An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Year 5                Number 122           March 9th   2004
6000  SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week


Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
A new school year is here and with it the renewed illusion to make of it the best year of our teaching careers. With the start of the new academic year, we also renew our firm commitment to accompany our colleagues as we have done in these past four years of our publication. Let SHARE be our small contribution to this profession that has given us so much and to those colleagues from all over the country that have unfailingly given us their warmth and affection throughout the years. May God help us to keep on enjoying the pleasure of their company in the years to come.
On a more personal note, we would both like to thank all those teachers that have accompanied Omar in his presentations of our latest book from up North to the deep South of Patagonia and that have either personally or by mail expressed their enthusiasm and loving care. To them and to you,dear SHARERS, we shall always be indebted.
Omar and Marina

In SHARE 122
1.-    The Thinking Approach – Part 2.
2.-    French Vocabulary in English.
3.-    On the nature and role of stories. 
4.-    How to memorize a poem.
5.-    Second Regional Conference in Rosario.
6.-    A Teacher on the Radio.
7.-    Conference in Santo Domingo.
8.-    Simposio Internacional de Bilingüismo.
9.-    Congreso sobre Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad.   
10.-   YeS is back.
11.-   Curso de Interpretación Simultánea.
12.-   A Message from Resistencia.
13.-   Traductorado Público en Lomas de Zamora.
14.-   News from Macmillan.
Our dear SHARER Alexander Sokol from Riga, Latvia generously wants to SHARE this collections of articles on the Thinking Approach with all of us. Today we are publishing the second and last part of this set of articles.
The Thinking Approach
Although it is already commonly accepted that 'learning to learn' must become one of the highest priorities for students, the English language curriculum is still full of pre-packaged knowledge.  Apparently, if speaking of a 'futures curriculum'(Littlejohn, 1998b), a shift of focus from giving knowledge to introducing methods aimed at acquiring new knowledge is to occur not only in theory. A creative individuality of the future is supposed to have mastered a large variety of skills (methods) necessary to succeed in the rapidly changing world. The Thinking Approach (TA) to teaching English is an attempt to make a step in the above direction.
The TA is aimed at simultaneous development of language and thinking skills. Its methodological basis is the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) developed by Genrich Altshuller. For over more than 50 years since it appeared, TRIZ has proved an effective problem-solving methodology, and it is currently used virtually all over the world .
Unfortunately, nowadays the development of both thinking and creativity is restricted by encouragement. Students are merely asked to think and be creative. Within the TA the process is seen technologically. Students must be given a tool that will help them arrive at new (creative) solutions in various fields. In other words, students study exact (algorithmic) methods and procedures which help them reach previously unknown solutions. Thus, unlike many other approaches where the thinking focus is often used interchangeably with any extra linguistic focus, here the thinking focus of tasks and activities is assessed by the amount and complexity of models (tools) students practice and acquire while working upon the task.
The research on the TA started in 1997 with 10-12 forms of Riga Herder school. The hypothesis which was to be confirmed sounded as follows: introduction of extensive thinking skill training  into language classroom will not only provide students with new methods of dealing with the world and thus prepare them to the life in the future, but  also improve their language competence.
At the moment, there is an international team working upon the project. In several schools in Latvia, students learn English upon a TA based programme. Over the six years since the beginning of the research, six modules (or technologies) have been developed under the Thinking Approach: the Text Technology that deals with the use of texts in the language classroom; the Film Technology that deals with the use of films; the Creative Grammar Technology and the Creative Lexis Technology that demonstrate how the thinking focus can be incorporated into teaching of grammar and vocabulary; the Speaking Technology that deals with speaking training with a carefully selected thinking focus, and the Self-Study Technology aimed at the development of students' ability to learn independently. Materials under each module have been piloted with various categories of students and largely proved successful.
There are five meta-principles underlying the Thinking Approach to language teaching.
Non-linear organization of the course.
Unlike in many traditional approaches where various parts of the syllabus are taught step by step, the TA offers an opportunity to stop at virtually any part of the syllabus at every lesson . Learning is organized through trainings - complexes of tasks giving a full ranged practice of both language and thinking skills. We may draw an analogy with driving here. In order to learn to drive, you have to acquire a large number of various skills, i.e. using the pedals, shifting the gear, noticing traffic signs, etc. However, you are not offered to do it in a step by step fashion - the instructor makes you drive from the very beginning, focusing on each of the skills in the process when it becomes essential. A similar thing happens in the language classroom. Students are always in the process of doing a task, while the teacher has an opportunity to focus on any point of the syllabus as soon as they see that it becomes important.
Course Dynamics.
The TA incorporates many ideas from other approaches to language teaching. Depending on the specific situation (class needs, peculiarities of the learners, teacher's aims, etc), a certain lesson can be both teacher or student centred, the emphasis may be on lexis, structures or pronunciation, exercises offered to students may be both closed and open-ended, etc.
Integrated Syllabus.
There are at least 2 parts of the syllabus in any TA language course, i.e. language and thinking ones. In addition to this, other parts may be integrated into syllabus depending upon the requirements of a specific situation. Any of the TA modules   can be developed into a separate part of the syllabus. 
Thinking Models or Tools.
Most tasks and activities offered under TA have a carefully selected thinking focus. An activity may appear familiar at a first glance, yet the way students deal with it is often radically different. Rather than just encouraging students to think and be creative, the TA teacher offers students specific models or tools for thinking, i.e. it teaches students how one can be creative. 
Learner's Independence.
One of the highest priorities of the TA is to develop an independent learner, the one who can master necessary skills without or with the minimum assistance from the teacher.
The following methodological principles are essential when working in the framework of the TA.
Problem based. 
Students learn best when they have to deal with problems and look for suitable solutions to them. Under a problem in the context of the TA we understand a situation when contradictory requirements have to be met. Problems can be both language and non-language ones. In the former case, language itself will be the object of study at the lesson (e.g., in case of grammar), while in the latter case language will be a means, and linguistic skills will be practiced while working upon the problem.
Cross-curricula links. 
Thanks to the module structure of the TA, it easily integrates with other subjects in the curriculum. The modules mastered by students can be applied to acquisition of various disciplines, while  trainings and activities developed under the TA may be successfully employed for teaching other subjects, especially humanities.
The TA promotes awareness activities as an alternative to mere memorization as much as possible. It does not mean, however, that memorization should be excluded from the language classroom, however its role should be restricted and awareness activities should have preference.
Non-linguistic task focus.  Most tasks in the TA have an extra linguistic focus. Language is used as one of the means for finding a solution to a problem. The emphasis is on mastering processing (how to) skills.
Extension of cultural values.  Various materials offered under the TA (texts, films, etc) aim to extend the cross-cultural knowledge of students, awareness of the target culture as well as promote the formation of their own cultural values.
Emphasis on Learner's Individuality.  As any TA course is non-linear, each student has a chance to acquire as much as he or she is ready to do at any given moment of time and later add 'new knots' of the semantic net of the subject to their knowledge. The information presented at every lesson is multi-layered, thus teaching becomes much more individual.  
Peer teaching. Those students who have already mastered important aspects of the syllabus ('nodes') start explaining some points to other students, thus performing some of the teacher's functions. Besides increasing learners' independence, it leads to a useful discussion as a result of which students reach a deeper understanding of the subject.
