An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Year 5                Number 117           November 22nd 2003
 5850  SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
How many SHARERS? A rather bizarre question for a Saturday evening. Would you like to know the exact figure? Well, we would like to know, too.

But let us start from the very beginning: SHARE is a Yahoo! Group. What does that mean? It means that Yahoo! administers the list (to be more exact the list of e-mails) and sends you the messages. SHARE started as a Group run from our home PC on 29th October 1999 and was administered like that with me, Marina and our two sons sending the mails manually for a year and nine months. On 16th June 2001 SHARE became a Yahoo! Group. It is, to date, the largest Yahoo! Group in the field of Education and Teaching followed closely only by KinderKorner, an American Group (about a thousand subscribers short of our figure). All these details can be found at :

Now fortnightly, as far as we know, Yahoo! “cleanses” our mailing list deleting all those no longer existing e-mail addresses and also those hard bounce cases. This explains why we have been publishing a figure of 6850 in our lat two issues when our number of subscribers today is 3830. What happens is that in the cleansing process, a number of e-mail addresses are deleted and in some cases, as for example in the case of bounces, they are re-entered once the message stops to bounce and is finally received.

So, 5830 is the exact figure. Well, no. As you probably know, SHARE is distributed in Perú and Chile by two official non-profit organizations (one linked to the British Council and the other to the Chilean University system) and we do not know how many people receive SHARE through those channels. Plus the very many people that receive SHARE through other SHARERS. Not long ago, a colleague in Bahía Blanca wrote to us for our anniversary and confessed that she was not on SHARE official list because SHARE was forwarded to her by a friend in Buenos Aires. She also made it crystal clear that she wanted things to remain like this because this arrangement prompted her friend to write a few lines every time he forwarded an issue of SHARE. We might not know exantly how many we are but, could we ask for more?

Omar and Marina

In SHARE 117
1.-    Who´s afraid of exams?
2.-    Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.
3.-    “Inglés abre Puertas”: Por un Chile Bilingüe.
4.-    Whole Language wasn´t the problem. 
5.-    News from the British Council.
6.-    First Forum on Educating for Peace.
7.-    Vocabulary Development Discussion Group.
8.-    Jornada: El Traductor frente a los adelantos tecnológicos.
9.-    Giving the finger. 
10.-   Escuela de Verano en Lingüística Formal.
11.-   961 On-line Dictionaries for free.
12.-   Is it possible to enjoy learning English?
13.-   “Chain of Favours”.
Our dear SHARER and friend Douglas Andrew Town has sent us this article about exam stress and its possible remedies. Most befitting the present season at school and college and like all of Douglas´s articles: a most welcomed contribution. 
Coping with exam stress
By Douglas Town M.A.
Most people feel anxious before examinations and a moderate level of anxiety can benefit exam performance. In small doses, anxiety is a reminder that a current activity or an impending event requires our attention; indeed, in families where anxiety is systematically repressed, the consequences can be catastrophic (e.g. prison, serious accidents, bankruptcy). However, too much anxiety reduces performance and may lead to health problems. As test anxiety is manifested in different ways – not always at a conscious level - the first problem for teachers, parents or students is to recognise when excessive anxiety exists.
Indicators of excessive anxiety
Two good indicators show when concern about exams may be excessive. The first is that worry seems to appear suddenly – on waking up in the morning, or when somebody or something reminds you about an exam. The second is a history of difficulty before and/or during exams in one or more of the following areas:
(1) Loss of sleep and/or appetite; (2) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea (3) Skin rashes; (4) Neck ache, headache and/or muscular tension; (5) Feeling hot and sweaty - or cold and clammy (6) Racing heart/palpitations, shaking, sensations of panic, dizziness, hyperventilation (4) Increased craving for alcohol, tobacco or caffeine.

