An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Year 4                    Number 114           October 4th 2003
   5800 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week

Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
Ready to enjoy the weekend? We,too. This will be a special weekend (after all, I think all our weekends are,in one way or another, special). Our students at UTN are putting up our annual show which is traditionally called “F28 on stage” ( F28 was the old code number for the English Section of our College__ which has now long been changed__ and somehow it has got stuck in our minds like that, so we keep on calling our show the old way). This is also prize-giving day for us, the teachers, since the students hand in the 2003 Teacher Awards. Both Marina and I hope they have mercy on us. We´ll tell you next week what awards we got. This Sunday will  also be a remarkable day. My godson, Tommy, is taking his First Communion. This brings to mind memories of the time when I, as a boy, and many years later our two sons went through this unique experience. As in the case of our two boys, I chose the words to go in the souvenir card for Tommy. It simply reads: “Lord, You know all things. You know I love you”. And we mean it.   
Omar and Marina
In SHARE 114
1.-    Cognitive Style and Learning Strategies.
2.-    Music and Song in the EFL/ESL Classroom.
3.-    Teaching English to a Blind Child – Part 3.
4.-    The birth and development of “Euro-English”. 
5.-    A Message from Stephen Krashen.
6.-    First Spring Seminar.
7.-    Jornadas at Universidad Nacional de Catamarca.
8.-    OUP Forthcoming Events.
9.-    APIBA Annual Seminar.
10.-   Tomato or Tomeito?
11.-   A New Issue of e-teaching on line.
12.-   Universidad CAECE and Buenos Aires Herald Contest.
Our dear friend and SHARER Douglas Town has sent us this article with his views about Cognitive Style and strategies which, as he very well summarizes,: “ties in with the topic of left brain/right brain without accepting the MI theory”. We are sure you will all ejoy it.
Cognitive style and learning strategies
1. Theoretical background: nature or nurture?
Before the 1970s, individual differences had been synonymous with differences in ability (Willing 1988:35), at least in the field of learning theory. Nevertheless, many psychologists in the 1950s and 1960s became increasingly concerned about the narrowness of abilities measured by standard intelligence (IQ) tests. Emphasis on abstract logical reasoning seemed to restrict intelligence to “convergent thinking” towards pre-determined answers but excluded the type of “divergent thinking” which leads to imaginative or creative innovation. Guildford (1965) introduced a model of the structure of the intellect in which he differentiated between a number of cognitive operations including convergent and divergent thinking (Lovell 1980:104). Divergent thought soon became equated with creativity, but although his (1975) concepts of fluency, flexibility and originality are still widely used, the value of his contributions to the understanding of creative thinking is now thought to be questionable (Ochse 1990:205).
The real value of Guildford’s distinction was realised by Hudson (1968) who suggested that tests of divergent thought were not so much a measure of creativity as a sampling of the individual’s preferred style of thinking (Lovell 1980:105). From a study of sixth form science and arts students, Hudson found that science students, specially those specialising in physics, tended to prefer a convergent style of thinking and saw themselves as basically cold, dull and unimaginative. Similarly, arts students, particularly those specialising in English literature, history and modern languages, were more likely to be divergent thinkers and saw themselves as warm, imaginative and exciting but at the same time lacking in manliness and dependability (Lovell 1980:105).
Hudson’s work was important in that it also showed a connection between style of thinking (or cognitive style) and the learners’ social behaviour and self-image.
Hudson (1968) also found a relationship between convergent/divergent thinking and another bi-polar dimension known as syllabus-bound and syllabus-free orientation. Convergent thinks or “sylbs” were typically concerned with getting good examination marks and happily accepted the restrictions of a formal syllabus. “Sylfs”, on the other hand, had intellectual interests that extended far beyond the syllabus, which they often found constricting (Lovell 1980:105). Parlett (1969) found that “sylbs were exam-oriented but had little personal interest in the subjects they studied. Although they were “model” students at university, attending more lectures, working harder and achieving higher marks in exams, “sylbs” were less successful than “sylfs” when it came to independent project work (Lovell 1980:106).
Again, the distinction between “sylbs” and “sylfs” was not just limited to cognitive behaviour but included social and affective characteristics. Another study of sixth-form students, this time by Josephs and Smithers (1975), showed that “sylbs” tended to be “more conservative, controlled, conscientious and persistent, shy, cautious and practical “when contrasted with “sylfs”. They were more intolerant and authoritarian in their outlook and more dependent upon their social group (conformists) (Lovell 1980:106).
As many as 19 different ways of describing cognitive style have been identified, all of which consist of bi-polar distinctions similar to those described above (Entwistle 1988:47). All of these tend to be assimilated to the construct field-dependence-field-independence (Willing 1988:41), which has become a sort of general theory of perception, intellect and personality. Berry (1981) characterises this dimension as follows:
“The central feature of this style is the “extent of autonomous functioning” (Witkin, Gooddenough and Otman 1979); that is, whether an individual characteristically relies on the external environment as a given, in contrast to working on it, is the key dimension along which individuals may be placed. As the name suggests, those who tend to accept or rely upon the external environment are relatively more Field Dependent (FD), while those who tend to work on it are relatively more Field Independent (FI)” (quoted in Willing 1988: 41-42).
Berry goes on to explain that individuals have a characteristic “place” on this dimension but that this may change according to circumstance and in response to specific training (ibid: 42).
A summary of the findings of cognitive style research as they relate to the two contrasting poles of the field independent (analytical/field independent (concrete) dimension is given below in Fig.1.
Fig 1 Contrasts on the two poles of the Field Independent (Analytical) Field Dependent (Concrete) Dimension  (from Willing, 1988)
Analytical (Field Independent)
Concrete (Field Dependent)
Information processing
This person finds it relatively easy to detach an experienced (perceived) item from its given background
The item is extractable because it is perceived as having a rudimentary meaning on its own; thus it can be moved out of its presented surroundings and into a comprehensive category system---for understanding (and “filing” in memory)
Tendency to show traits of introversion (the person’s mental processing can be strongly activated by low-intensity stimulus; hence dislikes excessive input)
Tendency to be “reflective” and cautious in thinking task
Any creativity or unconventionality would derive from individual’s development of criteria on a rational basis
This person experiences item as fused with its context; what is interesting is the impression of the whole
Item is experienced and comprehended as part of an overall associational unity with concrete and personal interconnections; (item’s storage in, and retrieval from, memory is via these often affectively-charged associations)
Tendency to show traits of extraversion (person’s mental processing is activated by relatively higher-intensity stimulus; therefore likes rich, varied input
Tendency to be “impulsive” in thinking tasks; “plays hunches”
Any creativity or unconventionality would derive from individual’s imaginativeness or “lateral thinking”
Learning strengths
Performs best on analytical language lasks  (e.g. understanding and using correct syntactical structures; semantically ordered comprehension of words; phonetic articulation)
2.     Favours material tending toward the abstract and impersonal; factual or analytical; useful; ideas
3.     Has affinity for methods which are: focused; systematic; sequential; cumulative
4.     Likely to set own learning goals and direct own learning; (but may well choose or prefer to use---for own purpose---an authoritative text or passive lecture situation.
5.     “Left hemisphere strengths”
1.     Performs best on tasks calling for intuitive “feel” for language (e.g. expression; richness of lexical connotation; discourse; rhythm and intonation)
2.     Prefers material which has a human, social content; or which has fantasy or humour; personal; musical, artistic
3.     Has affinity for methods in which various features are managed simultaneously; realistically; in significant context
4.     Less likely to direct own learning; may function well in quasi-autonomy (e.g. “guided discovery”);  (but may well express preference for a formal, teacher dominated learning arrangement, as a compensation for own perceived deficiency in ability to structure
5.     “Right hemisphere strengths”
Human relations
1.     Greater tendency to experience self as a separate entity; with, also a great deal of internal differentiation and complexity
2.     Personal identity and social role to a large extent self-defined
3.     More tendency to be occupied with own thoughts and responses; relatively unaware of the subtle emotional content in interpersonal interactions
4.     Relatively less need to be with people
5.     Self-esteem not ultimately dependent upon the opinion of others
1.     Tendency to experience and relate not as a completely differentiated “self but rather as---to a degree--- fused with group and with environment
2.     Greater tendency to defer to social group for identity and role-definition
3.     More other-oriented (e.g. looking at and scrutinizing other “faces; usually very aware of other” feelings in an interaction; sensitive to “cues”
4.     Greater desire to be with people
5.     Learning performance much improved if group or authority figure give praise
In order to understand better the notion of field dependence/field independence, it is worth explaining how the original distinction came about and how it differs from an alternative but complementary explanation of the source of cognitive style differences, namely the split nature of the brain.
Witkin et al (1954) found that people differ from each other in the way they perceive both their environment and themselves in relation to it. Their original findings were based on the contrasting ways in which individuals establish the upright in tests involving tilted frames or tilted rooms. Field-dependent people tended to rely upon visual information from the outside world (hence the term field-dependent) whereas field independent people relied almost exclusively on internal cues such as muscle tension or sensations from the vestibular system in the ear (Lovell 1980:107) and ignored external evidence to the contrary. A brief description of these experiments is given in Witkin (1969:288-291).
Later, an alternative (and simpler) way of measuring field dependence – field independence (FD-FI) was developed which consisted of having people pick out simple figures from a more complex design. Again, individuals were asked to deal perceptually with items in a field. For some (FI) people the simple figure almost “popped out” of the complex design, while other (FD) people were unable to find it even in the five minutes allowed (Witkin 1969:292).
Witkin (1969:294) argues that “the style of functioning we first picked up in perception (…) manifest itself as well in intellectual activity”. Field dependence or field independence are the perceptual components of a particular cognitive style. Thus “at one extreme there is a tendency for experience to be diffuse and global; the organisation of a field as a whole dictates the way in which its parts are experienced. At the other extreme the tendency is for experience to be delineated and structured; parts of a field are experienced as discrete and the field as a whole is structured” (ibid: 294).