Each of the principles separately can be hardly called new. Moreover, most of the ideas emphasized by the TA have been known in education for many years. What makes the TA stand aside however, is a systematic course which comprises ALL of the above principles and as a result leads us towards the resolution of the key contradictions of language teaching and education
Thinking Skills
Understanding of thinking skills within the Thinking Approach is based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving developed by Genrich Altshuller. At present, the work on the system of thinking skills continues. A list below is an attempt to make a first step in this direction. It was written by Nikolai Khomenko and Alexander Sokol as a part of their joined paper for the Altshuller Institute Conference in the year 2000.
Group 1 - The Model Vision of the World
* ability to think in terms of models;
* ability to see the Applicability Limits of the given Model;
* ability to compose an unlimited number of models of the given Element with a different degree of abstraction and accuracy from different points of view (using the Full Scheme Model);
* ability to operate with the Models which break causal relationships between the events;
* ability to withdraw from individual experience and peculiarities of personal perception of the situation. Ability to simultaneously view the situation from the vantage point of other participants and an impartial observer.
Group 2 - The Main Model for Description of an Element
(substantial or non-substantial): Element - Name of Feature - Value of Feature
* ability to describe an Element as a set of Features;
* ability to describe a Feature as an Element that has a Name and a Value: one Name of Feature and several various Values of Feature;
* ability to describe Process as an Element;
* ability to describe Fact as a change of one Value to another under the same Name of Feature;
* ability to describe Phenomena or Objective Laws of System (Element) Evolution as causes and effects of several Facts: one or several effects is a cause of at least one other effect;
* ability to see Laws of Evolution, Phenomena, Effect or Function as a result of interaction of several Elements (using the Full Scheme Model);
* ability to see the Function of a System (or an Element) as one of its Features: the Systemshape Feature;
* ability to describe a System as a set of Elements (using the Full Scheme Model) aimed to perform the given Systemshape Feature;
* ability to vary the Values of Element Features on a large scale and track the changes in the Full Scheme Model of Elements (i.e. in the world). Ability to track the qualitative changes of other features caused by the procedure of varying the values. Such changes which lead to the qualitative leap in the Full Scheme Model;
* ability to look for Elements using their description presented as a List of Features or/and a List of Values of Features.
Group 3 - The Full Scheme Model of World Elements
* ability to recognise Elements using the Full Scheme Model;
* ability to operate with impossible, exceptional, fantastic. Ability to think beyond possible and real;
* ability to operate the mechanisms allowing free but controlled mental move from a specific real situation towards a fantastic situation and backwards from the fantastic situation to the real one. Ability to make distinctions between real and imaginary. Ability to use fantastic, fairy and any other imaginary transformations for problem solving. Ability to turn fantastic assumptions into reality ("The Golden Fish" technique);
* ability to broaden the area of the considered variants beyond known and naturally possible to the field of unknown and impossible where causal relationships are broken;
* ability to navigate in the space of Objective and Subjective Factors. Ability to differentiate between them; 
* ability to describe Elements on different Levels of Abstraction;
* ability to see an Element as a whole of other Elements and a part of a larger set of elements;
* ability to see an Element in the process of its transformation in accordance with Objective Laws, regularities and effects;
* ability to see an Element in the Hierarchy of Elements of the world;
* ability to see the Evolution of an Element - how the Past could predetermine the Present and how the Present can predetermine the Future;
* ability to see an Element and all of its Anti-Elements.
Group 4 - The Resource Model
* ability to find and use Resources necessary for problem solving on the basis of the Main Model and the Full Scheme Model; ability to combine them with Elements of Supersystem and their derivatives; the use of Internal Resources (those of Subsystems) and their derivatives, the use of Modification of any Resources in time: not only their condition in the present, but also in the past and future; 
* ability to find resources necessary for the Problem Situation Solution beyond the possibilities of the described situation (including the use of the Main Model and the Full Scheme Model)
Group 5 - The Ideality Model
* ability to compose an ideal model of Elements using different levels of Ideality and the Systemshape Feature; 
* ability to formulate a particular Ideal Final Result (IFR) for a particular Contradiction;
* ability to see the difference between Contradiction and Ideal Final Result;
* ability to compose an ideal model of the Problem Solution using different levels of Ideality.
Group 6 - The Contradiction Model
* ability to see Contradiction as a barrier on our way from Resources of Initial Problem Situation to Ideal Final Solution; 
* ability to recognise Contradiction as the Underlying Cause of all problems;
* ability to see Contradictions and operate them;
* ability to intensify Contradiction in order to reduce the Solution Search Area;
* ability to recognise various types of Contradictions in Problem Situation;
* ability to see, perceive and operate opposites (their combination and interplay);
* ability to see undesirable negative consequences of positive desirable results and vice versa: ability to see desirable positive consequences of negative undesirable results;
* ability to see a System of Contradictions using the Full Scheme Model.
Group 7 - The Problem Situation Model
* ability to recognise the Underlying Cause of the Problem;
* ability to analyse any Problem Situation taking into account its Specific Conditions and variants of their evolution;
* ability to see the whole Hierarchy of Problems behind the given problem in accordance with the Full Scheme Model;
* ability to analyse the Problem Situation in the same way as any other element of the world;
* ability to choose (using the Full Scheme Model) from the System of Problems exactly that problem (and at that moment of time) the solution of which will produce the best effect on the given stage of evolution;
Group 8 - The Problem Solution Model
* ability to differentiate between the estimation of Partial and Final Solutions;
* ability to use common sense and the OTSM-TRIZ tools in order to reduce the Solution Search Area during the process of problem solving;
* ability to extract Key Elements of Problem Situations - the elements which cause the highest number of undesirable effects and contradictions; 
* ability to estimate and take account of the Processes Predetermination Degree in the past and future;
* ability to find Partial Solutions to the Problem and transform them into the Complex Solution suitable for the current specific situation;
* ability to admit the need to solve a completely different problem hidden under the mask of the given situation. Being ready to refuse from solving the given problem if it is forced by external circumstances.
Group 9 - TRTL (Theory of Creative Personality Development)
KTL (Qualities of Creative Personality)
* having a new or unachieved ultimate Goal (or a System of Goals) which is worthy and valuable to the community;
* having a Program of Activities (or several programs) aimed to achieve the set goal and control the process of its execution;
* desire and Concrete Results in carrying the heavy workload necessary to go according to plan;
* ability to solve problems encountered on the way to the Goal;
* ability to defend one's own ideas, bear public unacknowledgement and incomprehension, ability "to stand punishment" and keep loyal to the Goal;
* Commensurability of Achievements (or their dimension) with the set Goal.
“Thinking Skills” © by Nikolai Khomenko and Alexander Sokol
© 2003 The TA Group, all rights reserved. 
Do you want to get to know more about the Thinking Approach? Visit Alexander´s Thinking Approach Project website at
Our dear SHARER Maria del Rosario Morales from Mendoza has sent us this interesting
article which, as she says, she dedicates to all word lovers.
French terms and expressions commonly used in English
Over the years, the English language has borrowed a great number of words and expressions from French. Some of this vocabulary has been so completely absorbed by English that speakers might not realize its origins. Other words and expressions have retained their "Frenchness" - a certain je ne sais quoi which speakers tend to be much more aware of (although this awareness does not usually extend to actually pronouncing the word in French). The following is a list of French terms which are commonly used in English.
