulty with tasks involving spatial perception, such as copying a drawing of a geometric pattern. What was surprising was that right hemisphere damage did not hinder their fluency in ASL, which relies on movements of the hands and body in space. It was signers with damage to the left hemisphere who found they could no longer express themselves in ASL or understand it. Some had trouble producing the specific facial expressions that convey grammatical information in ASL. It is not just speech that's being processed in the left hemisphere, says MIT's Pinker, "or movements of the mouth, but abstract language."
Birth of a language
Linguists have never had the chance to study a spoken language as it is being constructed, but they have been given the opportunity to observe a new sign language in the making in Nicaragua. When the Sandinistas came to power in 1979, they established schools where deaf people came together for the first time. Many of the pupils had never met another deaf person, and their only means of communication at first was the expressive but largely unstructured pantomime each had invented at home with their hearing families. Soon the pupils began to pool their makeshift gestures into a system that is similar to spoken pidgin, the form of communication that springs up in places where people speaking mutually unintelligible tongues come together. The next generation of deaf Nicaraguan children, says Judy Kegl, a psycholinguist at Rutgers University, in Newark, N.J., has done it one better, transforming the pidgin sign into a full-blown language complete with regular grammar. The birth of Nicaraguan sign, many linguists believe, mirrors the evolution of all languages. Without conscious effort, deaf Nicaraguan children have created a sign that is now fluid and compact, and which contains standardized rules that allow them to express abstract ideas without circumlocutions. It can indicate past and future, denote whether an action was performed once or repeatedly, and show who did what to whom, allowing its users to joke, recite poetry, and tell their life stories.
18 - 20 months - putting words together
Two basic observations
Child language is simpler than adult language in a regular way. Typically nouns, verbs and adjectives are present whereas articles, conjunctions, prepositions and endings are normally missing.
Early child language is genuinely creative – not only are many child utterances not identical to adult utterances the child may have heard, but they are not even simplifications. A child who watches a door being closed and says allgone outside has constructed a novel utterance.
Telegraphic speech: emphasizes the first of the  observations above, e.g. I see the truck becomes I see truck.
18-month olds recognize complicated grammar
Inside a small, dark booth, 18-month-old Karly Horn sits on her mother Terry's lap. Karly's brown curls bounce each time she turns her head to listen to a woman's recorded voice coming from one side of the booth or the other. "At the bakery, workers will be baking bread," says the voice. Karly turns to her left and listens, her face intent. "On Tuesday morning, the people have going to work," says the voice. Karly turns her head away even before the statement is finished. The lights come on as graduate student Ruth Tincoff opens the door to the booth. She gives the child's curls a pat and says, "Nice work."
Karly and her mother are taking part in an experiment at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, run by psycholinguist Peter Jusczyk, who has spent 25 years probing the linguistic skills of children who have not yet begun to talk. Like most toddlers her age, Karly can utter a few dozen words at most and can string together the occasional two-word sentence, like "More juice" and "Up, Mommy." Yet as Jusczyk and his colleagues have found, she can already recognize that a sentence like "the people have going to work" is ungrammatical. By 18 months of age, most toddlers have somehow learned the rule requiring that any verb ending in -ing must be preceded by the verb to be. "If you had asked me 10 years ago if kids this young could do this," says Jusczyk, "I would have said that's crazy."
Linguists these days are reconsidering a lot of ideas they once considered crazy.
Recent findings like Jusczyk's are reshaping the prevailing model of how children acquire language.The dominant theory, put forth by Noam Chomsky, has been that children cannot possibly learn the full rules and structure of languages strictly by imitating what they hear. Instead, nature gives children a head start, wiring them from birth with the ability to acquire their parents' native tongue by fitting what they hear into a pre-existing template for the basic structure shared by all languages. (Similarly, kittens are thought to be hard-wired to learn how to hunt.) “Language”, writes Massachusetts Institute of Technology linguist Steven Pinker, "is a distinct piece of the biological makeup of our brains."
Chomsky, a prominent linguist at MIT, hypothesized in the 1950s that children are endowed from birth with "universal grammar," the fundamental rules that are common to all languages, and the ability to apply these rules to the raw material of the speech they hear--without awareness of their underlying logic.
Yet for all of grammar's seeming illogic, toddlers' brains may be able to spot clues in the sentences they hear that help them learn grammatical rules, just as they use statistical regularities to find word boundaries. One such clue is the little bits of language called grammatical morphemes, which among other things tell a listener whether a word is being used as noun or as a verb. The, for instance, signals that a noun will soon follow, while the suffix ion also identifies a word as a noun, as in vibration. Psycholinguist LouAnn Gerken of the University of Arizona recently reported that toddlers know what grammatical morphemes signify before they actually use them. She tested this by asking 2-year-olds a series of questions in which the grammatical morphemes were replaced with other words. When asked to "Find the dog for me," for example, 85 percent of children in her study could point to the right animal in a picture. But when the question was "Find was dog for me," they pointed to the dog 55 percent of the time. "Find gub dog for me," and it dropped to 40 percent.