While scores for any large group of people on tests of FD-FI show a continuous distribution (ibid: 294). Witkin repeatedly found sex differences with females tending to be more FD and males correspondingly more FI. (Later studies, however, show the evidence to be conflicting – see Willing 1988:103.) Witkin attributed this discrepancy to different styles of child rearing. Thus he claims, for example, that mothers of field-dependent children tend to represent the world to their children as uniformly dangerous and satisfy all their children’s needs in the same way (e.g. a mother might breastfeed her baby every time it cried). Mothers of field-independent children, on the other hand, are more likely to specify sources of danger selectively and to respond differently needs. According to Witkin, the extent to which the mother articulates such early experiences determines the child’s later position on the FD/FI continuum (Witkin 1969:312).
But just as there is a nature-nurture debate with regard to the source of intelligence differences, so differences in cognitive style can also be attributed to genetic factors. An alternative explanation is that cognitive style reflects the individual’s preferential use of one or other hemisphere of the brain much in the way that left-or right-handedness does. Evidence from brain research suggests that one gene determines the dominant hemisphere of the developing brain, while another relates to “handedness” (Entwistle 1988:48). While the specialisation of functions is relative rather than absolute (ibid: 48) and, in normal functioning, the two halves cooperate very closely to produce a unity, Levy (1979) argues that a perfect balance of strength only exists in about fifteen per cent of normal people: in all other cases, hemisphere strengths are unbalanced (Willing 1988:45).
There is no room here to go into the question of hemispheric specialisation in any great depth, but Hartnett (1981) states that:
“Recent brain research … provides evidence that the left cerebral hemisphere is specialised for logical, analytical, linear information processing, and the right hemisphere is specialised for synthetic, holistic, imagistic information processing. This evidence seems to parallel research on dual cognitive style models such as field independent/field dependent …, analytical/rational …, serialist/holist … and sequential-successive/parallel-simultaneous”. (Quoted in Willing 1988:46).
2. Pedagogical implications
What are the implications, then, of cognitive style for the development and use of learning strategies? As mentioned above, the construct FD-FI has over the years become very broad and encompasses not only cognitive and metacognitive elements but also the socio-affective side of the learner. In order to avoid too much repetition, the socio-affective implications of learning style will be discussed in a later article that deals with personality. Here we shall refer to a more limited version of the FD-FI dichotomy which was developed with special reference to education and which according to Lovell (1980:106) has special significance for an individual’s choice of learning strategies although Lovell himself gives no examples. This is Pask’s (1969) distinction between serialist and holist styles of learning.
A holist style involves a preference for setting the task in the broadest possible perspective and gaining an overview of the area of study so that the details are contextualised  (Entwistle 1988:61-62). This has implications for metacognitive strategies such as previewing, organisational planning and directed and selective attention. Previewing will tend to come naturally but may be rather indiscriminate. It is perhaps more difficult for holistic to extract the organising principle from a text without explicit cues. Holists may have more difficulty in attending to task or deciding what is essential in the early stages. On writing task, they are more likely to discover what they want to say through a global strategy of drafting and redrafting rather than filling in an initial outline, and their approach tends to be “idiosyncratic and personalised” (Entwistle 1988:62). They may have difficulty with evaluating form.
Holists use visual imagery and personal experience to build up understanding. Drawing mind-maps using imagery and colour will be useful memory strategies for holists (see Buzan 1989:95). Creative elaboration (e.g. making up stories) and personal elaboration are also likely to appeal to holists. However, they may need to develop strategies that compensate for a natural tendency to over generalise and ignore important differences between ideas. Such attention-directing strategies are described by De Bono (1976) and include “thinking tools” such as listing other people’s points of view, arguments for and against a proposal etc.
In contrast, a serialist style is described by Pask (1969) as step-by-step learning. The focus is narrow, with the student concentrating on each step of the argument in order and in isolation (Entwistle 1988:63). Serialists approach the study of new material by stringing a sequence of cognitive structures together and thus tend to be very intolerant of redundant information because of the extra burden it places on memory (Lovell 1980:106). They are likely to use planning and selective attention strategies too early in an attempt to limit the amount of information they have to deal with. On writing tasks, they may need to make a considerable effort to “brainstorm” for new ways of approaching a subject and are likely to have difficulty in evaluating content, which “tends to be carefully structured and clearly presented, but may be dull and humourless” (Entwistle 1988:63) and “lacking in personal interpretation or independent conclusions” (ibid)-
Unlike holists, serialists are good at noticing even trivial differences but are poor at noticing similarities. Thus they may need to use elaboration strategies that emphasise relating different parts of new information to each other as well as relating information to personal experience. A caveat must be added here. As with the FI/FD dimension of which the serialist-holist forms a part, few people are totally serialist or holist in their approach. Pask found some students who were versatile: they were equally comfortable with either style and could use both as appropriate. Other students, however, showed a marked over-reliance on one or other of these styles which gave rise to characteristic pathologies of learning (Entwistle 1988:62). It is these individuals who are likely to prove the most impervious to strategy training.
3. Cultural influences and imitations
Finally, there is the question of how cognitive style relates to cultural background. Witkin himself identified field independence with a higher and more advanced degree of autonomy and individualisation (Willing 1988:48). Subsequent research (Witkin 1977; Berry 1979,1981) has shown that in “loose” migratory, hunter-gatherer societies in which the individual typically works alone and depends upon a high degree of perceptual discrimination and autonomous decision-making, field-independence is favoured. But in more stable, sedentary or stratified societies (usually agrarian) with “tight” family and social networks, relative field dependence seems to be the norm (Willing 1988:48-49).
Modern industrial societies, however, are more complex. On the one hand, they present many of characteristics of agrarian societies although the extended family is rare in Northern Europe and America. Yet it might also be predicated that education would tend to produce a more “analytical” mode of thinking (Willing 1988:102). In fact a study carried out in Australia by the Adult Migrant Education Service (AMES) has shown that at least as far as language learning is concerned:
“(…) learning modes cut across age levels, both sexes, and all levels of previous education. To a considerable degree, learning preferences actually cut across all biographical variables – including ethnic group”. (Willing 1988:151)
Over eighty per cent of the participants in this study were from large towns (50,000+) or cities and belonged to a wide number of ethnic groups, both European and Asian (ibid: passim).
Unfortunately, research has also shown that perceptually-based testing devices such as the Embedded Figures Test are not reliable when the tested group itself is multicultural (Willing 1988:44). Willing (ibid: 44-45) cites the example of obviously highly “analytical” students from certain Asian cultures that were slower and less accurate in responding than some Europeans who were in all other respects far less analytical and claims that it would be necessary to reposition the entire scale in order to permit comparison between cultures. The reason for this seems to be the cultural bias involved in tests containing abstract geometric patterns. (Highly educated Asians with long exposure to Western culture, however, are presumably less likely to misunderstand what is required of them). Curiously enough, the Embedded Figures Test correlates quite highly with another culturally biased instrument – the standard IQ test in the low and medium range of the scales although not at the higher end (see also Skehan 1989:114-115 on FI as a disguised measure of intelligence).
In conclusion, cognitive style, in particular the FI-FD dimension, is a well-researched construct that includes not only cognitive and metacognitive elements but also the socio-affective side of the learner. Unlike Gardner’s (1984) theory of multiple intelligences (MI), it does not assume that linguistic functioning is separate from other types of functioning, but rather that people fall on a continuum between serialist and holist, analytical and intuitive, and independent and social, and have different strengths and weaknesses. Similarly, unlike MI theory, it does not presuppose that a person’s linguistic ability is more or less pre-determined at birth (see my article in Share No. 68) but rather that cognitive style is the result of complex interactions between hemisphere strengths and early learning experiences. Also, the fact that the Embedded Figures Test has been shown to be culturally biased should make us wary of assuming that hemisphere strengths are totally  ‘biological” or “genetic” in origin. Above all, the research on cognitive style provides us with a rationale for diagnosing individual weaknesses, while suggesting that the ideal balance is somewhere in the middle of the FI/FD continuum. In this way, learners can be taught compensatory strategies so as to get the best of both worlds.
© Douglas Andrew Town 1993, 2003
Buzan, T. (1989). Use your head. London BBC Books.
De Bono, E.  (1976). Teaching thinking. Pelican Books.
Entwistle, N. (1988). Understanding classroom learning. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Gardner, H. (1984). Frames of mind. London: Heinemann.
Lovell, R.B. (1980). Adult learning. London: Croom Helm.
Oche, R. (1990). Before the gates of excellence: The determinance of creative genius. Cambridge: CUP.
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. London: Arnold.
Willing, K. (1988). Learning Styles in adult migrant education. NCRC Research: Adelaide.
Witkin, H.A. (1975). ‘Some implications of cognitive style for problems of education’. In Personality and learning 1. Ed. by Whitehead, J.M. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Biographical note
Douglas has a BSc in Psychology and an MA in English Language Teaching as well as a postgraduate Diploma in English and Spanish translation and worked for many years as an educational consultant and ESP teacher in Spain. He has also taught EAP at Manchester University and Essex University and is currently a lecturer at the University of Belgrano.
Our dear SHARER Vanesa Sozio has sent this article to SHARE with all of you. Vanesa
says she´s “fully working on connecting English with Art” and would most probably appreciate comments and material related with her project. You can e-mail her at :
Music and Song in Discussion
Brian Cullen
As most teachers find out, students love listening to music in the language classroom. It can also be a teaching tool. Often students hold strong views about music and students who are usually quiet can become very talkative when discussing it.
In many cases, the teacher plays a song and leads a discussion on the meaning of the lyrics in a song. This can be effective, but this is just one of the many ways that mu