Literal meaning:  until God. Used like "farewell"; when you don't expect to see the person again until God (when you die and go to Heaven)
agent provocateur
Literal meaning:  provocative agent . A person who attempts to provoke suspected individuals or groups into committing unlawful acts
Literal meaning:  camp assistant
A military officer who serves as a personal assistant to a higher-ranking officer
Literal meaning:  memory aid
1. Position paper
2. Something that acts as an aid to memory, such as crib notes or a mnemonic devices
à la carte
Literal meaning:  on the menu*. French restaurants usually offer a menu with choices for each of the several courses at a fixed price. If you want something else (a side order), you order from the carte. *Note that menu is a false cognate in French and English.
à la mode
Literal meaning:  in fashion, style
In English, this means "with ice cream" - apparently someone decided that having ice cream on pie was the fashionable way to eat it.
Literal meaning:  self love, self respect
Literal meaning:  cocktail . From Latin, "to open"
Literal meaning:  after skiing
The French term actually refers to snow boots, but the literal translation of the term is what is meant in English, as in "après-ski" social events. 
à propos (de)
Literal meaning:  on the subject of
In French, à propos must be followed by the preposition de. In English, there are four ways to use apropos (we leave out the accent and the space):
1. Adjective - appropriate, to the point: "That's true, but it's not apropos."
2. Adverb - At an appropriate time, opportunely: "Fortunately, he arrived apropos."
3. Adverb/Interjection - by the way, incidentally: "Apropos, what happened yesterday?"
4. Preposition (may or may not be followed by of) - with regard to, speaking of: "Apropos our meeting, I'll be late"; "He told a funny story apropos of the new president."
art déco
Literal meaning:  decorative art. Short for art décoratif
Literal meaning:  attached. A person assigned to a diplomatic post
au fait
Literal meaning:  conversant, informed
Au fait is used in British English to mean "familiar" or "conversant": She's not really au fait with my ideas.
au gratin
Literal meaning:  with gratings. In French, au gratin refers to anything that is grated and put on top of a dish, like breadcrumbs or cheese. In English, au gratin means "with cheese."
au jus
Literal meaning:  in the juice. Served with the meat's natural juices.
au naturel
Literal meaning:  in reality, unseasoned . In this case naturel is a semi-false cognate. In French, au naturel can mean either "in reality" or the literal meaning of "unseasoned" (in cooking). In English, we picked up the latter, less common usage and use it figuratively, to mean natural, untouched, pure, real.
au pair
Literal meaning:  at par . A person who works for a family (cleaning and/or teaching the children) in exchange for room and board
Literal meaning:  before guard. Innovative, especially in the arts
Literal meaning:  to have weight. This word has a very interesting etymology. The words avoir du poids are French, but the expression itself is English: the words were (in a nutshell) imported into English from Old French, strung together, and then the new term, which referred to commodities sold by weight, was exported back to French in the 15th century. Today it is an informal, general term for weight.
bête noire
Literal meaning:  black beast. Similar to a pet peeve: something that is particularly distasteful or difficult and to be avoided.
Literal meaning:  sweet note, Love letter
Blond, blonde
Literal meaning:  fair-haired. This is the only adjective in English which agrees in gender with the person it modifies: blond is for a man and blonde for a woman. Note that these can also be nouns.
bon appétit
Literal meaning:  good appetite. The closest English equivalent is "Enjoy your meal."
bon vivant
Literal meaning:  good "liver". Someone who lives well, who knows how to enjoy life.
bon voyage
Literal meaning:  good trip. English has "Have a good trip," but Bon voyage is more elegant.
Literal meaning:  small, dark-haired female. The French word brun, dark-haired, is what English really means by "brunette." The -ette suffix indicates that the subject is small and female.
carte blanche
Literal meaning:  blank card. Free hand, ability to do whatever you want/need
Literal meaning:  cherry. The French word for the fruit gives us the English word for the color.
c'est la vie
Literal meaning:  that's life. Same meaning and usage in both languages
chaise longue
Literal meaning:  long chair. In English, this is often mistakenly written as "chaise lounge" - which actually makes perfect sense.
chargé d'affaires
Literal meaning:  charged with business.A substitute or replacement diplomat
Literal meaning:  Frisian horse. Barbed wire, spikes, or broken glass attached to wood or masonry and used to block access
cheval glace
Literal meaning:  horse mirror. A long mirror set into a moveable frame
Literal meaning:  stylish. Chic sounds more chic than "stylish."
coup de grâce
Literal meaning:  mercy blow. Deathblow, final blow, decisive stroke
coup d'état
Literal meaning:  state blow. Overthrow of the government
crème de cacao
Literal meaning:  cream of cacao. Chocolate-flavored liqueur
crème de la crème
Literal meaning:  cream of the cream. Synonymous with the English expression "cream of the crop" - refers to the best of the best.
crème de menthe
Literal meaning:  cream of mint. Mint-flavored liqueur
crème fraîche
Literal meaning:  fresh cream. This is a funny term. Despite its meaning, crème fraîche is in fact slightly fermented, thickened cream.
Literal meaning:  critical, judgment. Critique is an adjective and noun in French, but a noun and verb in English; it refers to a critical review of something or the act of performing such a review.
Literal meaning:  kitchen, food style. In English, cuisine refers only to a particular type of food/cooking, such as French cuisine, Southern cuisine, etc.
Literal meaning:  bottom of the bag. Dead-end street
Literal meaning:  beginner. In French, débutante is the feminine form of débutant - beginner (noun) or beginning (adj). In both languages, it also refers to a young girl making her formal debut into society. Interestingly, this usage is not original in French; it was adopted back from English.
Décolletage, décolleté
Literal meaning:  low neckline. lowered neckline. The first is a noun, the second an adjective, but both refer to low necklines on women's clothing.
Literal meaning:  tasting. The French word simply refers to the act of tasting, while in English "degustation" is used for a tasting event or party, as in wine or cheese tasting.
déjà vu
Literal meaning:  already seen. This is a grammatical structure in French, as in "Je l'ai déjà vu"=> I've already seen it. It can also disparage a style or technique that has already been done, as in "Son style est déjà vu" => His style is not original.
In English, déjà vu refers to the scientific phenomenon of feeling like you have already seen or done something when you're sure that you haven't.
Literal meaning:  half world. 1. A marginal or disrespectful group . 2. Prostitutes and/or kept women
Literal meaning:  half cup. Refers to a small cup of espresso or other strong coffee.
Literal meaning:  out of fashion. Same meaning in both languages: outmoded, out of fashion
de rigueur
Literal meaning:  of rigueur. Socially or culturally obligatory
dernier cri
Literal meaning:  last cry. The newest fashion or trend
de trop
Literal meaning:  of too much. Excessive, superfluous
double entendre
Literal meaning:  double hearing. A word play or pun. For example, you're looking at a field of sheep and you say "How are you (ewe)?"
du jour
Literal meaning:  of the day. "Soup du jour" is nothing more than an elegant-sounding version of "soup of the day."
eau de toilette
Literal meaning:  toilet water. Toilet here does not refer to a commode; see toilette, below. Eau de toilette is a very weak perfume.