Thinking and images
(1) Worrying about exams - even months ahead, nightmares or unpleasant daydreams about previous exams. (2) Self-critical ideas, feeling inferior to other people. (3) Shorter concentration span and more memory problems than usual (i.e. a 25% reduction or more in normal efficiency).
Mood and social behaviour 
(1) Feeling “down” and/or despair. (2) Withdrawing, inability to talk to people as much as usual. (3) Avoidance of study/classes, procrastinating.
Causes of excessive anxiety
There are many reasons why some adults and children are more prone to exam stress than others. These include physiological differences in the central nervous system, sensitivity to real or imagined criticism, over-generalising from past experiences (learned helplessness) and the presence of other life stressors. Research shows that parents who are themselves anxious or have an authoritarian parenting style (criticising and making demands while offering little practical or verbal help) tend to have anxious children.
At the cognitive level, Ellis, the founder of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT), has shown that anxiety is typically “fed” by one or more of the following beliefs:
Dogmatic Demands (Musts, Absolutes, Shoulds):
• I must be perfect and never make mistakes.
Awfulizing (It’s Awful, Terrible, Horrible!):
• It is awful when teachers / classmates criticize me.
Low Frustration Tolerance (I can’t stand it!):
• I can’t stand studying for hours.
Self / Other Rating (I’m / he / she is bad, worthless):
• If I get a low grade, it means I am a terrible student and therefore a terrible person.
Research shows that test anxiety can be reduced if these negative thoughts are replaced by constructive thoughts. One important approach to reducing anxiety is, therefore, to challenge negative beliefs and some effective techniques for doing this are offered below. Another important skill is relaxation. But changing negative ways of thinking for positive ones and learning to relax are, of course, useless unless we prepare for exams. So, the approach offered here combines specific strategies for reducing anxiety with strategies for strengthening revision and exam skills.
Please note, however, that because of the interactive nature of biology, beliefs and the social environment, a combination of medical and psychological treatment is sometimes necessary in severe cases of chronic anxiety. You should NEVER give children medication or take medication yourself unless prescribed by a physician and you should NOT attempt psychotherapy unless you have training in counselling.
Ways to reduce exam anxiety
These strategies are drawn from a number of psychological and therapeutic perspectives, including family systems theory, REBT, cognitive-behavioural therapy and neuro- linguistic programming that I have found helpful in working with students over the years. A short bibliography is provided at the end of this article, but I have refrained – for once – from writing an ‘academic’ article with page references.
1. Social and environmental strategies
Asking for information and help from teachers
This may sound like obvious advice but many students – especially teenagers - have no idea what to revise, and how their exams will be assessed. Parents should encourage children to approach teachers on their own, rather than rushing in to help, as taking responsibility is an antidote to ‘learned helplessness’. Similarly, parents who are teachers should resist the natural urge to coach their children at home unless their children ask them for help. I taught the children of nearly all the teachers in a small town in Spain over a period of 25 years and I found again and again that when the parent/teacher roles became confused at home or at school, children were unhappy and their performance dropped.
Asking for help from classmates
Apart from benefiting ‘auditory’ and ‘social’ learners, this is also a useful strategy for perfectionists. Intelligent but unpopular students, especially girls in their early teens, often base their self-esteem on getting high grades; however, this tends to make them more unpopular and so more insecure. Genuinely asking another classmate for some sort of help (and responding positively!) can win friends and reduce ‘competition anxiety’. (Note: discuss this strategy with your child without trying to push him/her into it).
Enlisting support from the ‘extended family’
Some children (and adults) are unable to concentrate at home. Studying at (say) a grandparent’s house may mean fewer distractions and – in some cases, discipline or emotional support that is missing at home.
Seeing things from another perspective
This is a reframing strategy invented by Bandler that parents or teachers can use, and which I learnt from Brigitte Laemmle, a German family therapist. You say (to your child or pupil) in a light-hearted way: "Let's imagine I have to replace you for a day and that one of my jobs is to go to the exam and feel anxious for you. What do I tell myself in order to have felt really anxious?" Wait for a full reply and then ask, "How should I say this – in a normal tone of voice?” or “Should I imagine this in black and white?” (whichever is appropriate) The final question is: “What can I do if this doesn’t work?”
Reframing works because the student describes the process as if it belongs to somebody else and so recognises: (1) causing the anxiety him/herself; and (2) choosing to do so; and (3) that mental audio / video tapes can be edited, they can also be switched off.
Organising your workspace
Separate the places where you (or your children) study from the places where you (or they) relax. Even if you study and relax in one room, it is possible to keep books, notes, etc. in a 'work place' and distractions in the 'relaxation areas'. Creating a physical separation of this kind will help you to do the same mentally. Don't study in or on your bed – keep bed for relaxation and sleep.
2. Health and daily routine
Food and drink
Eat healthily and regularly. Breakfast should account for 25% of the daily calorie intake. Schools generally programme the heaviest workload between 10am and 12pm when most people’s concentration peaks; but without a proper breakfast the body has to draw on glucose stored in the liver, causing fatigue and irritability at this ‘peak’ time. Sugar will help you concentrate if taken while you study (and also during the exam!) but can produce the opposite effect if taken a few hours beforehand. Avoid drinking a lot of coffee or other drinks containing caffeine if these make you feel agitated and prevent you from sleeping. 