It is striking how little difficulty the child has with any of the general mechanisms of language: the notion of a sentence, rules for combining various classes of words, the expression of a wide variety of meanings, the concept of inflections, and more. All are present from a very early age. Particular rules, meanings and inflections may, however, require time for mastery.
The early appearance of many semantic relationships, together with the striking differences between many child utterances and the adult speech around the child, strongly suggests that the child is attempting above all to express his own ideas, emotions, and actions through whatever system she ahs so far constructed,
The acquisition of grammatical morphemes of English is in a regular sequence determined mainly by grammatical complexity and by semantic complexity.
Stage 1
Came, did, broke are leant. Not surprising as irregular forms are 4 times as common in adult speech to children as regular ones.
Stage 2
Regular past tense morpheme - ed is learnt and suddenly appears in all verbs, regular and irregular alike, e.g. comed, doed, breaked.
Stage 3
Child returns to correct irregular forms together with regular forms.
This shows that the child is essentially a pattern learner. Once a pattern is acquired, it will be applied as broadly as possible.
Other types of error show how the child filters rules through his own emerging grammatical system: e.g.
Going to put some sugars (count nouns v. mass nouns)
I didn’t spilled it
Does the kitten stands up?
The search for patterns on the part of the child can even override her desire to match the patterns of the language around her.
A recent study indicates that the size of toddlers' vocabularies depends in large measure on how much their mothers talk to them. At 20 months, according to a study by Janellen Huttenlocher of the University of Chicago, the children of talkative mothers had 131 more words in their vocabularies than children whose mothers were more taciturn. By age 2, the gap had widened to 295 words.
In other words, children need input and they need it early, says Newport. Parking a toddler in front of the television won't improve vocabulary, probably because kids need real human interaction to attach meaning to words.
3 years old
You may feel confident that you can outsmart your three-year old, but when it comes to brainpower, he’s probably got you beat. The metabolic energy consumed by a child’s brain is 225 percent that of an adult. Does that mean your child is far more intelligent? Probably not--but it does indicate that he’s thinking and processing information at a much greater rate. And at this tender young age, he holds an incredible strength--his immense capacity for learning.
Neurolinguistics today
The debate over how much of language is already vested in a child at birth is far from settled, but new linguistic research already is transforming traditional views of how the human brain works and how language evolved. "This debate has completely changed the way we view the brain," says Elissa Newport, a psycholinguist at the University of Rochester in New York. Far from being an orderly, computerlike machine that methodically calculates step by step, the brain is now seen as working more like a beehive, its swarm of interconnected neurons sending signals back and forth at lightning speed. An infant's brain, it turns out, is capable of taking in enormous amounts of information and finding the regular patterns contained within it.
Geneticists and linguists recently have begun to challenge the common-sense assumption that intelligence and language are inextricably linked, through research on a rare genetic disorder called Williams syndrome, which can seriously impair cognition while leaving language nearly intact. Increasingly sophisticated technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging are allowing researchers to watch the brain in action, revealing that language literally sculpts and reorganizes the connections within it as a child grows.
Hearing more than one language in infancy makes it easier for a child to hear the distinctions between phonemes of more than one language later on says Newport. Newport and other linguists have discovered in recent years that the window of opportunity for acquiring language begins to close around age 6, and the gap narrows with each additional candle on the birthday cake. Children who do not learn a language by puberty will never be fluent in any tongue. That means that profoundly deaf children should be exposed to sign language as early as possible, says Newport. If their parents are hearing, they should learn to sign. And schools might rethink the practice of waiting to teach foreign languages until kids are nearly grown and the window on native command of a second language is almost shut.
Linguists don't yet know how much of grammar children are able to absorb simply by listening. And they have only begun to parse the genes or accidents of brain wiring that might give rise, as Pinker puts it, to the poet or the raconteur. What is certain is that language is one of the great wonders of the natural world, and linguists are still being astonished by its complexity and its power to shape the brain. Human beings, says Kegl, "show an incredible enthusiasm for discourse."
Maybe what is most innate about language is the passion to communicate.
© 2000-2001 by Helen Doron Early English. All rights reserved. 
Our dear SHARER Norma Benesdra has sent us this, as she calls it, “poetic contribution to a tricky problem”  which she wrote last October.
Haunted by a preposition
(Poetic contribution to a tricky problem)
Last Sunday I was in Tigre.
I slept in the sun
On a ramp
By the grass
Near the river Luján
Among the birds
Flying above,
And the ants working below
Moving to and fro
Between their ant-hill
And a leaning tree.
Away from the city bugs,
Off the drudge of work,
the ring of cell-phones and the web,
I woke sweetly
To the sound of kisses.
The friends were around me.
Out of mercy
For my sweat and toil
Over prepositions
And particles galore,
They had let me doze
Into Morpheus’ arms
Till the time arrived
To come back to work
on our teacher’s notes,
to unfold the scrolls
Of the PDF files
For a wanted prize
And a load of fun.