Literal meaning:  again. A simple adverb in French, "encore" in English refers to an additional performance, usually requested with audience applause.
enfant terrible
Literal meaning:  terrible child. Refers to a troublesome or embarrassing person within a group (of artists, thinkers, etc).
en garde
Literal meaning:  on guard. Warning that one should be on his/her guard, ready for an attack (originally in fencing).
en masse
Literal meaning:  in mass. In a group, all together
en route
Literal meaning:  on route. On the way
en suite
Literal meaning:  in sequence. Part of a set, together
esprit de corps
Literal meaning:  group spirit. Similar to team spirit or morale
fait accompli
Literal meaning:  done deed. Fait accompli seems more fatalistic to me than done deed, which is so factual.
Literal meaning:  false, fake. I once saw an ad for "genuine faux pearls." No worries that those pearls might be real, I guess - you were guaranteed fake ones. :-)
faux pas
Literal meaning:  false step, trip. Something that should not be done, a foolish mistake.
femme fatale
Literal meaning:  deadly woman. An alluring, mysterious woman who seduces men into compromising situations
Literal meaning:  fiancée. engaged person, betrothed. Note that fiancé refers to a man and fiancée to a woman.
film noir
Literal meaning:  black movie. Black is used here in the sense of morbid or depressing, as in black humour.
Literal meaning:  final
In French, this can refer to either the final in sport (e.g., quarter-final, semi-final) or the finale of a play. In English, it can only mean the latter.
fin de siècle
Literal meaning:  end of the century. Hyphenated in English, fin-de-siècle refers to the end of the 19th century.
fleur-de-lis, fleur-de-lys
Literal meaning:  flower of lily. A type of iris or an emblem in the shape of an iris with three petals.
folie à deux
Literal meaning:  craziness for two. Mental disorder which occurs simultaneously in two people with a close relationship or association.
force majeure
Literal meaning:  greater force. Refers to superior/greater force, or to an unexpected or uncontrollable event.
Literal meaning:  playful,little girl. Refers to an impish or playful girl/woman.
Literal meaning:  left, awkward. Tactless, lacking social grace
Literal meaning:  type. Used mostly in art and film - "I really like this genre..."
haute couture
Literal meaning:  high sewing. High-class, fancy (and expensive) clothing styles.
haute cuisine
Literal meaning:  high cooking. High-class, fancy (and expensive) cooking or food
hors de combat
Literal meaning:  out of combat. Out of action
hors d'oeuvre
Literal meaning:  outside of work. An appetizer. Oeuvre here refers to the main work (course), so hors d'oeuvre simply means something besides the main course.
idée fixe
Literal meaning:  set idea. Fixation, obsession
je ne sais quoi
Literal meaning:  I don't know what. Used to indicate a "certain something," as in "I really like Ann. She has a certain je ne sais quoi that I find very appealing."
joie de vivre
Literal meaning:  joy of living. The quality in people who live life to the fullest
Literal meaning:  let it be. A policy of non-interference
maître d', maître d'hôtel
Literal meaning:  master of, master of hotel . The former is more common in English, which is strange since it is incomplete: "The 'master of' will show you to your table."
mal de mer
Literal meaning:  sickness of sea. Seasickness
Literal meaning:  morning. In English, refers to the day's first showing of a movie or play. Can also refer to a midday romp with one's lover.
mot juste
Literal meaning:  right word. Exactly the right word or expression.
nom de plume
Literal meaning:  pen name. No longer used in French.
Literal meaning:  born. Used in genealogy to refer to a woman's maiden name: Anne Miller née (or nee) Smith.
nouveau riche
Literal meaning:  new rich. Disparaging term for someone who has recently come into money.
papier mâché
Literal meaning:  mashed paper. Used for art
par excellence
Literal meaning:  by excellence. Quintessential, preeminent, the best of the best
Literal meaning:  small, short. It may sound chic, but petit is simply the feminine French adjective "short."
Literal meaning:  little oven
Small dessert, especially cake
pièce de résistance
Literal meaning:  piece of stamina. In French, this originally referred to the main course - the test of your stomach's stamina. In both languages, it now refers to an outstanding accomplishment or the final part of something - a project, a meal, etc.
Literal meaning:  foot on ground. A temporary or secondary place of residence.
Literal meaning:  protected. Someone whose training is sponsored by an influential person.
raison d'être
Literal meaning:  reason for being. Purpose, justification for existing
Literal meaning:  go to. In French, this refers to a date or an appointment (literally, it is the verb se rendre - to go - in the imperative); in English we can use it as a noun or a verb (let's rendez-vous at 8pm).
Literal meaning:  quick, accurate response. The French repartie gives us the English "repartee," with the same meaning of a swift, witty, and "right on" retort.
Literal meaning:  risked. Suggestive, overly provocative
Literal meaning:  novel river. A long, multi-volume novel which presents the history of several generations of a family or community. In both French and English, saga tends to be used more.
Literal meaning:  red. The English refers to a reddish cosmetic or metal/glass-polishing powder, and can be a noun or a verb.
Literal meaning:  respond please. This abbreviation stands for Répondez, s'il vous plaît, which means that "Please RSVP" is redundant.
Literal meaning:  cold blood. The ability to maintain one's composure.
Literal meaning:  without. Used mainly in academia, although it's also seen in the font style "sans serif" => without decorative flourishes.
Literal meaning:  knowing how to do. Synonymous with tact or social grace.
Literal meaning:  self saying. What one claims about oneself; so-called, alleged
Literal meaning:  taken care of. 1. Sophisticated, elegant, fashionable. 2. Well-groomed, polished, refined.
Literal meaning:  evening. In English, refers to an elegant party.
Literal meaning:  suspicion. Used figuratively like hint: There's just a soupçon of garlic in the soup.
Literal meaning:  memory, keepsake. A memento
tableau vivant
Literal meaning:  living picture. A scene made up of silent, motionless actors
table d'hôte
Literal meaning:  host table. 1. A table for all guests to sit together . 2. A fixed-price meal with multiple courses.
Literal meaning:  head to head. A private talk or visit with another person
Literal meaning:  toilet. In French, this refers both to the toilet itself and anything related to toiletries; thus the expression "to do one's toilette" - brush hair, do makeup, etc. See eau de toilette, above.
Literal meaning:  touched. Originally used in fencing, now equivalent to "you got me."
tour de force
Literal meaning:  turn of strength. Something which takes a great deal of strength or skill to accomplish.
trompe l'oeil
Literal meaning:  trick the eye. A painting style which uses perspective to trick the eye into thinking it is real. In French, trompe l'oeil can also refer in general to artifice and trickery.
vis-à-vis (de)
Literal meaning:  face to face. In French, vis-à-vis must be followed by the preposition de. Used in English to mean "compared to" or "in relation with": His feelings vis-à-vis my ideas are irrelevant.
Literal meaning:  flight of the wind. In both French and English, a vol-au-vent is a very light pastry shell filled with meat or fish with sauce.
French has also given English scores of words in the domains of ballet and cooking. The literal meanings of the French words are (in parentheses).
Ballet terms: barre (bar), chaîné (chained), chassé (chased), développé (developed), effacé (shaded), pas de deux (two step), pirouette (turn), plié (bent), relevé (lifted)....