Regular exercise (e.g. brisk walking) will boost your energy, clear your mind and reduce stress. This was the most frequent advice I gave to my hard-working Asian post-graduate students in Britain – and it rarely failed!
Relaxing for at least an hour before going to bed by doing something you enjoy - together with regular bedtimes and waking times – helps to establish good sleep patterns. However, if you do not sleep well for a few nights, don’t despair: lack of sleep mainly affects vigilance on routine tasks (e.g. driving a motor vehicle) and mood (i.e. irritability) rather than comprehension.
3. Time management
Make a weekly timetable for yourself, starting with everything you need to do: meals, sleep, classes, shopping, etc. Then allocate time for revision and time for relaxing and enjoying yourself. Spread revision over several weeks rather than cramming at the last moment and don’t fill up every hour of every day: plans need to be flexible and should allow plenty of time for the unexpected. If in doubt, ask your teacher for help with your revision plan (see ‘Asking for information and help from teachers’ above)
Find out if you are a ‘lark’ or an ‘owl’ – a morning or an evening person - and establish a routine so that you study when you are most awake. Start each revision session with easier/more interesting subjects and rewards yourself when you achieve goals.
Improving concentration
Taking short breaks (e.g. 10 minutes each hour) will help you concentrate for longer. Do NOT listen to the radio, watch TV or read during this time, as these activities interfere with learning.
4. Relaxation and visualising
1. Sit comfortably in an upright position (or lie on your bed before going to sleep).
2. Tense, and then relax, different muscle groups, one at a time. Start with your feet, and then move up your body to your neck and face.
3. With your eyes closed, breathe slowly and deeply, focusing your attention on the rhythm of your breathing. Each time you breath in, mentally say “concentrate”. Each time you breath out, say, “relax”.
4. Try to relax your whole body. Check the neck and shoulders and relax them, too.
5. Imagine you are lying in a quiet, enjoyable place (e.g. on a beach).
6. Talk to yourself calmly.
When you are completely relaxed, visualize yourself taking all the steps toward your goal. Imagine yourself concentrating as you study, making notes and then testing yourself. Then imagine yourself in the exam, first planning your answer and then writing effortlessly about the same subject as before. Say to yourself at each stage (in your first language, if you like): “ I am in control!” Finally, visualize yourself handing in the completed exam paper, saying confidently: “I did it!”
5. Cognitive strategies
Worst-case scenario
Discuss calmly and realistically the worst possible thing that can happen if you (or the other person) get a low grade
Other people’s solutions
Make a list of solutions for anxiety that family and friends might suggest. Ask yourself how you feel if this person suggested such a solution and how you would feel if it came from someone else. (Rationale: some people get stuck in rebellion against authority figures and reject any advice that comes from them – good or bad).
Try rehearsing some of these “I” statements when you are relaxed:
Non-Dogmatic Preferences (wishes, wants, desires):
• I would prefer to not make mistakes, but they are part of life. Einstein was not the ‘best’ student in his class at school…
Accepting Badness (I can accept it but not like it):
• I don’t like it when I don’t get the top grade but it is not the end of the world.
High Frustration Tolerance (I don’t like it, but I can stand it):
• I don’t like exams but I can certainly tolerate them. In fact, they help me learn more.
Not Globally Rating Self or Others (I — and others — are fallible human beings):
• I am more than my marks at school/college. I can accept myself as a fallible human being.
Before and during the exam
1.  If possible, try to do a mock exam in the prescribed time.
2. Take a lucky charm or object (e.g. a pen) that you studied with. This is not “magic” or “superstition”: behaviourism teaches us that places and objects help to jog memory. Ideally, you should study in the room where you are going to take the exam; but a lucky object will do.
3. Do the relaxation and visualisation exercise just before starting the exam. By then, a couple of minutes will be enough to calm you down and help you concentrate.
4. Read the questions carefully and answer the easy ones first. Underline keywords in the questions and plan your answer. Research shows that high achievers spend more time analysing questions than low achievers.
5. Keep an eye on your time. If your mind goes blank, skip the question and come back to it later.
6. Eat a sweet (for the sugar as well as the comfort!).
7. Don’t panic if students hand in their papers before you do. There is no reward for finishing first!
Finally, anxiety is partly fear of the unknown. When I ran a language school in Spain, I used to have a teacher from another school come to give my students mock orals for Cambridge exams (it is no good doing this with teachers that the students know!)  I found that students that were panicky during the mock exam were much more confident “on the day”. 
I wish everybody facing exams the success that they deserve!
Beck, A.T. et al. (1985). Anxiety Disorders and Phobias: A Cognitive Perspective. Basic Books, New York.
Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart.
Laemmle, B. (1996). Ratgeberzeit.  Südwestrundfunk (video in German)
Laemmle, B. (1996 - 2001).
Laemmle Live.
Südwestrundfunk (videos in German)
Laemmle, B. (1999).
Lämmle live: Psycho-logisch! 10 Grundfragen aus Therapie und Lebenshilfe. Carl-Auer-Systeme Verlag, Heidelberg Auer Verlag. 4. Auflage (in German)
About The Author
Douglas Andrew Town has a BSc in Psychology and an MA in English Language Teaching as well as a postgraduate Diploma in English and Spanish translation and worked for many years as an educational consultant and ESP teacher in Spain. He has also taught EAP at Manchester University and Essex University and is currently a lecturer at the University of Belgrano.
© Douglas Andrew Town
Our dear SHARER Camila Callegari from Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires wants to SHARE this article with all of us.
A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education
By Richard Tucker 