© 2003 by Norma Benesdra.  All rights reserved. 
Our dear SHARER and friend Susan Hillyard, who has recently chaired the Forum on Education for Peace in Del Viso, has sent us this article that she wrote on this crucial aspect of the sachool curriculum.
Susan will be giving a plenary on “Reflective Teaching and Learning” at the Tenth National Congress of Teachers and Students of English in Bahía Blanca next July. Susan will address the plenary on 9th of July.
Educating for Peace
Susan Hillyard B.Ed (Hons.)
Headmistress English Secondary Sector,
Wellspring School , Del Viso
Educating for peace is an essential component of the curriculum but it does not mean we should do one-off campaigns where everyone gets excited for a month and then forgets the idea. It does not mean we should teach for peace, explicitly, only to find  the students are unable to transfer their understanding to other situations. Rather it means that every moment in our teaching lives whether as parents, older siblings, grannies or uncles, teachers, professors or psychologists, social workers, cleaners or bus drivers, we should hold dear a number of tenets.
There are hundreds of peace movements in the world today, but a most respected one, the United Nations, laid down six "peace keys"  in 1997 when it drafted the   
" Manifesto 2000" in which it asked,
 " What if the new millennium were a new beginning , an opportunity to turn, all together, the culture of  war and violence into a culture of peace and non-violence?" . This means that we should begin to change from within and raise our own consciousness of what we mean by the word PEACE so that we all model, in whatever actions we perform, the development of a culture of peace.
 Peace is not simply the antithesis of war. It is a highly complex concept and one we should define for our own context. We should reflect on ways to not only talk about the problems we face today but to act positively to change the way we are educating for future generations. We would do well to accept that real change can only come through a fundamental and deeply profound change in the way we, as adults, educate the young.
Without delay, we should share our ideas and understandings in an atmosphere of  intellectual debate where we pledge ourselves to underpin all our teachings with the tenets of a culture of peace.
In 1962 a new initiative was opened with the UWC  Wales, the first of the now ten United World Colleges which have as their mission statement:
Through international education, experience and community service, United World Colleges enables young people to become responsible citizens, politically and environmentally aware, and committed to the ideals of peace and justice, understanding and cooperation, and the implementation of these ideals through action and personal example. -UWC Mission Statement
In 1997 the United Nations drafted the " Manifesto 2000" in which it asked
 " What if the new millennium were a new beginning , an opportunity to turn, all together, the culture of war and violence into a culture of peace and non-violence?"  In order to grasp this moment, in order to start anew  a number of tenets were developed which could be used by us all to underpin all our actions every day.
Respecting the rights and dignity of each human being
Rejecting violence, obtaining justice by convincing and understanding
Developing attitudes and skills for living together in harmony, putting an end to exclusion and oppression
Giving everyone a chance to learn and share through the free flow of information
Making sure that progress and development are good for everyone and for the environment
Appreciating that people are different and that everyone has something to contribute to the community
Ensuring an equal place for women and men in building society
Participation by everyone in making decisions
Some of us were lucky  enough to grow up in the 60s when "Peace and Love"  was the accepted catch phrase and we thought we were living the dream of universal peace. Perhaps some of us were in our own way happy enjoying a new freedom that other generations had never enjoyed and we didn't go too deeply into the philosophy of it all. We were happy to enjoy the music, the underground poetry and prose and the picnics at the park. At least in  my experience we thought everybody else in the world was doing the same. Until a real teacher suggested with some coercion that we should take out a subscription to a magazine called the "Courier" This changed :my life, opened my eyes and helped me to understand diversity.
The spark for this forum  came from the crisis we are suffering in Argentina and from the feeling many of us have that the social fabric as we knew it in our adolescent days is breaking down. Teachers flock to conferences all over the country as they know they need to change and transform the education system but they can't seem to find the ready solutions they seek. The crime rate is up, drug abuse is becoming more common especially drinking and smoking, theft is on the rise, there are more kidnappings and murders, family ties seem to be breaking down and our  students are living more and more in two broken homes. We feel as educators that we are constantly trying to instil values in teenagers which do not exist in the world of their realities and there is a big gap between teaching and learning that we cannot manage to bridge.
I go all over the country offering workshops on all sorts of topics but the cry is always the same..........".they have no discipline, they couldn't care less, they aren't motivated, they're very violent, they feel no shame, they're so rude, they won't take on any responsibility, they can't keep a promise, they show no respect or even self-respect " and so on in an endless string of  criticism from the teacher directed at the student as though the student lived in a bubble. My answer is always the same: WE have to change, WE have to set the climate, WE have to realize life is not the same as it used to be, WE have to find ways to create the climate, to educate, to teach cooperation and harmony, to model what we expect and to have high  expectations of  the educated man.
    Criticising, ranting and raving and moaning won't solve the problem. It never did. So we have to find constructive ways to understanding the education process and approach the situation in subtle ways and from many angles. The idea of joining together in an atmosphere of enquiry seems like a fair way to start the ball rolling and to see if there is any way that caring, educated, creative adults can put their heads together to seek
© 2004 by Susan Hillyard. All rights reserved.