Cooking terms: blanch (from blanchir => to bleach), sauté (fried over high heat), fondue (melted), purée (crushed), flambée (burned)....
Copyright  (c) 2004 About, Inc.
Our dear SHARER Ana Maria Rozzi de Bergel has sent us this new article she has written. No doubt an invaluable contribution to the field of oral narrative.
The nature and role of stories.
Teachers of English have long known the value of stories for developing their learners' language alongside their imagination, creativity and social skills. The value of narrative goes far beyond that, however, and the narrative theories of psychology define it as the inescapable frame of human experience.
While we can be trained to think in geometrical shapes, patterns of sounds, poetry, movement, colour combinations, spatial relations and syntactic matrixes, what predominates or fundamentally constitutes our consciousness is the understanding of self and world in story. Not only the textual messages we produce, but our lives gain meaning only through narrative-motivated texts, coherent stories with a beginning, middle and end, as a series of sequential events with comprehensible references, governed by a logic, enacted by agents and structured by a discourse with a point of view. (Bruner, 1999)
In Bruner's narrativity theory, narration provides a nexus between the social environment and the personal world of intentions, wishes and hopes. It is a useful metaphor to explain human psychology, with man as an agent and recipient of culture. People create their vision of the world and their place in it through narration. In narration there has to be an actor, an objective, a scenario and a means of communication. We are all generators of imaginary worlds, like the authors of novels, plays, short stories, biographies or chronicles.
We are born into a world which has a past, events in progress and other people who came here before us and already have a system of social rules, cultural conventions, a legal system and, above all, a language. To find a place in this environment, man has to link his individuality to the canonical reality. This is done through intentional, objective-oriented behaviour. He is like a stand-in replacing a sick actor in a play with an experienced cast. Children learn the stories of their communities, its laws, history, myths and conventions while at the same time building a personal history and carving a niche for themselves within their society. They use their games to rehearse, apprehend and analyse the behaviour and conflicts of the adult world.
It is within the social environment that human beings can  produce, construct and interpret meanings, but it is also this social environment and its culture that restrict these interpretations, by allowing only those which are culturally coherent. Societies generate popular psychology, a set of beliefs for organising the individuals' world by attributing reactions and mental states to fellow human beings and guiding their actions by these predictions. This generates a system of interactions and transactions which is not conceptual but narrative, like a plot that develops in a film.
This narrative form of thinking differs from the paradigmatic form in that the latter seeks to verify and explain the empiric reality by identifying causes of phenomena, making hypotheses and stating principles, while the former places human experience in time and space. Both forms coexist and we use them according to need. The paradigmatic modality is context-free because it is a set of abstract concepts, but the narrative modality is context-bound. It always needs agents, time, place and circumstances.
Creations of imaginary, fantastic worlds occur when interaction and scenarios depart from socially accepted conventions. We will never question why the doorman says "Have a good day" to us in the morning, but if this happens in the evening we will start wondering why he has done this. Human beings can also purposefully depart from accepted courses of interaction to generate fantasy, humour, irony or simply to achieve their goals in the intricate network of social transactions, particularly in what concerns ulterior motifs or hidden intentions. To move within this domain, it is necessary to have a good command of "tactic deceit", the capability to lie creatively, not in order to cheat or harm other people but in order to create imaginary worlds by using our fantasy and creativity. The impossibility to handle tactic deceit or creative lying is a serious limitation in interpersonal relationships because it restricts interaction to the concrete, literal level. This is almost never sufficient and does not allow the person to enjoy or even interpret humour, figurative meanings, symbols or to make abstract generalisations from concrete cases.
Narration explains, in relation to memory, the distortion of facts which are usually tinged by popular psychology or the narrators' emotions and impressions. Actually, when remembering an event, we may well recall first the emotion we felt than the event itself. Narration establishes this link between the inner world and the objective, outer world. To a great extend, the principles of emotional memory, so widely used in acting, are based on this idea, as they hold that in order to recreate reality and act convincingly, what performers have to reconstruct is their feelings in similar situations. The actions themselves will arise spontaneously.(Strasberg, 1980)
Narrative theories of psychology, then, define man as a biological being, placed in a particular culture, at a particular moment in history, interacting with peers to acquire their culture in order to achieve personal aims within this environment. They take various elements into account: inventiveness, perception of reality, feelings, emotions, intentions, reasoning and they explain the behaviour of a complex social being: Man, who is context-bound. These theories also acknowledge the role of language as the instrument for this construction of culture and reality and as the medium to apprehend the cultural tools,  but also as a limiting and conditioning element. The language of a culture provides the syntax and lexis for the construction of meaning and each person can create meanings only within this framework. Whorf's hypothesis on the conditioning role of language (1966) is still a valid point of discussion, stating that cultures grow and develop in accordance with the possibilities of the languages they speak. According to Whorf, language influences culture and not vice-versa.
Narrative theories in psychology refer to narration or stories with clear dramatic characteristics:
1. They are sequential. Events are arranged chronologically, following the development of the story.  However, the story as a whole confers meaning to each scene or event, in such a way that we will not be able to understand the whole without following the development of the parts and we will not be able to understand each part if we have not understood the whole.
Given the fundamental role assigned to language, it is interesting to analyse another type of sequencing: the anaphoric, cataphoric and exophoric references of narrative discourse and the way in which the parts of a text are linked by rhetorical devices, showing cause-effect, instrument-product, etc., usually called propositional relationships or logical sequences. At another level, there will be parts of the text we will identify as "introduction", "development" or "conclusion", for example. These are cultural concepts and we share the norms for their comprehension. If a piece of a text is identifiable as an introduction and it appears in the middle of a story, the reader will begin to create scenarios for the explanation of this breach of accepted rules. This also relates to the intention of the creator of this discourse and how he handles his messages to achieve his aims. He may purposefully decide to go against the conventions. In that case, we will need to adjust our comprehension to the new conventions in order to analyse the text. In discourse analysis, it is necessary to understand the text as a whole and relate it to its authors, actors and context in order to analyse its parts.(McCarthy,1997)
2. They can be real or imaginary. Since reality is also constructed in our minds, we cannot claim that a story is real because it may have references to concrete events or the empirical reality. The report of an event will never be completely objective. Within these limitations, we can define as "real" a story which may occur in the extra-linguistic world. Something that might happen to real people, in the real world.
However, a story without these characteristics may also be believable if it states clear conventions and all its elements respect them. Cinderella is not a real story but it is believable within the conventions of a fairy tale. If the crystal slipper fitted one of the stepsisters and she married the prince, we would reject the story, because in fairy tales the good are always rewarded and the bad always lose.
Narration is interesting not as a copy of reality but as its metaphorical representation. It is evident that stories have a life of their own, a mission to accomplish, and that art does not seek to chronicle life or imitate it. Art is based on the idea of plot, as opposed to the idea of chronicle. A good story does not limit itself to the narration of events but tries to tell them in an interesting, shocking or funny way. This is one of the main characteristics of art: to adapt reality to the agent's requirements for impact or for conveying meaning, within socially accepted conventions. Now and again, agents appear who change these conventions but to be understood, they inevitably have to gain social recognition.