The number of languages spoken throughout the world is estimated to be 6,000 (Grimes, 1992). Although a small number of languages, including Arabic, Bengali, English, French, Hindi, Malay, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish serve as important link languages or languages of wider communication around the world, these are very often spoken as second, third, fourth, or later-acquired languages. Fewer than 25% of the world's approximately 200 countries recognize two or more official languages, with a mere handful recognizing more than two (e.g., India, Luxembourg, Nigeria). However, despite these conservative government policies, available data indicate that there are many more bilingual or multilingual individuals in the world than there are monolingual. In addition, there are many more children throughout the world who have been and continue to be educated through a second or a later-acquired language, at least for some portion of their formal education, than there are children educated exclusively via the first language. In many parts of the world, bilingualism or multilingualism and innovative approaches to education that involve the use of two or more languages constitute the normal everyday experience (see, e.g., Dutcher, 1994; World Bank, 1995). The results from published, longitudinal, and critical research undertaken in varied settings throughout the world indicate clearly that the development of multiple language proficiency is possible, and indeed that it is viewed as desirable by educators, policy makers, and parents in many countries.
Multiple Languages in Education
The use of multiple languages in education may be attributed to numerous factors, such as the linguistic heterogeneity of a country or region, specific social or religious attitudes, or the desire to promote national identity. In addition, innovative language education programs are often implemented to promote proficiency in international language(s) of wider communication together with proficiency in national and regional languages. In Eritrea, for instance, an educated person will likely have had some portion of their schooling in Tigrigna and Arabic and English, and will have developed proficiency in reading all these languages, which are written using three different scripts (Ge'ez, Arabic, and Roman). In Papua New Guinea, a country with a population of approximately 3 million, linguists have described more than 870 languages (Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1995). Here it is common for a child to grow up speaking one local indigenous language at home, to speak another in the market place, to add Tok Pisin to her repertoire as a lingua franca, and to learn English if she continues her schooling. Analogous situations recur in many parts of the world in countries where multilingualism predominates and in which children are exposed to numerous languages as they move from their homes out into surrounding communities and eventually through the formal education system.
Research on the use of the first and second languages in education
A comprehensive review of research on the use of first and second languages in education, carried out for the World Bank (Dutcher, 1994), examined three different types of countries: (1) those with no (or few) mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g., Haiti, Nigeria, the Philippines); (2) those with some mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g., Guatemala); and (3) those with many mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g., Canada, New Zealand, the United States). Several conclusions can be drawn from this study:
Success in school depends upon the child's mastery of cognitive/academic language, which is very different from the social language used at home.
The development of cognitive/academic language requires time (4 to 7 years of formal instruction).
Individuals most easily develop literacy skills in a familiar language.
Individuals most easily develop cognitive skills and master content material when they are taught in a familiar language.
Cognitive/academic language skills, once developed, and content subject material, once acquired, transfer readily from one language to another.
The best predictor of cognitive/academic language development in a second language is the level of development of cognitive/academic language proficiency in the first language.
Children learn a second language in different ways depending upon their culture and their individual personality.
If the goal is to help the student ultimately develop the highest possible degree of content mastery and second language proficiency, time spent instructing the child in a familiar language is a wise investment.
Common Threads of successful programs
In the research review conducted for the World Bank (Dutcher, 1994), the following common threads were identified in successful programs that aimed to provide students with multiple language proficiency and with access to academic content material.
Development of the mother tongue is encouraged to promote cognitive development and as a basis for learning the second language.
Parental and community support and involvement are essential.
Teachers are able to understand, speak, and use with a high level of proficiency the language of instruction, whether it is their first or second language.
Teachers are well trained, have cultural competence and subject-matter knowledge, and continually upgrade their training.
Recurrent costs for innovative programs are approximately the same as they are for traditional programs, although there may be additional one-time start-up costs.
Cost benefit calculations can typically be estimated in terms of the cost savings to the education system, improvements in years of schooling, and enhanced earning potential for students with multiple language proficiency.
Cross-cutting themes
Two cross-cutting themes that appear critical for policy or planning discussions within the domain of language education reform are discussed below.
"Nurturing the first language." Despite decades of sound educational research, there still remains a belief in many quarters that when an additional language is introduced into a curriculum, the child must go back and relearn the academic concepts already mastered. Although there remains much to be learned about the contexts and strategies that facilitate transfer across languages, the fact that such transfer occurs should not be a topic of debate. The work of Hakuta (1986) and his colleagues provides clear evidence that a child who acquires basic literacy or numeracy concepts in one language can transfer these concepts and knowledge easily to a second or third or other later-acquired languages. The literature and our practical experience are replete with examples confirming the importance of nurturing the child's mother tongue. Gonzalez (1998), in particular, writes and speaks especially compellingly about the need to develop basic functions of literacy, numeracy, and scientific discourse in the first language to the fullest extent possible while facilitating transfer to the second language.
"Importation of models versus importation of cycles of discovery." Swain (1996) described the need to "transfer" the stages and processes of evaluation, theory building, generation of hypotheses, experimentation, and further evaluation that will help to ensure the implementation of programs appropriate for the unique sociocultural contexts in which they will operate. That is, she cautioned that it is not a particular model of innovative language education (and, in particular, a Western model) that should be transferred but rather a "cycle of discovery" that should be transferred. Swain reminded us that the so-called threshold levels of second language skills required for successful participation in formal education may differ dramatically across content areas, and that a majority of children face a language gap that must be bridged when they move from learning the target language to using the target language as a medium of instruction. Many policy makers have characterized bilingual education as a high risk undertaking, by which they mean that it is necessary to attend to a complex set of interacting educational, sociolinguistic, economic, and political factors.
Key issues warranting further attention
Based upon a review of available literature, four areas have been identified that appear to deserve additional attention. These include (1) sociolinguistic research throughout the world; (2) a more thorough examination of the concept and parameters of transfer; (3) materials development, reproduction, and distribution in the truly less commonly spoken languages (e.g., the majority of the African languages spoken in Namibia); and (4) development of a cadre of trained teachers who are proficient speakers of these languages. Despite several decades of extensive sociolinguistic fieldwork in many areas, there remains much to be done to describe the language situation in many parts of the world. Many of the world's languages have yet to be written, codified, or elaborated. Furthermore, there are no materials available for initial literacy training or for advanced education; nor are there teachers who have been trained to teach via many of the world's languages. These are all issues that have been identified as crucial by the World Bank (1995) in a recent report of priorities and strategies for enhancing educational development in the 21st century. They are issues that must be dealt with effectively before systemic reform that will encourage multilingual proficiency can be widely implemented.
Questions to address regarding multilingual education in your community
The cumulative evidence from research conducted over the last three decades at sites around the world demonstrates conclusively that cognitive, social, personal, and economic benefits accrue to the individual who has an opportunity to develop a high degree of bilingual proficiency when compared with a monolingual counterpart. Below are a number of important questions to be addressed whenever parents, educators, and administrators discuss the prospects of multilingual education for their communities.
* What are the explicit or implicit goals for formal education in the region?
* Is there general satisfaction throughout the region with the level of educational attainment by all participants (both those who terminate their education relatively early and those who wish to go on to tertiary studies)?
* Is the region relatively homogeneous or is it heterogeneous linguistically and culturally, and how would bilingual education complement the linguistic and cultural characteristics of the community?
* Does the region have an explicit or implicit policy with respect to the role of language in education, and how would bilingual education fit or not fit with this existing policy? Is this policy based upon tradition or the result of language (education) planning?
* What priorities are accorded to goals such as the development of broadly based permanent functional literacy, the value of education for those who may permanently interrupt their schooling at an early age, and the power of language to foster national identity and cohesiveness?
* Are the language(s) selected for instruction written, codified, standardized, and elaborated?
* Is there a well developed curriculum for the various levels/stages of formal education--that is, a framework that specifies fairly explicitly a set of language, content, cognitive, and affective objectives that are then tied to or illustrated by exemplary techniques, activities, and supported by written materials?
* Are sufficient core and reference materials available for teachers and students in the language(s) of instruction? If not, are there trained individuals available who can prepare such materials?
* Is there a sufficient number of trained and experienced teachers who are fluent speakers of the language(s) of instruction and who are trained to teach via that language(s)?
Dutcher, N., in collaboration with Tucker, G.R. (1994). "The use of first and second languages in education: A review of educational experience." Washington, DC: World Bank, East Asia and the Pacific Region, Country Department III.
Gonzalez, A. (1998). Teaching in two or more languages in the Philippine context. In J. Cenoz & F. Genesee (Eds.), "Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education" (pp. 192-205). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Grimes, B.F. (1992). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world." Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Hakuta, K. (1986). "Mirror of language: The debate on bilingualism." New York: Basic Books.
Summer Institute of Linguistics. (1995). "A survey of vernacular education programming at the provincial level within Papua New Guinea." Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: Author.
Swain, M. (1996). Discovering successful second language teaching strategies and practices: From program evaluation to classroom experimentation. "Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 17," 89-104.
World Bank. (1995). "Priorities and strategies for education." Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