Our dear SHARER and friend Bethina Viale writes to us from Rosario:
Hola queridos SHARERS:
Antes que nada, muchas gracias a Omar y Marina por permitirme hacer este pedido en Share. Además, explico que escribo en castellano porque, como dice mi amiga Graciela Castelli, "las cosas del corazón se explican mejor en nuestro propio idioma". Y este mensaje va dirigido a nuestros corazones.
Manos por Hermanos es una Asociación Civil sin Fines de lucro que está trabajando con gente de escasos recursos. Necesitan gente con conocimientos de inglés (especialmente traductores) para traducir su boletín mensual y su página web. El objetivo es poder acceder a la gente de habla inglesa para solicitar donaciones; así se mantine la Asociación, con donaciones.
Como somos muchos los que formamos esta comunidad de Share, tal vez podamos ayudar a Manos por Hermanos y "darles una mano" en esta tarea.
Les recomiendo visitar el website:
Realmente vale la pena. Y, si están interesados en colaborar, pueden enviar un e-mail a :
Desde ya muchísimas gracias.
Lots of love,
Our dear SHARER María José Gassó from Alpha centro de comunicación y cultura
wants to invite all SHARERS to this course on Spanish for Foreigners:

CAI-ELE Curso Alpha de Iniciación a la Enseñanza de ELE
Está destinado a todos aquellos hablantes nativos de español que quieran incursionar en la enseñanza del español para extranjeros.  Coordinado por la Lic. María José Bravo
Duración: 8 clases de 2 1/2 horas (20 horas en total, durante un mes)
Días: Lunes 7, martes 8 y jueves 10, Lunes 14, martes 15 y jueves 17, Martes 22 y jueves 24 de junio.
Horario: 18:30 a 21 hs
Lugar: Sarmiento 1419, Departamento "A" (1er piso), Sarmiento y Uruguay
Cierre de inscripción: viernes 4 de junio
Inscripción: al e-mail  o llámenos al tel: 4373-0767

Our dear SHARERS from Torre de Papel announce this Professional Development Course which our e-magazine is proud to sponsor:
Sábado 12 y domingo 13 de junio de 2004
Hotel El Conquistador – Salón América, 10 º Piso 
Suipacha 948 - Buenos Aires, Argentina
Sábado 12 de junio por la mañana
Taller de Redacción Jurídica
dirigido a traductores, intérpretes, abogados, escribanos y estudiantes de carreras afines interesados en mejor la redacción en español.

Toda la bibliografía reciente acerca del lenguaje jurídico coincide en que sus características principales deben ser la claridad, la sencillez y la concisión. sin embargo, para un abogado, lo más común es decir ‘satisfacción del canon locativo’, en lugar de ‘pago del alquiler’. La propuesta de este taller se orienta a simplificar el lenguaje jurídico, con la convicción de que entender los escritos jurídicos es un derecho de todo ciudadano. la claridad del lenguaje ayuda a la transparencia de los actos.
Programa: * El lenguaje jurídico. Características. Clases de escritos * Cómo simplificar el estilo. Lenguaje claro en español * Organización de los textos * Párrafos y oraciones * Puntuación * La oración: el actor, la acción y el objeto. Extensión * Los incisos * Voz activa y voz pasiva * Economía de palabras * Empleo de sustantivos y adjetivos * La nominalización * El empleo del gerundio * Los conectores * Locuciones prepositivas y adverbiales * El léxico.
Cada uno de los puntos del programa se explicará de manera práctica, por medio de ejercicios. los textos en que se basan los ejercicios fueron redactados por abogados.
Docentes a cargo:
Pedro Mairal cursó la carrera de Letras en la Universidad del Salvador, donde fue profesor adjunto de Literatura inglesa. En 1998, el jurado integrado por Adolfo Bioy Casares, Augusto Roa Bastos y Guillermo Cabrera Infante le otorgó el Premio Clarín de Novela por Una noche con Sabrina Love. Ha publicado Hoy temprano (cuentos, 2001) y dos libros de poesía: Tigre como los pájaros (1996) y Consumidor final (2003). Desde 1997, diseña y dicta cursos de redacción para abogados.
Mariana Bozetti es profesora en Letras, egresada de la Universidad Católica Argentina. En la Universidad Torcuato Di Tella dicta Teoría y práctica de la escritura y Comprensión de textos y escritura. Como investigadora de la Academia Argentina de Letras, colabora con la revisión de la Gramática de la RAE. Desde 1998, diseña y dicta cursos de redacción para abogados.
Sábado 12 de junio por la tarde
Plain English Writing Workshop
Dirigido a traductores, intérpretes, abogados, escribanos y estudiantes de carreras afines interesados en mejor la redacción en inglés.