music or song can lead to a fruitful discussion. Some of the other aspects of music and songs are outlined below. Any one of these can be the basis of a class discussion.


Internal Structure
Music has its own internal structure - melody, harmony, rhythm, theme development, instrumentation, dynamics, etc. These can be discussed purely in terms of internal meaning as students explore the structure of the music. Alternatively, students can imagine the music as architecture, painting or some other visible form and discuss their images.

Expression of Emotions
Music can effect us emotionally in many different ways. Four different ways that it might do so are given below. Students can discuss which emotions they feel and what makes them feel that way.

Imitation of the Human Voice
The meaning of an utterance is often indicated by the tone of voice as well as the words. Music can imitate these tones to produce anger, fear, happiness and other emotions.

Imitation of Human Movement
The weeping willow tree is considered to be sad because it resembles the stooped over figure of a person. In a similar way, a slow descending chromatic bass line can convey sadness. Funeral dirges are slow because they echo the slow procession of the people at a funeral. Marches move briskly to match the energy of soldiers going to war.

Conventional Meaning
Some musical patterns and timbres are used to express particular emotions so often that we immediately associate them with that emotion. For example, minor keys often convey sadness. Similarly, trombones are often associated with solemn dignity and foreboding.

By Induction
Some researchers believe that the energy of the song can transfer itself to our bodies through induction. For example, the anger or excitement of a punk song might be transferred through the raw harmonies and overwhelming volume.

Representation of External Meanings
This is a rich area for discussion. Music has often been regarded as having no external meaning. However, composers are effected greatly by surrounding culture. In addition, music can become associated with personal or media experiences. It can be interesting for students to try to discuss the external meanings which they associated with the song.
Five types of external meanings are discussed below.

Music as a Reflection of Society and Culture
The current beliefs and conditions of society are always encoded in the music, either consciously or subconsciously by the composer. For example, during the Classical Period, concerts were usually given for small numbers of highly-educated aristocrats. During the Romantic Period, orchestration was increased because of the growing middle-class audiences and larger concert halls. More recently, particular areas have developed their own sound like Missisipi Blues or the LA sound which reflect certain aspects of the culture.