© 2003 by
Tucker, G. Richard

The following is a reproduction of the article published in the newspaper “La Estrella” de Chile Año XXVII - Nro. 10.025 - Sábado 13 de septiembre de 2003. It addresses the issue of making Chile a bilingual country through the programme “Inglés abre puertas” recently launched by the Chilean Ministry of Education.
Profesor: actor esencial para Chile bilingüe
Todos los expertos coinciden en un punto: Chile no será un país bilingüe a menos que tenga profesores de inglés con un buen manejo de la comunicación oral, en todos los niveles de enseñanza.
El desafío es enorme y todos los cambios necesarios en la formación de maestro y en las metodologías de aula podrían tomar 5 años, en las predicciones más optimistas o hasta 20, en las más realistas.
Así lo creen los especialistas en la enseñanza del inglés Andrew Sheehan, del proyecto Inglés Abre Puertas del Ministerio de Educación; y Omar Villarreal, de la Universidad Tecnológica Nacional de Argentina; como también el director del Consejo Británico en Chile, John Knagg.
Todos ellos participaron en el VIII Congreso Internacional de Profesores de Inglés, organizado por el Departamento de Idiomas Extranjeros de la Universidad de Tarapacá (UTA) y que concluyó ayer.
Sheehan comentó que lo vital para el proyecto es la capacitación de los actuales maestros y la reforma en las programas de estudio universitarios, con un mayor énfasis en metodologías y el inglés.
Agregó que hay que crear estándares mínimos de manejo del idioma para profesores y egresados de educación básica y media.
Junto a esto, enfatizó que la enseñanza no puede estar dirigida a clases de 45 alumnos. Por lo mismo, dijo que los cursos deben ser divididos en dos grupos, para impartir la asignatura dentro de la jornada completa.
Desde su mirada dentro del Ministerio de Educación, todos estos cambios podrían durar entre 5 y 10 años como mínimo.
Por su parte, Knagg aseguró que el Consejo Británico ayudará en esta tarea, a través del fomento de redes profesores que abarquen todo el país, para intercambio de experiencias, capacitación y motivación.
"Chile tiene que buscar más profesores de inglés que hablen el idioma bien, porque sin eso no puede haber alumnos bilingües", comentó.
Destacó que esta meta es necesaria para que los profesionales chilenos tengan herramientas para trabajar en el extranjero y para enfrentar los desafíos económicos de la globalización.
Caso argentino
Una mirada más crítica tiene Villarreal. Afirmó que el proyecto de masificación de la enseñanza del Inglés* en Argentina, iniciado en 1995, no fructificó por la falta de profesores de inglés titulados.
Hizo un llamado al gobierno chileno a no apresurarse a contratar asesorías externas, ya que cada pueblo debe enfrentar desde su propia cultura el proceso. Dijo que no tomar en cuenta a los recursos humanos locales fue otra causa del fracaso argentino.
Agregó que debe haber un fortalecimiento de la formación superior de inglés en regiones, de modo que haya infraestructura y materiales educativos adecuados.
"En lo personal, un proyecto como este no puede ser desarrollado en 5 años. Para que una población sea bilingüe, no pueden pasar menos de 20 años", sentenció.
 * En el original el periodista transcribió “bilingüalización”. Un programa que a diferencia del Chileno, nunca existió en Argentina
© 2003 by La Estrella de Arica
Our dear SHARER Stephen Krashen has sent us this copy of the letter he wrote to the editor of the Los Angeles Times.
whole language wasn't the problem, phonics wasn't the solution
To the editor:

When California's fourth graders did poorly on the national NAEP reading test in 1992, the experts blamed whole language. Dr. Jeff McQuillan disagreed, pointing out that scores were low before "whole language" was introduced, and presented strong evidence that the real cause was a lack of access to books: California had (and still has) the worst school library system in the country.

Whole language has been purged from California, replaced with "systematic, intensive phonics." This year, California fourth and eighth-graders "exhibited no significant progress in their reading skills despite billions of dollars spent on new phonics textbooks and smaller class sizes" (State's Math Scores Leap, November 14). Rather than conclude that whole language never was the problem, some observers now blame "California's large population of recent immigrants." But the percentage of English learners in school has increased only slightly since 1992 (from 21% to 25%), not enough to seriously impact test scores. There is another explanation. California's move to a heavy phonics approach didn't work. It is time to consider McQuillan's suggestion: Make sure children have access to books by investing in libraries.