English today is the international language of business. Leading law firms must therefore be able to communicate effectively in English. But how? Most of the communication with clients is written so it is vital for the lawyers to be able to write in English effectively, as for lawyers accuracy is paramount. Many lawyers have learnt to write in so-called ‘Legal English’ and write long winded sentences full of legalisms and unnecessary words. However, in law firms around the English speaking world today there is an increasing tendency to move away from legalese. This tendency is called Plain English. Plain English  is a way of writing based on the principle that any educated lay person should be able to read a legal document and understand it.
The Workshop covers the following points: * Comparison of long ‘legalese’ with Plain English  * Bring  subject to front of the sentence, avoid glue words and use the active voice * Avoid  excessive use of legalisms and cut out compound constructions * Avoid nominalisation * Use personal pronouns to appeal to reader * Prefer the present tense. Only use ‘shall’ for obligation, never future action * Avoid negatives  * Do not put phrases within sentences * False friends for Spanish speakers in legal writing in ESL * Punctuation (even a comma can change the meaning) * Prefer simple word of Anglo-Saxon origin rather than Latin word * Phrasal verbs and informal and formal writing * Make writing reader centered. Layout and tabulation * Avoid sexist language * Drafting guidelines, words that are ambiguous for lawyers.
Workshop Leader:
Joanna Richardson was born in Oxford, England and went to school there. In 1985 she obtained a B.A. Hons. in Spanish, Portuguese & Latin American Literature from King’s College London.  From 1992 – 2001 she worked in Argentina as a teacher of EFL and as a translator into English. From 2001 to present she has been teaching Plain English to Lawyers at Marval, O’Farrel & Mairal. At the moment she is designing a course to teach writing skills to the communications team of Tenaris. In April 2004 she gave a paper with the following title at a symposium on Bilingual Education:  Bilingualism in the workplace:  a case study. Teaching lawyers to write in Plain English.
Domingo 13 de junio
Taller "El mercado internacional al alcance de todos. Sitios web y listas de traducción"
Dirigido a traductores, intérpretes, profesores de idiomas, estudiantes de las carreras de traducción, interpretación y profesorado de idiomas; y profesionales de carreras afines con conocimientos de idiomas que deseen expandir su campo laboral al mercado internacional. 
Si bien el traductor argentino posee una formación académica excelente en lo que a la carrera de traducción se refiere, es también cierto que muy pocos operan en la escena internacional con conocimiento y soltura. Tenemos que saber qué hay fuera de nuestras fronteras, cómo se trabaja en el exterior y bajo qué condiciones y aprovechar la globalización con ética para vivir y trabajar con dignidad. Este Taller se propone analizar las posibilidades que ofrece el mercado internacional hoy en día: listas de traducción, bases de datos y portales para traductores.
Introducción general: por qué del tema. Situación del traductor en la Argentina
Capacitación profesional y buen precio. Desconocimiento del mercado extranjero
Formas de pago. Ordenes de trabajo – Contratos – Directrices.
El Potencial que representa el mercado internacional. Listas de correo: definición: lista de correo. Reglas básicas de etiqueta. Tipos de listas para traductores e intérpretes. Profesionales: listado. Prácticas de pago: listado.
Bases de datos: definición: base de datos. Tipos de bases de dados.
Comerciales (de un producto): listado. Privadas: listado.
Portales de Traducción
: definición: portal de traducción. Servicios: Ofertas de trabajo (abiertas/cerradas/directas). Foros de discusión. Bancos de glosarios.Terminología. Ofertas de software y otros. Calificación de agencias. Correo-e / Sitio web para perfil. Categorías pagas y no pagas (pros & cons). Aquarius. Translators’ Café. Trally. Otros: detalles generales y listados. Cuadro comparativo / Resumen y opiniones de usuarios.                                                         
A fin de proporcionar ejemplos prácticos, en este Taller se trabajará con conexión a Internet a través de una pantalla, un cañón y una computadora portátil.
Docentes a cargo:
Aurora Matilde Humarán es Traductora Pública en idioma Inglés egresada de la Universidad de Buenos Aires en 1982. Estudió Marketing en la Universidad Argentina de la Empresa y Publicidad en la Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales. Tiene un posgrado en interpretación otorgado por la UBA y numerosos cursos de capacitación en sus más de 20 años de experiencia. Es investigadora de los recursos de Internet aplicados a la traducción. Hasta noviembre de 2003 se desempeñó como traductora interna del hoy Banco Meridian. Fue miembro del equipo de críticos literarios de la editorial Emecé. Miembro activo en distintas listas de discusión y portales de traducción.
Colaboradora de la revista "La Linterna del Traductor". En la actualidad es traductora autónoma especializada en textos jurídicos, financieros, publicitarios y literarios. Es Traductora Senior del equipo de redacción de SMI, división United Business Media plc.  Aurora es socia de Aleph Translations.