Association with Personal Experiences
Many people have a few pieces of music or a genre that they can associate with particular memories or people.

Association with Advertisements, Movies, etc.
Producers often use music in movies and advertisements and the music often becomes linked to this product. For example, an old blues song became closely associated with Levi's jeans a few years ago.

Program Music
Some music was written to accompany poems or paintings. For example, The Four Seasons by Vivaldi was written to a poem.

Sound Effects
The cannon in the 1812 Overture is a pretty clear indicator of military activity. Other common effects are the sound of a train, bird songs, etc.

Many of the above meanings also apply to lyrics, but lyrics also have their own unique meanings.

Subject Matter
This is a big area and an appropriate song can lead to a discussion in almost any topic. For example, the Beatles' song Nowhere Man can lead to a discussion on laziness, dreams or alienation. The large number of possible interpretations and the ambiguity in many lyrics makes possibilities for extended discussions.

Meanings of Song Vocabulary
Words may be used in new ways in songs. For example, Paul Simon sings about the 'Sound of Silence' . The Beatles sing about a 'Day Tripper' to refer to a short relationship. Cliches are often twisted or given a new meaning in songs such as Tom Petty's 'A Heart With A Mind Of Its Own'.

Poetic Structure
Rhyming scheme, rhythm, use of alliteration, onomatopoeia and imagery are all useful subjects for discussion.

Ambiguous People and Places in Songs
Often, song lyrics refer to 'you' and 'I' without the listener knowing who they are. Similarly, the place and time are often unspecified. Eliciting student opinions about these ambiguous items can make an interesting discussion.

Songs as a Reflection of Culture
Even more than music, lyrics are a reflection of society and culture. For example, the lyrics of the 60's shows the changing values about sexual behaviour in society. Protest songs and street ballads describe society in a powerful manner.

Begin the lesson with some discussion questions that will help students focus in on the subject: Who are your favorite celebrities/entertainers? What do you like best about them? Do you like the way they look?

If you could "be" any entertainer, who would you pick, and why?
Do you think celebrities always like the way they look and feel great about themselves?
Did you watch, see, or listen to any type of entertainment this week that made you feel bad about yourself?
Anything that made you feel good about yourself?

Explain to students that you will be focusing on media-- namely, music-- that deals with issues of body image, self-esteem, and eating disorders. By looking at what certain artists have to say on the subject, we'll see that they're all related-and that everyone experiences these feelings, no matter how "successful" they are or "perfect" they seem on the outside.

Play one of the songs and ask students to just listen to it, taking note of how it makes them feel. Pass out the song lyrics and play the song again, asking students to follow along.
Discuss the song. General questions might include:

What does the song title mean, and how does it relate to the song lyrics?
If you could come up with an alternate title for this song, what would it be?
What is the songwriter trying to tell you? What do you think they were feeling when they wrote this song?
Do you agree or disagree with what they're saying?
How did this song make you feel? Did you feel that it was expressing feelings that are similar to your own?

Music in the EFL Classroom

Songs, according to many scholars, are among the best ways of teaching a foreign language. The authors of Spectrum (Prentice-Hall Regents Publications) state that "Songs are an important aspect of culture, representing the history, folklore, and current idiom of a country.(...) Singing can build students’ confidence by allowing them to enjoy a degree of fluency in English before they have achieved it in speaking." Also,songs can be incorporated to all language skills ( listening, reading, writing and speaking).

Here are some techniques and procedures when using music in the EFL classroom:

1. Cloze

This is possibly the way that most teachers use songs. Choose a song that has some connection with the structure or part of speech that you are teaching. Delete a few words from the lyric and hand the incomplete lyric to the students. For lower levels, you can include the deleted words in the bottom of the page ( of course, out of order) Hand out the incomplete lyric to the students and play the song a few times, depending on the level of the song. Students listen and complete the missing words. Then hand out the complete lyric (or write the missing words on the board). Give the students some time for correction and answer any vocabulary questions. Then play the song again , asking the students to join in and sing (they might not be aware of that, but by doing so they are actually practicing pronunciation and stress)!!

As a follow-up, you can prepare a sheet pointing out a grammatical point that you might want the students to learn at that point, and have a structural or communicative activity after that. Some great songs that can be used for specific grammatical purposes:

Eric Clapton’s Wonderful Tonight (simple present tense)
The Beatles’ Hello,Goodbye (beginning levels), I’m So Tired ( so/such plus result clauses) and Penny Lane( use of the)
Tom Jobim’s How Insensitive (use of must as a logical conclusion)
Supertramp’s Logical Song ( adverbs vs. adjectives)
Queen’s Lazing On a Sunday Afternoon(days of the week, prepositions)

2. Topic Introduction

Many topics exist in an advanced/intermediate classes, and songs are great for some topics, such as love, jealousy, friendship, money, and many others. You can give the song in cloze form or simply the whole thing just for introduction. Again, you can have a communicative activity as a follow-up to the topic, such as a role-playing activity.

Some suggestions are:

Simon and Garfunkel’s Bridge Over Troubled Waters and Queen’s Friends Will Be Friends (Topic: Friendship)
John Lennon’s Jealous Guy (topic: Jealousy)
Pink Floyd’s Money (economy/business)
Eric Clapton’s Nobody Loves You (When You’re down and Out)
Bonnie Raitt’s Thing Called Love (love)

3. Singalong Videos

Singalong videos are great because they have the lyrics on screen and students have fun watching the visuals while they sing. They are also easily available. My personal favorites are The Beatles Singalong Video and Singalong With Disney

4. Relaxing

Relaxing is great for opening a class, as long as if it’s not early in the morning, which might put the students to sleep. Play a slow song (classical, if you wish) and have students close their eyes. Guide them through and imaginary "trip" such as to an island, or through the mountains. This kind of activity is great for stressed adults that have come home from work and feel uncomfortable for being in class. You’ll be surprised by the results.

5. BGM (Background Music)

I personally enjoy having music in the background while I teach. Just select a calm tape (or cd) and let it play, in low volume, during the whole class. It works by relaxing the students and making them feel a little more comfortable in class, making the atmosphere a bit more informal

 © 2003 by Brian Cullen




Today we are publishing the third part of the paper that our dear SHARER and friend Cristina Araujo excerpted from her presentation at the Ninth National Congress of Teachers and Students of English last July.

If you missed parts one or two , you can always find it in issues 112 and 113 in the SHARE Archives of our Website:  

Next week we will publish the last part of this paper with classroom activities.



The design of materials to be used in an EFL class towards the dual integration of blind and sighted children necessitates a clear shift from the traditional methods that consider vision as the most important sense for general development and education and therefore are loaded with visual components to methods that can offer a wider variety of stimuli.

The present study reveals that all the informants shared virtually the same opinions about learning in general, and learning a Foreign Language in particular.  On one hand they all agree that blindness is nothing more or less than what it is, i.e. the physical inability to see. It is their only handicap and has nothing to do with their mental capabilities (The Family, 2002:1), but on the other hand teachers insisted that the loss of a single sense did not make the remaining senses more acute; this simply means that special work has to be done to develop them. It is at this point that Suggestopedia, TPR and the theory of Multiple Intelligences may offer teachers suitable methodological options.