Stories are the voices of their narrators, be they inside or outside the story. There is always a human being sending messages to another, a reader or listener, with whom he interacts. Modern linguistics acknowledges the interactive nature of reading and listening comprehension. There is an ongoing dialogue between the author and the recipient of the text. If the messages we receive in this interaction are within those we expected , that is, if the narrator's agenda agrees with ours, we will accept the story. We can even do this with our autobiography, as we may prefer approximations to the story to the actual story, which may not meet our expectations.
In his construction of reality and the world, Man needs to connect to the so-called real stories in his culture: myths, legends, traditions, as well as to develop his imagination to create a place of his own within his society. There is room in our life for cultural adaptation and fictional creations, and our world is a combination of both.
3. They are dramatic. The traditionally accepted components of a story are its characters, the scenarios or situations, the action, the outcome, the instrument and the problem. However, we can only perceive the dramatic nature of stories if we explore the concept of dramatic action. A string of well-connected events, placed sequentially in time and set in space, does not constitute dramatic action, which is defined by
a. the interplay of roles.
b. the presence of a conflict.
c. the interaction and negotiations carried out by the characters with their personal agendas, in this shared scenario, to achieve their goals. (Di Pietro, 1989)
The dramatic action in Cinderella is not that everybody goes to the ball, she does not, the fairy godmother helps her, the prince falls in love with her and they finally get married. It is the interplay of the persecutor-rescuer-victim roles, in a triangle which rotates several times in the story. The persecutory step-sisters end up as victims, but Cinderella rescues them, giving up her previous victim's role. (Karpman, 1968) In the scenarios, each character has a different agenda and the conflict evolves around Cinderella's plight and the need to restore justice. Each character, besides, is seeking a different goal and this fuels interaction.
4. They have a value as symbols, metaphors or emblems. Stories go beyond the textual level, to send conceptual and metaphorical messages. They are often used to convey moral or didactic teachings, and sometimes their hidden messages permeate the narrative level even in spite of their authors. Cinderella contains a message: "Do not do anything to solve your problems. Do not take your life in your hands. Wait until a miraculous solution appears". Many children may have taken this message as the leit motif of their lives .....
People's capability for drawing these metaphorical, conceptual messages from stories is the tool to build up abstract knowledge and then apply it to new, concrete contexts. Those who apprehend the idea that Hamlet is the tragedy of the irresolute man have access to conceptual, abstract thinking. They can draw a general principle from the events  in one particular context. This will enable them to recognise this problem in others, by observing their concrete behaviour. People who do not conceptualise will remain at the anecdotal level and acknowledge that somebody behaves "like Hamlet", only if the person is in the situation of having to avenge his father's death or has seen his father's ghost. The story and its context will be but one thing.
This capability for abstract conceptualisation enables people to differentiate between facts or events and the concepts they represent. Without a perception of these concepts, we would be in the situation of the student in "The Lesson", by Eugene Ionesco  (1961). As she had found it impossible to grasp the concept of multiplication, she had studied by heart "all the possible results of all the possible multiplications."
5. Stories are instances of language use and their success depends on their value as literary productions. The so-called "language awareness" does not merely refer to our capability for producing sounds, words and sentences with literal meanings but also to the capability for finding hidden meanings, metaphors, concepts, aesthetic uses of language. It represents the extent to which we value language, trusting it as a means for interaction, negotiation and the construction of meaning. The higher our language awareness, the better equipped we will be for accessing culture and knowledge, as we will have a better instrument for interacting with the cultural medium.
We are born narrators, but our narrative skills are not innate. They develop with education.
Bruner, J. (1991) The Narrative Construction of Reality. Criticial Inquiry, 18(1):1-21. Boston, Massachussets, USA.
Di Pietro, Robert (1989) Strategic Interaction, Oxford: OUP.
Ionesco, E. (1961) La lección. Buenos Aires: Aguilar
Karpman, S. (1968). Fairy Tales and Script Drama Analysis. Transactional Analysis Bulletin, vol. 7, no. 26, pp. 39-43.
McCarthy, M. (1997) Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Strasberg, L. (Ed.1980) Un sueño de pasión. Buenos Aires: EMECE
Whorf, S., in Fishman, J.A. (1966) The Whorfian Hypothesis, The Edinburgh Course in Applied Linguistics, Vol. 1, Section 4, pp 114 -126, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
© copyright 2004 by Ana Maria Rozzi de Bergel.
Our dear SHARER Graciela Vinocour from Neuquen wants to SHARE these tips with all of us.
How To Memorize a Poem
Has memory has become a vestigial organ like the appendix? The battle over writ/spoke, poem working on page or stage, rages. Let's breathe hot oxygen on the conflagration with this, Step-by-Step-by-Heart.
Here's How:
1. You memorize because you have to. Poem you are reading makes you stop dead, you hear the voice of the poet meld with your thought-process, the poem was written especially for you...
2. Boom! You have to make this poem your own. You Have to Memorize It.
3. Read the poem over, slowly, to yourself and aloud.
4. Try to understand the mystery of why it works for you using the same words that pass by unremarkably every day.
5. Try to understand the poem by understanding the poem inside the poem, to understand the mystery by letting the mystery retain its mystery.
6. Read and say the poem over, slowly, aloud.
7. Understand the poem by knowing every word's meaning: etymological investigation.
8. Don't shirk the architecture: the form, the look of the poem on the page, understand?
9. Dive off the line breaks themselves, into the abyss, cutting the shape of the page around the poem. The poem contains its opposite.
10. Read and say the poem over, slowly, aloud. Feel its shape in your lungs, your heart, your throat.
11. With an index card, cover everything but the first line of the poem. Read it. Look away, see the line in air, and say it. Look back. Repeat until you've "got it."
12. Uncover the second line. Learn it as you did the first line, but also add second line to first, until you've got the two.
13. Then it's on to three. Always repeat the first line on down, till the whole poem sings.
14. With the poem now internalized, you are freed to perform it. This is to find the voice(s) of the poem, to find yourself there, and the poet, and to relate to the audience.
1. Memorizing balances by heart and by rote. Think about this. Step-by-step you learn't by heart.
2. As the Duchess says in Alice in Wonderland, "Take care of the sense and the sounds will take care of themselves
© Copyright,2003 by Margy Snyder & Bob Holman
Our dear SHARER Graciela Castelli has sent us some information about this forthcoming conference:
Following the success of our 1st Regional Conference for the Teaching of English, and considering the favourable feedback that was received from the participants, we are pleased to announce the 2nd Regional Conference for the Teaching of English
On Materials Development: Adoption, Adaptation and Creation
This second event will once more gather renowned specialists like: Daniel J. Fernández
Susan Hillyard , Mary de la Vega, María Isabel Recamán, Mariel Amez and Viviana Valenti.
There will also be a Round table on editing teaching material
Join us to update your teaching practices and share with us your expertise
on 17th, 18th and 19th June, 2004, at Centro Cultural Bernardino Rivadavia, at San Martín 1080, Plaza Montenegro, Rosario, Santa Fe.
If you are interested in getting more information about the Conference, e-mail us to: ,
Our dear SHARER Analía Kandel has sent us this announcement. Analía is a well-known figure in the ELT scene in the city of Buenos Aires. She is a graduate from Instituto del Profesorado “Joaquín V.Gonzalez” and holds an M.A. in ELT from the University of Reading,UK.