José Luis Villanueva Senchuk es Intérprete de Conferencia y Traductor. Tiene una amplísima experiencia en interpretación (más de dos mil horas en cabina), obtenida en eventos en: Argentina, España, Ecuador, Estados Unidos, Colombia, India, Bélgica, Reino Unido, Malta, Alemania, entre otros. José Luis tiene un MBA por el INCAE. Estudió además medicina en la Universidad Católica de Guayaquil y Administración de Empresas en Salem State Collage, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos. En la actualidad cursa la Maestría, en Traducción en la Universidad de Belgrano. Es investigador de recursos de Internet aplicados a la traducción (glosarios, diccionarios, corpuses, etc.). Miembro activo en distintas listas de discusión y portales de traducción. Es colaborador de la revista "La Linterna del Traductor". En la actualidad trabaja en forma independiente como intérprete y traductor especializado en las siguientes esferas temáticas: medicina, seguridad, cuestiones gubernamentales y estudios sociales. Es Traductor Senior del equipo de redacción de SMI, división United Business Media plc. Es, además, miembro y colaborador en comisiones de la Asociación Española de Traductores e Intérpretes. José Luis es socio de Aleph Translations.
Informes e Inscripción
Teléfono: 00-54-11- 47752198
Taller “Redacción jurídica en español”
$ 30
Taller “Redacción jurídica en inglés”
$ 30
Talleres “Redacción jurídica en español y en inglés”
$ 60
Taller "El mercado internacional al alcance de todos. Sitios web y listas de traducción"
$ 60
Tres Talleres
$ 100
Agencia de Viajes
Planeta Tierra
Tel./Fax: 00-54-11-4325-2232
Vacantes limitados. Se entregarán certificados de asistencia.
Los aranceles incluyen el coffee break de media mañana, el servicio de cafetería de la tarde y el material didáctico.
El pago deberá realizarse antes del evento para garantizar la vacante.
Si una vez inscripto, usted no puede asistir a este evento, la cancelación deberá ser comunicada por escrito con al menos cinco días de anticipación al inicio del evento. En este caso podrá percibir el reintegro del valor pagado, menos un 15% en concepto de gastos administrativos. De lo contrario, perderá el derecho de reintegro alguno, pero podrá designar a otra persona para que asista en su lugar. Las sustituciones deberán ser notificadas por escrito.
Our dear SHARER Marta L. Vigo has sent us this invitation:
English Video Studio is pleased to announce that Oriel Villagarcía will be teaching his course "Visualize to Learn " in San Nicolas on June 11th from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m.
Venue: Biblioteca de la Casa del Acuerdo,calle De la Nacion 137  
Fees:  $15.- for students and $20 for teachers.
Enrolment is open up to June 7th. You can enroll personally at English Video Studio, Mitre 142, San Nicolás or by phone to: 03461-426918 or e-mail to
Oriel is a graduate “Magna Cum Laude” as a Teacher of English from Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, holds a Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics from the University of Lancaster (U.K.). and persued post-graduate studies at the University of Texas (USA) He is probably one of the best known teacher trainers of our country.
Our dear SHARER Natalia Dalinkevicius from The Bs.As. Players writes to us with their latest news:
Evening Play Season "Much Ado About... Beatrice and Benedick"
A 75-minute comedy for advanced students based on Shakespeare's play "Much Ado About Nothing" in a free version of Celia Zubiri.
Directed by: Bettina Menegazzo
Assistant: Fernando Armesto
Music by: Marcelo Andino
Cast: Fernando Armesto, Ignacio Borderes, Ezequiel Campa, Nicolás Moldavsky, Paula Mercenaro, Patricia Gómez, Josefina Torino and Nicolás Strucelj.
Opening Night: Friday, May 21st  7:00 p.m.
Teatro Santamaría - Montevideo 842 – Ciudad de Buenos Aires.
Reservations: (011) 4812-5307 / 4814-5455 -  
Ticket price: $10 - For groups of 10 people or more: $8
Performances on Friday at 7:00 p.m.
May 21, 28
June 4, 11, 18, 25
July 2, 16, 23, 30
August 6, 13, 20, 27
Forthcoming Tours of Greater Buenos Aires
Martinez (Teatro De la Capilla - Ladislao Martinez 539)
Tuesday 8th
10hs. Hercules
14.30hs. Hercules
Thursday 24th
10hs. Master Cat
14.30hs. Master Cat
Tuesady 14th
10hs. Master Cat
14.30hs. Hercules
Lomas de Zamora (Teatro Coliseo - España 55)
Thursday 1st
14hs. Master Cat
16hs. Hercules
18hs. Pretenders
20hs. Pygmalion
Haedo (Colegio Ward - Hector Coucheiro 59)
Friday 20th
14hs. Master Cat
16hs. Hercules
18hs. Pretenders
20hs. Pygmalion
Ticket Price: $6 (Master Cat, Hercules, Pretenders) $7 (Pygmalion)
Reservations: 4812-5307 / 4814-5455
Visit our Website:   
Our dear SHARER Mónica Blanco from Anglia Exams has sent us this update of Christian Kunz´s presentations:
Anglia Examination Syndicate announces the following professional development seminars for English language teachers, translators and advanced language students:
1 - Capital Federal
Saturday 5th June
Anglia Examination Syndicate and English & Fun announce the following ELT seminar:
“Making the most of an autumn day with ELT professionals”
Addressing our students’ needs, wants and lacks through the implementation
and practice of differential learning-  Keeping Constructivism on the front burner.