Suggestopedia could seem to trigger the deeper sources of the human brain with its use of the human voice plus the musical stimulus. The power of music in the English classroom lies in the fact that not only does it relax and stimulate the listener simultaneously, but it also educates the learner in listening skills and the refined architecture of sound. It enhances memory and associations; by providing students with holistic information, it gives the student a frame of mind for learning by developing the auditory channels equalizing the functioning of both sides of the brain (Danesi, 1988:19, Robertson, 1996). Besides, as Lozanov himself states in his assumptions, Suggestopedia also advocates the privilege of doing away with the barriers that hinder learning by creating special conditions that involve the person as a whole. Probably, in the view of some teachers, the length of the dialogues read aloud with exaggerated rhythm and intonation could be more confusing than motivating; others, for purely logistic reasons, might think that the provision of comfortable armchairs, together with the appropriate lighting and relaxing atmosphere, would probably be beyond the means of most educational establishments. Some others might find classical music disrupting and even annoying; and Heads of Institutes might argue that they need highly trained teachers. But while all these arguments are probably valid, they are not enough to ignore the benefits that Suggestopedia might offer in the areas of learning and memory, which is what matters in this circumstance where oral input is essential.

At the time of evaluating TPR, I would consider having it in my toolbox to be used when necessary, independently from the method or approach followed. To support this assumption, I think that it is valid to say that a lot of classroom warmers and games are actually based, consciously or unconsciously, on TPR principles. Bearing in mind that a method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, where no part of it contradicts another, that an approach is a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning, and that a technique is implementational and that it takes place in the classroom (Richards and Rodgers, 1986: 14-19), in a continuum from rigid to flexible, I would place a method at the rigid end, an approach in the middle and a technique or tool at the flexible end. This flexible end is the place where I would put TPR associated with Gardner’s Theory of multiple Intelligences.


The use of the spatial and bodily/kinaesthetic intelligences combined with TPR activities would be the perfect tool to introduce concepts and vocabulary as well as to develop mobility and the sense of touch. As indicated above a congenitally blind child has no memory of visual images. This raises the question of how to convey meaning at moments when even translation is of no use (see Projected applications: Video session /commentaries / what does a brain look like?).  Teachers of fully sighted pupils may find it difficult to ensure comprehension even with their full repertoire of visual clues, such as flash cards, mime, gestures, facial expression and the use of walls and ceilings to display symbols and reminders; teachers of blind or visually impaired pupils suffer the limitations of such substitutes for the visual paraphernalia, and here the option is: do to learn, “the performance is the learning process” and humans are probably biologically wired up to acquire language through responding physically to language, and then internalising it (Cain, 2001: 37-38). A shelf with 3D models of everyday items, including dolls (leaving aside the misconception that dolls are only for girls) would be of great help. 3D models foster multiple kinds of hands-on activities which help to convey meaning while developing the sense of touch.  If we are sure that there are no cords, desks or chairs out of place and that doors are not ajar but kept fully opened or closed, blind students can move around the classroom without problems. This would also help to increase their independence and confidence without forgetting that the sighted students in the classroom can always help by interpreting visual clues. Teachers and peers should not be afraid of using words such as “see”[1], “look” or “watch out”; these are expressions used by blind people although they seem to have a biological origin they have a mere etymological sense and blind students know the meaning of these words.


To conclude, I would like to refer briefly to the Braille issue since this system is the only way that a visually impaired person has to be able to read and write. A blind student would come to the classroom carrying his/her bulgy brailled books and folder and his/her noisy Braille typing machine. If either the teacher or the rest of the students do not know what Braille is and how it works, it may become a distractor during the class. This is the reason why I dare suggest that teachers as well as students should become acquainted with Braille while it is not necessary to be able to read it with the fingertips, not even to know the alphabet by heart, since sighted people can just decode the dots. If the teacher cannot read Braille, however, s/he will not be able to correct or even mark any kind of written tasks or tests, and we, teachers, know too well that this is not just inevitable but also crucial to every learner’s overall development.





Many pragmatists, however, would endorse no particular pedagogical or ideological position on these eclectic ways of teaching. Nevertheless, the obverse of the coin reveals that there are some aspects of Suggestopedia and Total Physical Response, supported by Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory that might become effective tools to be used successfully in a classroom to help Facundo and other blind children learn English better in a friendlier atmosphere. They offer flexibility and a wide range of activities that in the hands of skillful teachers can become powerful devices at all levels of instruction, moving from simple understanding to other more complex skills by changing and shaping students’ motivation and anxiety.


The present study has revealed that the difficulties that arise when having a blind child in the classroom can be tackled by: 

§         creating appropriate learning conditions and environments;

§         developing autonomy, not dependence, by allowing some risk-taking behaviour; if we want our students to be cognitively active participants in the learning process, they need to encounter challenges and take risks;

§         teaching how to develop personalized learning strategies;

§         adopting tasks that provide exposure to meaningful language by increasing communicative and cognitive input;

§         enhancing features of the language by using clear and precise language at the time of  providing a rationale and directions;

§         rewarding innovation and creativity;

§         introducing Braille.

Reading the preceding list but the last line, any teacher would think: “This is what should be done in any class”, and this is exactly my purpose: to make teaching practitioners understand that having a blind student in the classroom may be difficult but not impossible. The role of the teacher in all of this is a challenging one; but once we are able to overcome the feeling of loneliness, of  “aloneness” that invades us, we realize that our blind student will require a little more of our attention, but our determination and commitment will be highly rewarded with the results. At this point, and as a teacher trainer myself, I wonder why the chance of having to teach English to people with special needs is never discussed in the course of our teacher education programmes. I also wonder if this merely depends on those educational programmes or if it goes further into our idiosyncrasy. The questions here would be: Do we really care for those who are different? However, this is subject for another study.


To conclude, and as it was stated at the beginning of this paper, the purpose of this study was mainly to outline course designs and classroom materials for the case at hand. The issue here should not simply be the variety of the materials to be produced but its synchronization with real needs. Based on the interviews conducted so far and the literature reviewed in the course of this study, I would suggest activities that cater for specific intelligence types by incorporating TPR and Suggestopedia

As a final remark I would dare say to my colleagues and myself: Do not hesitate to ask the student what s/he needs or what should be changed. S/he is the expert about his/her peculiar needs and do never forget Helen Keller’s words: “It is not blindness but the attitude of the seeing to the blind that is the hardest burden to bear” It is up to us to make it lighter to the point that it will no longer be perceived at all.


Asher, J. J. (1983). Motivating children and adults to acquire a second language. In Oller, J. and Richard-Amato, (Eds.), Methods that work: A smorgasbord of ideas for language teachers. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, Inc.; 329-336.

Brancroft, W. J. (1983). The Lozanov method and its American adaptations. In Oller, J. and Richard-Amato, (Eds.), Methods that work: A smorgasbord of ideas for language teachers. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, Inc.; 105-106.

Cain, R. (2000). Total Physical Response. English Teaching Professional, 14, 37–39.

Campbell, B. (1989). Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved July 23, 2002, from  

Cantiello, M. S. C. de, and Fabricant, H. S. de (1987). Natural Communication Methodology, An update Guide to the Teaching of English as a Foreign and Second Language. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Ediciones Braga; 15-72.

Danesi, M. (1988). Neurological bimodality and theories of language teaching. Padova, Italy: Liviana Editrice; 13-31.