Hola a todos,
Sólo unas líneas para contarles que este próximo sábado 21/2 comenzaré una columna sobre "Idiomas, Arte y Cultura" en el programa "Bureau de Arte" que se emite por Radio Splendid AM 990 los días sábados de 18 a 20 hs.
Mi columna será cada aprox. 2 semanas y consistirá en entrevistas, informes, etc. acerca de temas y eventos relacionados con los idiomas y el arte.

Our dear SHARER Amalia Donoso has sent us this information:
Annual Conference for Teachers of English 2004: Reflective Teaching
7 to 11 June 2004
Santo Domingo (June 10-11) and Santiago (June 8-9), Dominican Republic
Contact name: Mrs. Grisel Del Rosario
Contact e-mail: 
This conference has been a tradition at the Dominico Americano for the last thirty years. EFL teachers get together to participate in 4 plenaries and concurrent sessions conducted by international and local speakers.
Organized by: Instituto Cultural Dominico Americano and Centro Cultural Dominico Americano
Deadline for abstracts/proposals: 31 March 2004
(Check the event website for latest details.)
Primer Simposio Internacional de Bilingüismo y Educación Bilingüe en Latinoamerica
1, 2 y 3 de abril de 2004
BilingLatAm es el primer simposio internacional que reúne a especialistas dedicados al estudio del bilingüismo y la educación bilingüe en América Latina.
Este simposio se llevará a cabo los días 1, 2 y 3 abril de 2004 en ESSARP (Educadores Asociados del Río de la Plata) y en la Universidad de San Andrés en Buenos Aires.
El propósito del encuentro es promover el intercambio de conocimientos en los campos de la investigación y del aprendizaje acerca del bilingüismo y la educación bilingüe entre aquellos que trabajan en contextos de mayorías o minorías lingüísticas en América Latina.
El Comité Académico cuenta con la participación de Jason Beech (Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina); Ofelia García (Columbia University, E.E.U.U.); Fred Genesee (Mc Gill University, Canadá); Christine Hélot (Institute Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres, Francia); Nancy Hornberger (University of Pennsylvania, E.E.U.U), Estela Klett (Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina); Ricardo Otheguy (City University of New York, E.E.U.U.); Alicia Tissera (Universidad Nacional de Salta, Argentina)
Los trabajos aceptados, que superan los 60, incluyen investigaciones en el área de la sociolingüística, estudios de comunidades bilingües y migraciones, política e ideología de la lengua, language shift, erosión lingüística, desarrollo en la educación bilingüe, niños bilingües, estudios sociolingüísticos y gramaticales de codeswitching, procesamiento de discursos bilingües, estudios sobre la adquisición bilingüe, entre otros. Se han presentado también estudios de casos acerca de educación bilingüe y aprendizaje en el aula.
Los participantes en el Simposio provienen de distintas partes del mundo, como ser Argentina, Armenia, Brasil, Canadá, Colombia, España, E.E.U.U., Francia, México, Namibia, Perú, Reino Unido, Suecia y Uruguay. Los estudios abarcan un amplio espectro de lenguas incluyendo el español, el francés, el inglés, diversas lenguas indígenas de América Latina y las lenguas de señas.
BilingLatAm ofrecerá también Plenarios Abiertos para todos aquellos interesados en Bilingüismo y Educación Bilingüe en América Latina. Entre los plenaristas confirmados se encuentran: Fred Genesee (Mc Gill University, Canada) que dictará un plenario denominado Bilingual Acquisition: Exploring the Limits of the Language Faculty y Christine Hélot (Institute Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres, France) cuyo plenario se titula Moving Away From A Monolingual Habitus: The Notion Of Bilingualism In The Provision For Language Education In France.
El Primer Simposio Internacional de Bilinguismo y Educacion Bilingüe en Latinoamérica propiciará el encuentro de especialistas que compartirán los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en el área, así como también una oportunidad de divulgación de los conocimientos en el área para la comunidad en su conjunto.
Informes: ESSARP Centre - Esmeralda 672 piso 7 Tel: +(54 11) 4322-2480
C1007ABF Buenos Aires Fax:+(54 11) 4322-9203 - ARGENTINA 
I  Congreso Internacional Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad
Tensiones Educativas en América Latina
Institución organizadora:  Instituto para el Estudio de la Educación, el Lenguaje y la Sociedad
Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación
Departamento de Educación General Básica, Primer Ciclo y Segundo Ciclo
Departamento de Nivel Inicial
Departamento de Letras
Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de La Pampa
Jueves 1 al sábado 3 de Julio de 2004
El Congreso se propone propiciar el encuentro de docentes e investigadores con la finalidad de construir redes de apoyo e intercambio para favorecer el análisis crítico de la educación, el lenguaje y la sociedad en el ámbito latinoamericano.
Áreas Temáticas:
1.    La investigación sobre Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad. Abordajes metodológicos
2.    Formación Docente: Problemáticas políticas, pedagógicas y organizacionales
3.      El sujeto del aprendizaje: perspectivas teóricas y prácticas educativas
4.      Políticas educativas en las últimas décadas
5.      Las instituciones educativas: actores y prácticas en contextos actuales
6.      Didáctica: problemas teóricos y desafíos de la práctica
7.      La situación educativa actual: aportes históricos y filosóficos
8.      Sociedad, Estado y educación
9.      Ciudadanía, exclusión y diversidad en la educación latinoamericana
10.     Avances de los estudios lingüísticos y sus implicaciones pedagógicas
11.     Prácticas y propuestas alternativas de escolarización
12.     Educación y trabajo: relaciones posibles
13.     La educación a distancia: problemas y perspectivas
La organización de las áreas procura trascender criterios meramente disciplinarios, incluyendo articulaciones y enfoques interdisciplinarios.  Por esta razón, los trabajos serán clasificados de acuerdo con el área temática en la que esté puesto el énfasis de la investigación.
Actividades Programadas
Conferencias plenarias / Mesas Redondas / Presentación de ponencias /
Presentación de libros y material educativo y audiovisual
Se invita a proponer ponencias que aborden las temáticas propuestas en las
áreas temáticas mencionadas.
§         Las ponencias serán organizadas en mesas de trabajo, cada uno de las cuales estará a cargo de un Coordinador encargado de definir la línea temática preestablecida y de organizar el programa general y detallado de la mesa.
§         La fecha límite de admisión de propuestas de ponencias es el 31 de marzo de 2004. Todas las ponencias serán evaluadas por un comité científico integrado para tal fin.
Para mayor información acerca de la presentación de ponencias, se ruega dirigirse a:
Fecha límite para la presentación de ponencias: 31 de Marzo 2004
Evaluación de ponencias recibidas: 1 al 30 de abril de  2004
Notificación a ponentes: a partir del 14 de mayo de 2004
Participantes y cuotas de inscripción.