Stephen Krashen
Emeritus Professor of Education, USC

LA Times story at:,1,7562751.story
Our dear SHARER Mary Godward from the British Council Argentina has sent us this announcement of some of their plans for 2004:
Football, science, innovation, literature, art and DNA are all part of our projects in 2004. Read on and find out what we are planning for next year.
1. Words on Words 2004 and Magic Pencil Exhibition
This third edition of Words on Words focuses on literature for children and teenagers. Simultaneously we will be running the Magic Pencil Exhibition. All the events planned for teachers and pupils bring together the work of British writers, illustrators and storytellers.
The Magic Pencil Exhibition
This exhibition was originally shown at the British Library in London and includes the work of thirteen contemporary British illustrators for children, including well known names such as Quentin Blake, Michael Foreman, Tony Ross, Laura Child, etc. Copies of sixty of these illustrations will be shown in Buenos Aires, together with a collection of books to be enjoyed by everyone visiting the exhibition.
Words on Words 2004: from March to September - events to remember!
We will be launching a very busy Words on Words 2004 at Colegio El Manantial in Villa Dolores, Córdoba, with the Imagine Exhibition. From that point on, there will be many events in which you can participate. These are some of them:
Imagine Exhibition
This exhibition, enjoyed by both children and adults, was originally shown at the Manchester Art Gallery in the United Kingdom. We have now been able to get framed copies of 23 of these illustrations produced by Barefoot Books in the UK. It is a perfect introduction to one of the themes we will be focusing on this year: illustrating books for children. This beautiful exhibition will be available for schools and institutes to borrow, each for a one-week period between March and August 2004. The exhibition can be loaned with a collection of books from which the illustrations were taken and a set of suggested activities to use in class with children. Imagine can also be used very effectively with older pupils to focus on the artistic aspects of illustrating books.
Each school hosting the exhibition will receive a framed copy of one of the prints as a way of thanking you for your support!
If you would like to borrow this exhibition, please contact Tessie Fernández, (Information Assistant), at the British Council ( as soon as possible so we can reserve it for you. If possible, let us know about any date preferences.
Pre-event courses and teaching materials
 As in previous years, we will be running pre-event courses and publishing teaching materials. The courses will be focusing around these topics:
The writers visiting us in September. Ian Mcmillan has already confirmed his presence. Further details on him are available at <>. A writer for teenagers will also be visiting us but we can't give any names until we have a definite confirmation. Illustrating books for children
As soon as we have exact dates and venues for all of these, we will let you know.
September events
In September we will be running a 'mega-programme' of events for pupils and teachers, including:
Presentation on contemporary writing for children and teenagers
Illustrating books for children
Performance poetry
Poetry workshops
Storytelling workshops for teachers
he Magic Pencil exhibition
Presentations by one of the Magic Pencil illustrators
The Magic Pencil film programme for children
And there will be many more activities! We do appreciate your feedback, so if any of you are particularly interested in any of these topics or would like to make any suggestions, please feel free to contact us
2. Score a goal in the classroom
This project is based on a poster exhibition produced in the United Kingdom on football. The photographs are excellent and very eye-catching. Each institution interested in hosting the exhibition can have it for one week between March and August 2004 and we'll deliver it with display boards and lights.
It also includes a 40-page publication on teaching English through football. This is already available so if you'd like to plan in good time we can mail you a copy now. We also have a limited number of football souvenirs from the UK which you can use as prizes if your project includes a competition.
If you would like to participate, please contact Tessie Fernández, Information Assistant, at the British Council  as soon as possible so she can book the exhibition for you. 
3. Innovation UK
This exhibition highlights how innovative ideas make their way into our everyday lives. It is a free-standing exhibition in five panels (each panel occupies a floor surface of 3.00 by 1.00 m) focusing on a different area of innovation, eg innovation in knowledge, innovation in science, etc.  Further information and photographs of this exhibition are available at <>
If you are interested in hosting this exhibition for a week between March and July 2004, we can send you the brochure and the full text of the panels in English. The text on the panels of the exhibition is in Spanish.
For bookings, please contact Tessie Fernández, Information Assistant, at the British Council
4. DNA Exhibition
During June we will be hosting an exhibition on DNA and developments since the discovery of the double helix by Watson and Crick in 1953. Together with the exhibition, we will be running a programme of talks and workshops about DNA and Science & ELT for teachers and pupils. We have also invited an outstanding British scientist to visit us and give talks.
Please let the science teachers at your school know about this interesting possibility. If your institution is particularly interested in the teaching of English-medium science, please let us know ( so we can keep you informed on all the 2004 events .
Should you need any further details on any of these activities, do please contact us and we'll give you as much information as is available at this early stage.
Mary Godward
Manager Knowledge and Learning
British Council Argentina
T  +54 (0)11 4311 9814 - F  +54 (0)11 4311 7747  
Our dear friend and SHARER Susan Hillyard has got an announcement to make on behalf of Wellspring School:
First Forum on Educating for Peace –
Del Viso, Argentina - April 16 and 17, 2004
Call for Papers 2004
Living in the post 9/11 world is proving a challenge for us all but even more so for educators, be they parents, teachers, discipline masters, heads, social workers, pyschologists, materials writers, designers and others who deal, particularly,  with adolescents.
This forum is open to all who would like to share, ask questions, contribute ideas and generally open up the debate on how we can work together to educate for peace, and change.
Proposals are welcomed for seminars, forums, panels of up to 4 speakers, and workshops on subjects related to  educating for peace in the widest sense.
The forum may  cover such topics as:
* Understanding  Values
* Understanding Change
* Teaching for Diversity
* Counselling
* Undertaking Community Service
* Personal and Social Development
* Teaching Thinking
* Philosophy for Children
* Holistic/Positive Evaluation
* Motivation
* Life Skills
* Self Esteem
* Discipline
* Parenting
* The Language of Non-Violence
* Conflict Resolution
* Creativity
* Group Dynamics
* Managing Human Resources
* Communication and Negotiation Skills.
* Positive Reinforcement
* and any other topic suggested
The Call for Papers is open to all professionals. To submit a proposal, please find the  Call for Papers Proposal Form at . The deadline for abstracts is December 12th 2003  16.00 hs.  
Selection Committee
The selection committee  is made up of
María Susana Obiglio, MA,
Prof. Elena Cane
Prof. Ricardo Delgado,
Susan Hillyard B.Ed
Prof. Nieves  Garcia Querol
All abstracts will be reviewed.
First selections will be asked to submit a video or audio of their work to ensure suitable presentation skills.
Proposals should
1) Relate clearly to the overall theme
2) Be questioning/ creative/critical in nature
3) Show depth and breadth of study and research or experience.
4) Be clearly organised and interesting
5) Be interactive based on soud theory ( written papers, read aloud are not accepted)
6) Include a bibliography
7) Not be commercial.
Presentations will be 90 minutes long (60 minutes presentation plus 30  minutes for discussion ). As this is a forum it is essential that the topics are kept open and the discussion period is respected.
Our aim is to keep this forum quite small and select. We want to set up a forum of serious educators who are interested in change from within not superficial marketing programmes which have no long term, lasting results. The maximim number of participants will be restricted to  150. There will be a number of keynote speeches in the auditorium and  workshops, both in English and Spanish,  made up of small groups to facilitate dialogue.
Wellspring School, Las Camelias 3883, Del Viso, B1669KAM.    -   Tel Fax: 02320-470448 / 473069. Contact us at
Our dear SHARER Will McCulloch from Liverpool has sent us this message to SHARE with  all of you.

This is just a quick message to let you know about a new "Vocabulary Development Strategies Discussion Group" that I hope you (and colleagues) might like to join.

The forum is an open area to discuss Word Surfing. or anything else connected to helping students with their vocabulary development and overall language learning efficiency/enjoyment.

By the way, I will be visiting South America for some months next year and would like to hear from any teachers who are interested in the WS project - and writing to me in Spanish - I need the practice!

Very best wishes

Will McCulloch <>
Liverpool, UK, - Wednesday, November 05, 2003 at 16:32:06 (ART)