Earl, G. (2002). Accelerative Learning: Using the virtual limitless capacity of the mind in the virtual classroom. (n.d.) Retrieved June 25, 2002 from National University – Los Angeles: School of Management and Technology accelerativelearning.htm

Finke, R. A. (1989). Principles of Mental Imagery. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Gardner, H. (1999). The Disciplined Mind: What all Students Should Understand. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Glisan, E. (1993). Total Physical Response: A Technique for Teaching All Skills in Spanish. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle Publishers.

Gray, C. (1996). Coping with the National Curriculum in Modern Foreign Languages: An equal opportunities issue? The British Journal of Visual impairment. 15 (1), 1-9.

Kay, R. (2000). Special Needs: A Challenge Neglected by ELT?  IATEFL Issues, 158: 5-6.

Omaggio, A. C. (1979). Pictures and Second Language Comprehension: Do They Help? Foreign Language Annals 12; 107-117.

Richards, J. and Rodgers, T. (1986). Approaches on Methods in Language Teaching. A description and analysis. Cambridge, UK: C.U.P.

Robertson, P. (1996). Music, the brain and String Quartets. BBC Music Magazine, Summer. 1-6

Rodgers, T. (2002). Language Teaching Methodology. (n.d.) Retrieved June 27, 2002 from the University of Hawaii:

Stevick, E. W. (1983) Interpreting and Adapting Lozanov´s Philosophy. In Oller, J. and Richard-Amato, (Eds.), Methods that work: A smorgasbord of ideas for language teachers. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, Inc.; 115- 145.

Stevick, E.W. (1998) Working with teaching Methods: What’s at Stake?, (pp. 142 –162). Pacific Grove, CA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.

The Family, Teaching English at the blind Association in Karat. (n.d.) Retrieved June 7, 2002, from http://www.thaifamily.html

Two-Way Immersion Education. (n.d.) Retrieved October 22, 2002 from

© 2003 by Lic. Cristina Araujo



Our dear SHARER Ann Lippincott has sent us this “tongue in cheek” contribution. Omar had the chance to meet Ann at the Binational Centre in Córdoba quite a few years back and has since been one of Ann´s number one fans. We were both very happy to receive her contribution and her warm note.

Dear Omar and Marina

Here is something that a colleague at UCSB recently sent to that I thought might be fun to include in a future issue of SHARE. Know that I very much enjoy SHARE and do, in fact, share selected articles with my colleagues in California.

Fondly, Ann Lippincott

The European Commission has just announced an agreement whereby English will be the official language of the European nation rather than German which was the other possibility.

As part of the negotiations, Her Majesty's Government conceded that English spelling had some room for improvement and has accepted a 5-year phase-in plan that would become known as "Euro-English".

In the first year, "s" will replace the soft "c". Sertainly, this will make the sivil servants jump with joy. The hard "c" will be dropped in favour of the "k". This
should klear up konfusion, and keyboards kan have one less letter.

There will be growing publik enthusiasm in the sekond year when the troublesome "ph" will be replased with the "f". This will make words like fotograf 20% shorter.

In the 3rd year, publik akseptanse of the new spelling kan be expekted to reach the stage where more komplikated changes are possible.  Governments will enkourage the removalof double letters which have always ben a deterent to akurate speling.  Also, al
wil agre that the horibl mes of the silent "e" in the languag is disgrasful and it should go away.

By the 4th yer peopl wil be reseptiv to steps such as replasing "th" with "z" and "w" with "v". During ze fifz yer, ze unesesary "o" kan be dropd from vords kontaining "ou" and after ziz fifz yer, ve vil hav a reil sensibl riten styl.

Zer vil be no mor trubl or difikultis and evrivun vil find it ezi tu understand ech oza. Ze drem of a united urop vil finali kum tru. If zis mad yu smil, pleas pas it on to oza pepl.

Ann C. Lippincott, Ph.D.
Teacher Education Program - Gevirtz Graduate School of Education
University of California Santa Barbara, CA. 93106-9490 / 805-893-3711
Our dear SHARER the renowned applied linguist Stephen Krashen of “Input Hypothesis” fame, has sent us this announcement: 
Dealing with English Fever
by Stephen Krashen
Paper to be presented at the Twelfth International Symposium on English Teaching, Taipei, Taiwan, November, 2003

Abstract: There is no question that English is crucial in today's world, but the usual approaches to EFL, often based on popular folk-theories of language acquisition, are inefficient. Based on what is known about how language is acquired, age differences, literacy development and bilingual education, a different and less strenuous approach is recommended, featuring comprehensible input-based methodology, recreational reading, and a strong education in the primary language. This program need not begin in early childhood, and is intended to provide the EFL student with the tools to continue to improve in English after formal instruction has ended.