$50 hasta el 31 de marzo de 2004
$70 desde el 1 de abril al 2 de mayo de 2004
$90 desde el 3 de mayo a julio de 2004
Expositores extranjeros:
Países latinoamericanos:     u$s 60
Países europeos y EEUU: u$s 150
Asistentes: $ 30
Asistentes extranjeros:
Países latinoamericanos:     u$s 30
Países europeos y EEUU: u$s 60
Estudiantes argentinos asistentes: inscripción gratuita
Estudiantes extranjeros asistentes: u$s 5
Para detalles de inscripción y formas de pago, se ruega dirigirse a:
Our dear SHARER Charlie Lopez  has sent us this announcement:
YeS is back
Now on Multicanal and Cablevisión
hosted by Charlie López M.A.
The first and only TV programme for students and teachers of English is on the air again
Mondays          07:30              Multicanal – Canal 15
Mondays          19:30              Multicanal – Canal 15
Tuesdays         11:00              Multicanal – Canal 15
Tuesdays         17:30              Multicanal – Canal 15
Wednesdays      00:30             Multicanal – Canal 15
Wednesdays      07:00             Multicanal – Canal 15
Fridays           07:00              Multicanal – Canal 15
Saturdays        01:00              Multicanal – Canal 15
                   01:00              Cablevision- Canal 40
Sundays          07:00              Multicanal – Canal 15
                   07:00              Cablevision- Canal 40
Our dear SHARERS at McDonough announce:
Curso de Interpretación Simultánea
El programa de los cursos que McDonough ha diseñado apunta a que cada alumno desarrolle las técnicas y la práctica de la interpretación, trabajando en cabinas individuales con los más modernos equipos de interpretación simultánea disponibles en el mercado. Muchos graduados de universidades o de cursos de interpretación simultánea buscan nuestros cursos como un posgrado de actualización y exposición laboral.
McDonough brinda:
Práctica de interpretación simultánea de las últimas conferencias del mercado
Los temas más actuales del mercado: Telecomunicaciones, networking, electricidad, management, ingeniería, delitos cibernéticos, entre muchos otros.
Seguimiento individualizado del alumno
Carga horaria de 3,5 horas semanales
Práctica de relay
Grabación autónoma y centralizada
Laboratorio de 11 Cabinas de interpretación
Consolas de audio y micrófonos profesionales
Sistema de proyección de transparencias y Proyección de datos
Equipos de sonido infrarrojos para conferencias
Micrófonos inalámbricos UHF
Para todos los cursos se tomarán los exámenes de ingreso. Las vacantes son limitadas ya que hay sólo 11 cabinas por curso. Para mayor información:
El Centro de capacitación McDonough está ubicado en Sarmiento 983, piso 11, Capital.
Informes e inscripción 2003Tel/fax: 4325-3101 (Líneas Rotativas)

Our dear SHARER Alicia Rey from Resistencia, Chaco has sent us this message:
Dear Omar
I've been a SHARER for quite a long time and I thought that perhaps you would like to let our colleagues know  about  this offer I am introducing, which is certainly an alternative regarding English language practice material for students.
 I would really appreciate it if you invite all your  subscribers to visit this website:
I've been teaching English for sixteen years  in Resistencia  and have run my own place (English Studio) since 2000, focusing on ELT assisted by PCs, multimedia material  and Internet. I've been too much involved with  ELT soft and the use of the Internet  in ELT for about nine years  so I might say I do have quite a hands-on experience in the subject - which I would like to share with  colleagues.  During the Academic Year, sometimes I  find it quite difficult as I have to  be "at the chalk face" all the time . So this is  -I believe- the right time to contact you and introduce myself to the Online Group that you manage so successfully ( your membership  number is incredible! )-Congratulations on that !
OK Omar I guess that's it for the moment - I would be more than happy if you consider this message and  if you visit these websites to know more about my professional background.  and
I hope we can keep in touch
Best regards
Alicia Rey
Academic Manager – English Studio

Our dear SHARER Claudio Cané has got an announcement to make:
Universidad del Museo Social Argentino
Nueva Sede Zona Sur
Traductorado Público (2 años)
Para Profesores de Inglés egresados de instituciones terciarias o universitarias
Para egresados de instituciones terciarias o universitarias con título afín (Traductores Técnicos o Literarios, Intérpretes, etc).
Informes e Inscripción:
Sede UMSA en Zona Sur: Instituto Superior Modelo Lomas
Belgrano 55 – Lomas de Zamora- 4292-4030 /1226 –

Macmillan invites you and your colleagues to take part in the following courses.
All events are free of charge but enrolment is essential as seats are limited.
Certificates of attendance will be given out at the end of the sessions.
SAN JUSTO (Pcia de Buenos Aires)
Wednesday, 11 March  -  17:00hs to 19:30hs
Venue: Colegio Santa Rosa de Lima   Tomas J. Villegas 2471, San Justo
Enrolment:  Papillón Tel.: 4651-6767                    
Macmillan Publishers S.A. Tel.: 4717-0088  E-mail;
Teaching Pre-Teens and Teens: Planning for effective learning
Come and Meet ¨Top Teens¨
by Omar Villarreal
Do you want your teenagers "to think in English" rather than "to think about English"?
Do you want to give your students a sound grammatical foundation? At the same time, do you want to move away from purely grammatical exercises and to get your students to communicate? Do you want your students to deal with real world characters in real life situations?
In this talk, Omar will present his model for teaching teenagers and his latest series for 11 + students : TOP TEENS published by Macmillan.
Stay Tuned to Your Secondary Students´ Needs
by Martha Laborde
On many occasions there seems to be a sort of bad connection between our pedagogical aims and what our secondary students want to hear and talk about in class. 
A new Macmillan course for secondary students that offers unconventional and innovative ways to connect!. 
SAN JUSTO (Pcia de Buenos Aires)
Saturday, 20 March - 10:00hs to 12:30hs
Venue: Escuela Integral Jorge Luis Borges  Vicente López 1786, San Miguel
Enrolment:  Macmillan Publishers S.A. Tel.: 4717-0088  E-mail;                     
Teaching Pre-Teens and Teens: Planning for effective learning.
Come and Meet ¨Top Teens¨
by Omar Villarreal
Stay Tuned to Your Secondary Students´ Needs
by Martha Laborde
Omar Villarreal
Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educación (UCALP) Licenciado en Tecnología Educativa (FRA-UTN). Lecturer in the Area of Applied Linguistics at Universidad Tecnológica Nacional and ISFD Nro 41 de la Pcia de Buenos Aires. Lecturer in Didactics of  ESP at Licenciatura en Inglés Universidad Católica de La Plata. He has lectured extensively in all Argentinian provinces as well as in Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Perú. He is the author and co-author of more than 20 textbooks, among them: "Polimodal English", "Resource Files", "Grammar Explorer" and "Top Teens" published by Macmillan.
Martha Laborde
Martha has vast experience in teaching teenagers both at private and state secondary schools. Since 1990, she has been a Macmillan Academic Consultant. As part of her interests and abilities, Martha has given advice to the editorial department of Macmillan Publishers S.A. and has also worked freelance for many of its local publications.

We would like to finish this issue of SHARE with this message that our dear SHARER Dr Alicia Ramasco sent us and that so clearly reflects the spirit that both Marina and I have chosen to live our lives by.
Let nothing trouble you.
Let nothing scare you.
All is fleeting.
God alone is unchanging.
Everything obtains.
Who possesses God
Nothing wants.
God alone suffices.
St.Teresa of Avila ( 16th century )
Omar and Marina.
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