MF BUSINESS ENGLISH  Translation and Training Services announces:
Jornada de Perfeccionamiento y Actualización para Traductores de Inglés : El Traductor frente a los avances tecnológicos (2da. edición) 
6 de diciembre de 2003 - Buenos Aires, Argentina
Si bien esta Era de Nuevas Tecnologías nos plantea inconvenientes, es innegable que el conocimiento de las herramientas informáticas redunda en nuestro beneficio, ya que conocerlas y aplicarlas correctamente ayuda a:
realizar un trabajo de edición más eficiente y en menor tiempo,
acceder a información actualizada sobre los temas más diversos, 
facilitar la búsqueda de posibles oportunidades laborales en el mercado nacional e internacional.
Dirigidas a  Traductores Públicos, científico técnicos, intérpretes, estudiantes avanzados de la carrera de traducción.
1.  Internet y el Mercado Internacional (material actualizado)
Objetivo: mostrar diversas herramientas, sitios útiles, programas de TAC y  de capacitación y facilitar la búsqueda de nuevos mercados laborales.
Buscadores - Cómo y dónde realizar las búsquedas avanzadas – Buscadores         
especializados - Sitios con información útil – Directorios – Portales - Sitios para profesores y estudiantes - Sitios de consulta profesional especializada - Sitios de referencia - Sitios para traductores e intérpretes – Corpuses - Bases de datos terminológicos – Diccionarios - Foros de discusión – Glosarios - Instituciones relacionadas con la profesión - Revistas y boletines electrónicos gratuitos - Textos paralelos
Herramientas - Sitios para buscar siglas, convertir medidas, descargar programas antivirus y herramientas para la traducción de archivos especiales
Introducción a la internacionalización de sitios Web
La internacionalización de sitios Web - Qué debo saber antes de traducir un sitio Web
G11N - I18N - L10N - Conceptos
La importancia del buen diseño de la página Web - Nociones de programación HTML
El traductor y su relación con el cliente y el desarrollador - Cómo trabajar, negociar y crear - Manejo de datos - Fechas, hora, medidas, monedas, etc.: el manejo de los formatos - Imágenes, colores, textos - Pautas a tener en cuenta - Idiomas, aspectos culturales - Nuestra función como comunicadores
Horacio R. Dal Dosso
: Traductor Público en idioma Inglés (UADE); carrera de Administración de Empresas (por finalizar); Investigador de los recursos de Internet aplicados a la traducción; Freelancer especializado en Negocios, Comercio Internacional e Informática. Responsable de la cátedra de Inglés Técnico para las carreras de Analista y Programador de Sistemas y de Administración de Empresas en instituciones de nivel superior. Dicta cursos de Inglés para Comercio Internacional y seminarios de Comercio Exterior para Traductores. Miembro de la Asociación Argentina de Teletrabajo y de distintas listas de discusión: Apuntes, Atiba, El Lenguaraz, Proz, Uacinos. Ha asistido al First Seminar in American Business and Law, National-Louis University, Chicago, USA y al Seminario Intensivo de Comercio Exterior, University of Miami, Miami, USA., 1999. Ha participado como expositor en Seminarios y Jornadas presentando temas de Comercio Exterior y Herramientas de Internet.
2. Informática Aplicada a la Traducción