Now available at
Our dear SHARERS Alejandra Jaime and Fabián Wallace have an invitation to make: 
AQA                              ENGLISH & FUN
1st Spring Conference “English can also be fun”
October, 18th 2003 - 09:00 a.m  – 07.00 p.m
Escuela San Gregorio – Armenia 1353 – Palermo – Ciudad de Buenos Aires
8:30 -  9:00 -               Registration
Opening Plenary  - Lic.Omar Villarreal
10:30 - 11:00 –               Coffee Break
11:00 - 12:00   -             Concurrent Workshops
12 – 12:15  -                 Break
12:15 -  13.00  -              A Puppet Show: Moppy´s Adventures with Eaterall
by The Bs As Players
13:00 – 14:00  -               Lunch Break
Plenary - Charlie López M.A.
16:00 – 16:10  -               Break
16:10 -  16:55 –               Workshops with the sponsors 
16:55 - 17:10   -              Coffee Break
Closing Plenary – Mrs Laura Lewin
18.40  –                      Raffles- Certificates of attendance.
 “A Chicken Without Bones” or The Use of Magic in the Teaching of Communication
We all want our students to communicate. We all want our students to be flexible and fluent in their actual “use”  of the language but we often shy away from grammar, or we believe in the magic of “grammar boxes” and “grammar summaries” strategically placed at the end of the book. After all, we have been told once and again that “while we focus on communication, grammar will take care of itself”. But will it?  If it won´t,  how much grammar should we teach and how? Should we start writing grammar with a capital “G” again?
In this presentation, Professor Villarreal will practically demonstrate how to implement a
solid programme with activities and games that will help your students to develop both accuracy and fluency.
Lecturer: Lic. Omar Villarreal
Profesor en Inglés e Inglés Técnico (INSPT), Licenciado en Ciencias de la Educación (UCALP) Licenciado en Tecnología Educativa (FRA-UTN). His post graduate studies include: Applied Linguistics (INSPLV) and Educational Research (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba).  Chair of Applied Linguistics at Universidad Tecnológica Nacional.
Lecturer in Didactics of ESP at Licenciatura en Inglés Universidad Católica de La Plata. Visiting-lecturer for several National Universities.  Teacher–trainer for Red Federal de Formación Docente Continua, Centro de Pedagogías de Anticipación del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires and the Ministry of Education of Provincia de Buenos Aires.
Former Head of the School of English of Universidad Austral and of Instituto Superior del Profesorado Modelo. He has lectured extensively in all Argentinian provinces as well as in Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Perú. He is the author and co-author of more than 20 textbooks, among them: “Polimodal English”, “Resource Files”, “Grammar Explorer” and “Top Teens” published by Macmillan.
Sing a song – 2
A unique workshop on the use of music and song in English Language Teaching. Discover a wide range of different and new techniques to apply the motivational strength of music to the teaching of grammar, composition, vocabulary and pronunciation at different levels. 
Lecturer: Charlie López  M.A.
Charlie holds an MA in Teaching English as a Foreign Language from the University of Reading-UK.  He is the director of Big Ben Institute-Buenos Aires  and the author of  Whizz Kids 2 Resource Pack-Heinemann ELT  and the best-selling title Detrás de las Palabras-Ed. Sudamericana.  He is the producer and presenter of YeS TV programme. He has lectured for most British publishers in Argentina and abroad.
To be or not to be ... The teacher I want to be
If you have ever found yourself dreading Sunday evenings, or if you have trouble remembering why you chose education as your profession, it´s time to recharge your batteries!
Join Laura in this practical workshop that will help you reflect on your teaching, rekindle the excitement of the first day of school all year long, and get new ideas for your classes, but most importantly... fall in love with teaching all over again!
Lecturer : Mrs Laura Lewin
Founder and Director of ABS International, President of the Organizing Committee of the International Conference for English Coordinators and Directors of Studies.
Among other responsibilities, Laura  was the Director of the Language Department at Maimónides University and serves now on the Advisory Committee of the TESOL Program of the University of California-Irvine. 
Concurrent   Workshops
1 - Having fun through drama techniques 
Prof. Celia Zubiri  
2 – Enriching your creative work    
Prof.Laura Szmuch & Jamie Duncan
3 -  Humour, a Wonderful Resource  
Prof. Alicia López Oyhenart  
4 -  The earlier the better : english for babies and pre-schoolers   
Prof. María Marta Suárez
5     British and American Pronunciation Contrasted
Prof. Norberto Ruiz Díaz  
6 – Teaching Comprehension and Exploring Multiple Literacies 
Prof. María Teresa Manteo 
7  - New Technologies : e-learning and ELT
Lic.Susana Trabaldo
8   - (Title to be confirmed)    
Prof.Silvana Carnicero & Gladys Baya
Workshops with Sponsors
1 – Teaching Teenagers made easy! - Come and meet  “Top Teens”
By  Lic. Marina Kirac
2 - Theatre, a profitable outing
By Celia Zubiri  -The Bs As Players
3 – Teaching English in primary school is a serious task... but also extremely enjoyable !!!
By Celina Gismondi 
4 - Children learn by doing By  María Elisa Cordiviola
5 -  Why not have it all? The Macmillan English dictionary, a teaching and learning tool.
By Gabriel Mohr 
6 -  You too can teach holistically !
By M. Marta Suárez 
8-  Assisting Teachers from the Web
By Alicia López Oyhenart & Patricia Salvador
Fees: Until 15 October  - $15  On site (only by previous registration by phone or e-amail) $ 30 . AQUA members $ 15 and $ 20.
Payment options  :
1 -  At  Estari Libros – Viamonte 2052 –  Ciudad de Bs As – Tel : 4371 – 2738
2 – By Bank deposit at Banco Río – Caja de Ahorro en pesos – Nº 169-220111/1
(Fabián Wallace) -  CBU : 07201697 30000022011115   
Important : make sure you send both the registration form together with the bank deposit slip to the following number :  011 – 4953 8268
3 - If these options are not possible, please contact us. We will be happy to help you !!!
Further Information : (011) 4953 – 8268   - (011) 4957 – 5285  
Our dear SHARER Alejandra de Pingitore from Colegio de Traductores Públicos de Catamarca has sent us this information:
Universidad Nacional de Catamarca
Facultad de Humanidades
Departamento de Inglés - Laboratorio de Idiomas
Asociación Catamarqueña de Profesores de Inglés
Viernes 17 de octubre   6:00 pm to 7.30 pm
La Fase de Verificación en la Traducción
Disertantes: Olga Gavrich. Judith Moreno de Fedeli. Carolina Ferraresi Corotto
Destinatarios: Traductores y alumnos del Traductorado.
El trabajo de corrección y segunda lectura de los textos es otra faceta de la traducción. Una vez efectuada la traducción y realizada la trasposición semántica, es difícil, a veces, discernir y valorar correctamente eventuales faltas ortográficas, gramaticales y de comprensión. También pueden esconderse pueden esconderse en el escrito incongruencias sintácticas y sintagmáticas que conducen a desviar el sentido. La tarea de revisión y corrección de textos es la fase previa a la preparación de la versión final que se debe realizar con el mayor cuidado posible.
Saturday, October 18th - Seminario: English for Business
Lecturer:  Pierre  Stapley 
Pierre is from Winchester in England. He studied at Peter Symonds College and has qualifications in Communications and Computers in Business. Pierre has been in Argentina for 8 years and gives talks on language, business and culture around the country. He is also a freelance writer and has had articles published in the Buenos Aires Herald and other ELT publications. Recently he published a book on language called "Cockney Yesterday & Today".
Morning: 9  to 12.30.

How Different Companies Operate & Who Works In Them
* The company structure - a look at what positions are within a British & American company * A look at different types of companies and how they operate.
* Preparation for and the job interview itself

A Touch of Written Communication
* Business letter writing * Writing and sending faxes for different reasons.
* Memo writing. When and why  * Why use compliment slips and when

Afternoon: 17 to 20.30

Market Research & Advertising
Market Research:
* What is market research * What do market researchers take into account * Why is market research necessary

* What is advertising for * How advertising works: * Television advertising * Radio advertising * Newspaper/magazine advertising * Bus advertising
Lugar: Laboratorio de Idiomas – Maestro Quiroga 200 . Tel-fax: 03833- 432051
Costos: Alumnos Profesorado y Traductorado $5/ Miembros de A.C.P.I. $10/ Docentes y Traductores no adheridos $20
Auspicia: Colegio de Traductores Públicos de Catamarca 
Our dear SHARERS from Oxford University Press announce:

WHEN: October 11th - 9.00 to 12.30
WHO: Prof. Silvia Stagnaro
WHERE: Colegio Santa Cruz - 24 de Noviembre 900 - Capital Federal
WHAT: Breaking Through the Grammar Taboo: a fresh look at the interface between every day language use and the grammatical structure of language.
In this talk I will explore the concept of grammar and redefine it in the light of new theories on lexis and syntax. I will also attempt to establish the degree of accuracy that a student, especially at the intermediate level, can be expected to achieve and have a closer look at the learning strategies that can be activated in class to help him in this quest. The theoretical discussion will be followed by a hands-on experience in which participants will have a chance to experiment with various awareness raising and practice activities.

WHEN: October 18th - 9.00 to 13.30
WHO: Prof. Leonor Corradi and Prof. Silvia Laclau
WHERE: Universidad de Belgrano - Zabala 1837 - Capital Federal
WHAT: Getting Young Learners Involved by Leonor Corradi
Children have a natural curiosity, and they cannot but learn. However, when it comes to learning English, this does not seem to work out that way. Some children find it very hard to put everything together, while others may find that what they are doing does not engage them at all. Could it be the case that we, teachers, have become so worried about teaching that we have forgotten about learning? Let's see together how can make learning effective and fun!