A shift from monotony to dynamism - soaking up the latest trends in English street speak
Venue: Colegio de La Salle – Riobamba 650 – Capital
Fee: Anglia members: $20.00 / Non-Anglia members: $25.00
Information and registration: and
2 - Parana - Entre Ríos
Friday 21st may- 02.00 – 08.00 p.m. /  Saturday 22nd may – 10.00 a.m. – 06.30 p.m.
The English Department at UADER and Anglia proudly present:
“Segundas Jornadas de Estudio y Reflexión  sobre el Idioma Ingles”
“Aids for Professional Development”   by local speakers
“Latest Trends in English Pronunciation, Vocabulary and Grammar.” by Christian Kunz
Information and Registration:  Urquiza y Corrientes, Paraná, Entre Ríos.  Monday – Thursday 02.00 – 06.00 p.m.
3 - Corral de Bustos – Córdoba
Saturday 29th May - 10.00 a.m. – 02.15 p.m.
Instituto Babel, Masters Idiomas and Anglia Examination Syndicate have the pleasure to announce the following Seminar :
“Latest Trends in English Pronunciation, Vocabulary and Grammar.”
“Received Pronunciation or Estuary English??  Recent Issues Concerning British/American Slang and Colloquial English”.
4 – Olivos
Wednesday, 2nd June – 06.00 – 08.00 p.m.
Colegio Nuestra Señora de la Paz and Anglia Examination Syndicate have the pleasure to announce:
“Soaking up the latest trends in English street speak”
Understanding real English can certainly be a challenge but definitely fun too! 
a boxful of smart classroom ideas to exploit the full potential of English  street speak  with your students”
Fee: $15.00
Information and registration:,
5 - Puerto Deseado - Santa Cruz
Monday, 7th June – 06.00 – 07.45
Language School and Anglia Examination Syndicate have the pleasure to announce the following Workshop: “Soaking up the latest trends in English street speak”
Escuela Técnica Nro 3- “Oscar Smith”  Puerto Deseado – Santa Cruz
Information & registration
6 - Comodoro Rivadavia - Chubut
Tuesday, 8th June – 05.00 – 08.15
Language School and Anglia Examination Syndicate have the pleasure to announce 
“Latest Trends in English Pronunciation, Vocabulary and Grammar.”
Information & registration
7 - Neuquén
Saturday 12th June  - 10.00 a.m. – 06.30 p.m.
ELT Today and Anglia Examination Syndicate proudly present:
“Making the most of an autumn day with ELT professionals”
Addressing our students’ needs, wants and lacks through the implementation
and practice of differential learning-  Keeping Constructivism on the front burner.
A shift from monotony to dynamism - Soaking up the latest trends in English street speak
Information and registration: Liliana Maiolo :   Paraguay 369,Cipolletti  Tel.(0299) 477-0941
For all events
post-seminar 45–minute presentations (free of charge)
Anglia Examination Syndicate
International English Language Exams for the New Millennium.
International Diploma in TESOL via distance learning
For All Events : Core Presentations by  Christian Kunz  RSA Cert./ Dip. ELTA.
Christian Kunz has been a practising ESL/EFL teacher in Argentina, Australia and the UK now for over 13 years. Although he and his wife are currently living and working in England, Christian still runs ELT Professional Development Programmes for teachers in Argentina, and is the senior Director of Studies at Kensington Schools of English in Buenos Aires. Christian has been involved with the Anglia Examination Syndicate Testing Services since 1996 and was appointed Academic Representative in South America for this EFL examining body in 1997. Christian now divides his time between Chichester College, England, where he is an EFL Lecturer, and freelance consultancy and language testing through the Kensington Schools of English Exams and Assessment Department
Our dear SHARER Ximena Faralla , Director of On the Road Theatre Company
invites all SHARERS to enjoy:
The possibility of enjoying two of William Shakespeare´s most famous plays with a variety of settings in time.
Set in Shakespearean times, a 45 minute version of one of his most famous tragedies. Intense, real and precise, this production of Macbeth deals with the main character´s ambition, particularly enhancing the witches´ influence over his fate. Breaking the traditional rule for tragedies holding murders offstage, the reality of this show brings audiences closer to Macbeth´s tormented ambition and Lady Macbeth´s insanity. 
Romeo and Juliet
Set in the present, our half hour production of this unique, star-crossed love story aims at the adolescents in the audience identifying with the ones in the play, bridging over to them through the carefully designed music and songs.
Adapted and Directed by Ximena Faralla
Music & Songs by Julián Vidal
Paul Jeannot - Nicolás Pueta - Matías Roberto - Veronica Taylor - Ines Vrlijack
Saturday, May 29th - 9 pm  at "The Playhouse" - Moreno 80 , San Isidro.
Tickets $9.-
Limited seats! Bookings & info: 4568-7125  /
Join us in our 60 minute adaptation of the adventurous fairy tale for all Primary School!