Objetivos: exponer la necesidad de incorporar nuevas herramientas para complementar y mejorar nuestra labor como traductores. Informar a los participantes sobre las herramientas disponibles aplicándolas a dos casos de traducción  y mostrar cómo funcionan.
Herramientas específicas para la traducción (Diccionarios electrónicos, memorias de traducción, gestores de glosarios, etc.)
Herramientas de comunicación (internet, correo electrónico, transferencia de archivos, etc.)
Herramientas de edición de archivos y formatos (Adobe Acrobat, Omnipage, Word avanzado)
Cómo elegir la herramienta idónea para cada tarea de traducción y un primer acercamiento al uso de cada una.
Una vez inscriptos, los participantes recibirán dos textos cortos para su traducción y una serie de preguntas que deberán responder describiendo las herramientas informáticas utilizadas en la realización del trabajo. Durante la Jornada se analizarán los dos casos mencionados y las dificultades que presentaron. El expositor mostrará su metodología, las herramientas utilizadas y los criterios aplicados en la elección de cada una de ellas.  Además, se proporcionarán alternativas económicas o gratuitas para cada tarea.
Nicolás Delucchi,
Traductor técnico, científico y literario de inglés egresado del ENSLV “John F. Kennedy”. Forma parte del Estudio Rosenfeld, para el que traduce guiones televisivos de Telefé al inglés. Tradujo películas y guiones televisivos al castellano para distintas firmas extranjeras. Trabaja ocasionalmente con el Estudio gráfico Kaboom de La Plata como traductor para la creación de comics, además de revisor de guiones en ambos idiomas. Es Webmaster del sitio Web de la AATI y dictó recientemente un curso de herramientas informáticas orientado a traductores. Actualmente trabaja para dos firmas extranjeras, SDL International y QDS solutions, como traductor y corrector. A través de ellas, y mediante el uso de tres memorias de traducción distintas, participó en proyectos de marketing, manuales, computación, software, hardware, información y tecnología, localización de software y video juegos para compañías tales como Kodak, Toyota, Symantec y Microsoft.
Fecha y Horario: 6 de Diciembre de 10 a 18.30 hs.
Lugar: Hotel Cambremon - Suipacha 30, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Arancel general: hasta el 26/11 : $ 75.- hasta el 03/12 $ 88
Arancel c /descuento para participantes de cursos y jornadas anteriores
hasta el 26/11 : $ 65.- hasta el 03/12 $ 75
Incluyen materiales y refrigerio -  Se entregará certificado de asistencia.
Descuentos grupales (4 o más personas) - Cierre de inscripción: 3 de diciembre
forma de pago: El pago podrá efectuarse en efectivo, mediante depósito o transferencia bancaria o cheque para Traductores de Argentina. Favor solicitar datos. Consultar forma de pago para Traductores de Uruguay y otros países limítrofes. Para abonar en efectivo en esta oficina, se ruega acordar horario previamente.
Informes e Inscripción: MF BUSINESS ENGLISH  - 4311-9988
Our dear SHARER Ana Vieyra Urquiza has sent us this contribution. Says she, “I don't sent things out like this very often, but this one really surprised me, so I trimmed 19 headers off the top, and here we go” Indeed, here it goes.
Giving the Finger
Before the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, the French, anticipating victory over the English, proposed to cut off the  middle finger of all captured English soldiers.  Without the  middle finger it would be impossible to draw the renowned English  longbow and therefore they would be incapable of fighting in the future.
This famous weapon was made of the native  English Yew tree, and the act of drawing the longbow was known as "plucking the yew" (or "pluck yew").
Much to the  bewilderment of the French, the English won a major upset and began  mocking the French by waving their middle fingers at the defeated French, saying, "See, we can still pluck yew! "PLUCK YEW!" Since 'pluck yew' is rather difficult to say, the
difficult  consonant cluster at the beginning has gradually changed to a  labiodental fricative 'F', and thus the words often used in  conjunction with the one-finger-salute!
It is also because  of the pheasant feathers on the arrows used with the longbow that the  symbolic gesture is known as "giving the bird."
And yew  thought yew knew everything.
Isn't history more fun when you know something about it?
Our dear SHARERS from Encuentro de Gramática Generativa
write to us:
Estimados colegas,
estamos reenviando información acerca de la primera Escuela de Verano en Lingüística Formal de América del Sur (EVELIN) que se realizará en la Universidad de Campinas (Brasil), entre los días 12 y 18 de enero de 2004. 
Para más información pueden consultar su página web, o escribir a
Moira Alvarez
Ola a todos,
Estamos organizando a Primeira Escola de Verao em Ling:uistica Formal da America do Sul (EVELIN), a ser realizada entre os dias 12 e 18  de janeiro de 2004 na Unicamp.  A ideia da Escola eh oferecer anualmente cursos nas diversas areas da linguistica formal (Sintaxe, Semantica, Fonologia, Morfologia, Psicolinguistica), ministrados por docentes com  reconhecimento internacional, a custos acessiveis a um maior numero de alunos da America do Sul. Objetivamos tambem criar um ambiente estimulante  onde todos os que tenham interesse na lingu:istica formal, sem importar o grau de conhecimento, possam trocar experiencias na area, uma vez  que para os cursos introdutorios nao eh preciso ter conhecimento previo do assunto.
A primeira edi,cao da Escola sera na Unicamp, mas objetivamos levar esse projeto para outros centros universitarios sul americanos. Ate o momento estao programados 8 cursos (introdutorios e avan,cados) em Sintaxe, Semantica, Fonologia, Morfologia e Metodos de Trabalho de Campo, sendo que outros cursos poderao ser oferecidos segundo a procura. Os docentes convidados para a EVELIN 2004 sao os seguintes:
 Rajesh Bhatt (UTexas):
 David Embick (UPENN):
 Marcelo Ferreira (MIT): nao tem pagina
 David Pesetsky (MIT)
 (a ser confirmado)
 Norvin Richards (MIT):
 Cristina Schmitt (MSU):
 Cheryl Zoll (MIT):
No final da Escola de Verao, nos dias 17 e 18 de janeiro de 2004, havera um workshop destinado aa apresentacao de trabalhos em ling:uistica formal. Havera selecao de trabalhos, e o pagamento das inscricoes so sera efetuado mediante aceite de apresentacao de trabalho.
Como se trata de um evento que pretende ser acessivel a todos os interessados, as taxas de inscricao foram fixadas em torno de R$20,00 para o workshop e R$30,00 para a Escola de Verao; serao oferecidos alojamento e refeic,oes a baixo custo (nao mais do que R$20 por dia), e um numero limitado de bolsas-viagem aaqueles alunos que nao possam contar com auxilio de suas instituic,oes de origem.
Para a organiza,cao de tal evento precisamos ter uma ideia do numero de pessoas que estaremos recebendo na Unicamp durante essa calorosa semana de janeiro de 2004. Por isso, perguntamos o seu interesse em participar desse evento e quantas pessoas do seu departamento estariam interessadas em participar da Escola, do Workshop ou de ambos, e  solicitamos que as inscric,oes sejam feitas na pagina da EVELIN na mayor brevidade possivel no seguinte endere,co:
Pedimos tambem que essa mensagem seja repassada a outras pessoas que possam se interessar pela Escola. Mais informa,coes tambem podem ser  encontradas no endere,co acima.
Saudac,oes cordiais,
Comissao organizadora do Evelin -
Our dear SHARER Iliana Graziano,Directora American Forum, has sent us the latest issue of her newsletter. Among many other interesting articles ,we found this tip that we wanted to SHARE with all of you:  
Sitio Recomendado:
Para todos aquellos que trabajan con el idioma inglés y busquen ampliar su vocabulario, recomendamos el sitio
En el mismo, se encuentran listados 961 diccionarios dentro de las siguientes áreas: General, Art, Business, Computing, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Religion, Science, Slang, Sports, Tech, Phrases.
Al solicitar la definición de una palabra, la misma aparecerá definida en todos los diccionarios correspondientes y de acuerdo al que se elija, se encontrarán ejemplos, pronunciación e información relacionada.
We are very pleased to publish this announcement Laura has sent us. We know many of you, dear SHARERS will join us in wishing her every possible success with this new publication.  
Laura Szmuch announces the publication of her book: "Aprendiendo inglés y disfrutando el proceso". It is in Spanish, as it is mainly written  for students or people who would like to learn English, but have not made up their minds to start yet.  It is conversational in style, and it is packed with NLP techniques (though there is no jargon) to help students to get to know themselves better, take advantage of their learning styles, organise their study time and schedule more efficiently, tap into their internal resources, boost motivation and encourage reflection during the learning process. 

For further information, contact Laura at:

Our dear SHARER Lucas Tsolakian sends us all this invitation:
EASY ENGLISH- Effective Learning
is proud to present...
"Chain of Favours"
written and directed by Lucas R. Tsolakian
Saturday, November 29th - 4 & 6:30 PM
Tickets $6.- In Advance $5.-
"Del Club Alemán Theatre" - J.B. Alberdi 1865 - Olivos 
Easy English - - Tel: 4790.8104 -

We finish this issue of SHARE with part of a message and a beautiful poem that a dear SHARER Mariana Mussetta from Villa Maria has sent us. In thanking Mariana for her message and poem , we wish to thank all our dear SHARERS who send us their contributions week after week and to all the other SHARERS, who we can almost see there reading and caring very actively and passionately in silence.   
Dear Omar and Marina,
I have just read your latest SHARE issue and you guys get better and better every day!! What you do is really great. You really feel you are connected to the almost 6,000 people that receive this newsletter.
Mariana Mussetta.
9 de Julio 222.- 5900 Villa María.
Dreams that what you live for?
Sure, that's what you hope for.
But what if you stand on your very dream
And dream no more since it's there
You can see.
Well, thinking and longing for old times
When dreams were just dreams
And not yet facts.
For isn't the hoping what we enjoy the most?
Isn't the expecting what we now boast of?
Yes, dreams are sweet.
But their sweetness comes from their root
And not from their flowers.
It's the apparent impossibility
With which they are varnished
That keeps us expecting
And pushes us forward.
And what if your dream
Looks at you face to face?
Then you will hold its hand
And beg human nature
To help you pursue another one.
Omar and Marina.
SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.