Reading Strategies at FCE level by Silvia Laclau
This workshop is about reading strategies applied to the reading material in Matrix. There will first be some theoretical background to reading, with special emphasis on reasons for reading, text types and how to approach them. I will go on to give some helpful tips to develop reading strategies related to the various approaches to texts mentioned before. There will be a brief overview of FCE reading task types and a focus on the materials in Matrix. The theoretical aspects of reading will be applied to selected extracts from Matrix, together with suggestions for classroom activities.

WHEN: October 22nd - 18.00 to 20.00
WHO: Paula Coudannes Landa and Miriam D'Amico
WHERE: Instituto Superior Juan XXIII - Vieytes 286 - Bahia Blanca
WHAT: Creating an Authentic Feel in the ELT Classroom
by Paula Coudannes Landa
Reading texts with an authentic feel, a writing syllabus with real life tasks, and a wide range of factual information about the world can allow us to build a sense of 'authenticity' in our classrooms while at the same time make learning English a relevant, practical and communicative experience for our students.

Presentation of MATRIX by Miriam D'Amico
This new series for adolescents will encourage your students to look at cross-curricular themes, provide them with authentic input for the development of the four skills, as well as the opportunity to prepare for examinations.

For registration please contact: OUP Call Centre (011) 4302- 8000 ext 222 or
In Bahía Blanca: Librería Agencia Sur - Estomba 215 - Tel.
(0291) 452-4838.
Our dear friend and SHARER Prof. Analía Kandel, Vice-presidente APIBA, has sent us this invitation:
APIBA Annual Seminar 2003
APIBA Annual Seminar 2003, which will be held on October 18 from 9.00 am to 3.30 pm at ISP "Joaquín V. González" (Rivadavia 3577, Buenos Aires City), aims at the discussion of how adolescents and adults learn English as a FL and how EFL teachers approach the teaching and testing of the phonological, lexical and grammatical systems of the English language as well as the development of language skills.
And what a line-up have we gathered for the occasion!
Plenarists: Jorge Ghenadenik (SLT: the State of the Art), Silvia Stagnaro & Corine Arguimbau (Evaluation).
Workshop leaders: Mónica Gandolfo (How to help our students learn Vocabulary); Fernanda Velázquez & Nibia Yermos (The Grammar Experience: Making it an Appetizing Treat!); Elizabeth White (Integrated Skills: Weaving one Activity into the Next); Gustavo González (Self-Motivation: the Best Way to Become a Resourceful Teacher).
We are looking forward to these relevant, challenging and motivating plenaries and workshops, which will give us all an opportunity to revise some of the timeless and never-quite-worked-out issues of ELT. After all, can we ever know too much about how our students' mind works? Can we ever be too good at our job?
APIBA Members and teacher trainees (proof of status required): free of charge
Non-APIBA Members: $20
For further information about this event and/or to enrol, please e-mail or fax/leave a tel message on (011) 4326-3927 [please provide your full name and specify your status, i.e. APIBA (non-)member or teacher trainee]
For further information about APIBA, please visit
Our dear friend and SHARER Patricia Salvador invites all SHARERS to her talk on British and American English:
"Tomato or Tomeito???"
A workshop for advanced students and teachers of English
Saturday 11th October 2003 - Capital Federal
with Patricia Salvador

accompanied by
native speakers: Pierre Stapley (UK) & Clems (US)
Patricia presents the differences between British and American pronunciation, vocabulary, and spelling through role-plays, and activities such as mazes, matching exercises, fillin-in the blanks, stepping stones, songs, and movies.
There will be two native speakers, one from the UK and the other from the US to assist Patricia during this unique interactive workshop.
Teachers participate all the time!!
Participants try to imitate the sounds in one accent or the other, etc. 
Place: New England School of English, Santa Fe 5130, Capital Federal
(Subte: Linea D - Est. Ministro Carranza - 2 blocks away)
Times: 09:30 to 12:30
Fee: $20,00 (Pesos) if you pay before 8th October
$24,00 (Pesos) if you pay after the 8th October
Registration & More Information: New England School of English 
Santa Fe 5130 - Capital Federal - Tel: 011-4778-3566 after 14:00hrs
E-mail:   or

Our dear SHARER Alicia Lopez announces:
Issue # 11 of E-teachingonline is on the Internet October 5 .The six sections contain  activities for all level students and are  full of resources for teachers. Halloween serves as backbone for "spooky" classroom material: language activities, crafts, songs, one of Poe's short stories, exercises on creepy movies, to motivate and teach. Survival Corner offers: Study Skills, tips for teachers to help their students prepare for and succeed in final exams. Specially created for AQA Exams : the first mock test for Level One to assist AQA candidates!  
There are Mom's Day poems, crafts and language activities for different level students.
Teachers are offered a good list of Current Common Errors and students will learn how to make  Scrabble alphabet chips to play and learn spelling in class!
E-teachingonline has crossed the barrier of 31,000 visitors.The Editorial Group is grateful to  both subscribers, whose support make the mag possible, and  readers in general whose curiosity lead them to browse its contents regularly.
Our dear SHARER Ana Maria Rozzi de Bergel has an announcement to make:
Using the Media for Language Teaching
An activity design contest for teachers of english, sponsored by Universidad CAECE and the Buenos Aires Herald. Contestants will design a set of activities for exploiting authentic materials, taken from the media, for teaching english as a foreign language.
First prize: a full scholarship to attend Universidad CAECE’s Licenciatura en Enseñanza del Idioma Inglés, a two-year programme of study for graduate English teachers. The scholarship includes the cost of tuition, enrolment fee and exam fees.
Second prize: Half a scholarship to attend the complete programme of study of Universidad CAECE’s Licenciatura en Enseñanza del Idioma Inglés.The scholarship covers 50% of the cost of tuition, enrolment fee and exam fees.
Contestants must hold a valid Argentine teaching degree, obtained from a three-year or four-year teacher training course (Profesorado Terciario o Universitario).There is no age limit. Contestants must reside in Argentina.
The deadline for submitting entries is November 15th, 2003.
The winners will be announced in the November 2003 issue of the Herald Education News.
Lessons in the Licenciatura are on Saturdays, from 8:30 to 12:30 and from 1:30 to 5:30, at Teniente General Juan D. Perón 2933, Buenos Aires. For further details of the course ort the contest, go to, Departamento de Humanidades, Licenciaturas para Profesores or contact

We want to finish this issue of SHARE paying homage to Saint Francis of Assisi whose memorial day we celebrate today. Omar and I visited the town of Assisi and his tomb in 1995 and I have got the most vivid recollection of how utterly touched by the whole atmosphere we were. To the memory of those days, to the loving memory of St. Francis who taught us all how to live in humility and to all of you, our dear SHARERS, we dedicate this prayer:
Prayer of Saint Francis of Assisi
Lord, make me an instrument of your peace.
Where there is hatred, let me sow love;
where there is injury,pardon;
where there is doubt, faith;
where there is despair, hope;
where there is darkness, light;
and where there is sadness, joy.

O Divine Master, grant that I may not so much seek
to be consoled as to console;
to be understood as to understand;
to be loved as to love.
For it is in giving that we receive;
it is in pardoning that we are pardoned;
and it is in dying that we are born to eternal life. Amen
Omar and Marina.
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