Written & directed by Ximena Faralla
Music & songs by Julián Vidal
Cast: Nicolás Pueta - Veronica Taylor - Matías Roberto - Inés Vrlijack - Gonzalo Córdoba
Three Dates: 
Friday, May 21st
Wednesday, June 23rd
Wednesday, July 14th
At 2:00 p.m.
At UPB Theatre - Ciudad de la Paz 1972 – Belgrano.
Tickets $5.-
Info & reservations: 4568-7125 

Our dear SHARERS Alejandra Jorge & Valeria Artigue, APIBA SIGs Liaison Officers, have sent us this information about their SIGS:
NEXT SIG event
NEXT SIG event
Follow the link!!
Applied Linguistics
Saturday May 22nd
  10.00 - 12.00
Liceo Cultural Británico
Av. Corrientes 5305
        AL SIG
 Forum     + Face-to-face meeting Saturday August 28th
2.00 pm  - 5.00 pm
Instituto Polimodal “Arzobispo Jorge Matulaitis" Brasil 835  - Avellaneda.
         Computers SIG
Critical Theory & Literature (La Plata)
Saturday May 15th
9.30  - 12.30
(2 sessions of 1hour 15’, with a 30’ break)
 Centro Cultural “Islas Malvinas “ Calle 50 entre 19 y 20 –  La Plata
Saturday May 15th 11.15 - 12.00
Cultural Inglesa de Buenos Aires (CIBA). Viamonte 1745.
Literature & Cultural Studies
Saturday May 29th
    10.30  - 12.30
AB School of English
Av. Montes De Oca 340
Saturday May 15th
9.30 – 11.00
Cultural Inglesa de Buenos Aires (CIBA). Viamonte 1745.
Second Language Teaching (Bernal)
Saturday May 22nd 10.00 - 12.00
EGB 18 (ISFD No. 24, Dr Bernardo Houssay), Avellaneda 177, Bernal, Prov. of B.A
          SLT Bernal SIG
Second Language Teaching (Lomas de Zamora)
Saturday May 15th
10.00 - 12.00
ISP "Presbitero A. Saenz", Calle Saenz 740, Lomas de Zamora, Prov. of B.A
           SLT Lomas SIG

Our dear SHARER Maria Almeida has sent us this information about the forthcoming First Congress International Brain and Education Congress to be held at the Regent´s Hotel in Buenos Aires on July 2nd and 3rd.
The main plenary sessions and workshops include:
Memory Tools: Helping Students Exploit Their Brain Power
Prof. Ana M. Leiguarda
Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
Studies on problem solving and working memory for education
Prof. Bacigalupe Maria de los Angeles
Universidad Nacional de La Plata
The Role of Cognitive Mediation in the Acquisition and Learning of EFL
Lic. Omar Villarreal
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional
Universidad Católica de La Plata.
Acting and the Brain
Alfred Hopkins B.A.
Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas
Brain Compatible Learning: it´s all in your head
Ms. Lucrecia Prat Gay
Rio de la Plata School
An affective tool for asssessing, evaluating and improving students'performance
Prof. Silvina Massa de Muñiz
Godspell College, Boulogne.
Leading with the brain in mind
Magdalena Ortiz de Ries Centeno
Colegio Rio de la Plata. 
'ADD/ADHD Let's see the positive side of the illness'
Lic. Maria Almeida
'How to help your students understand and remember information'
Prof. Zulema Vadillo
Prof. Mariana Derfler,
IACA, Holistic English Institute
If you would like to attend this unique event, enroll today! vacancies are limited Contact us by fax to (5411) 4771-8797/ or mail to: Precis Congreso- Lerma 464 C1414AZJ Buenos Aires  
Maria Almeida
Our dear SHARER Lic. Cecilia Piriz has sent us last-minute information
All our courses are delivered via the Internet through the Net-Learning system at .  Visit our campus !   They are aimed at teachers and translators who want to improve their professional practice.  Face-to-face attendance is not required. These courses are “attended” from any computer, any where, any time.  They are delivered on-line.  See the courses content and methodology fully described in our web site.  Our coming courses are:
Course: Introduction to Contracts and Agreements
Tutor:  Trad. Matilde Fabrello
Duration: 6 weeks – Starting date: 18 May
Fee: AR$140 – US$90
Course: Action Research
Tutor: Prof. Liliana Luna, M Ed.
Duration: 4 weeks – Starting date: 20 May
Fee: AR$120 – US$85
Course: Prepositions.  How to learn them and how to teach them?
Tutor: Prof. Aldo Blanco 
Duration: 6 weeks – Starting date: 26 May
Fee: AR$160 – US$85
Please consult our website for more information: or e-mail us:  Phones: (011) 4654 8945 / (011) 4791 6009

We would like to finish this issue of SHARE with a very short quotation by Sandra Carey
"Never mistake knowledge for wisdom. One helps you make a living; the other helps you make a life."
- Sandara Carey
Omar and Marina.
SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.