An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 4                    Number 103               May 1st 2003


4900 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week


Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED





We want to start this issue of SHARE with an apology to all our dear friends and SHARERS. Due to some (of our now very many) technical problems, you received two mails with our issue 102. One that looked like the ordinary SHARE and one that did not look like the ordinary one at all. This latter one did not bear our distinctive font and colours and was sent by mistake.

All in all two bulky SHARES in one week (though it was the same one repeated) prevented us from sending you our traditional Easter card as we decided it was too much to download in the course of three days (issue 103 was on Holy Thursday and the Easter card was scheduled for Saturday) and with a number of SHARERS away on holiday we feared we could clog your mail boxes. We sincerely regret not having been able to send you our Easter greetings because we truly believe that Easter is one the most important moments of the year, a time for renewal and

SHARING when we would have loved to be by your side as good friends always are.     


And secondly, and most importantly, help us to help our brothers and sisters in Santa Fé and all the litoral  who are suffering the devastating effects of the floods. Please read our postscript, say a prayer for them but also remember to give as generously as you can afford to. We know we can count on you.



Love and Happy Labour Day

Omar and Marina



PS: Donaciones para los damnificados por las inundaciones en Cáritas Nacional- Balcarce 236- Buenos Aires, el santuario de San Cayetano, en el barrio de Liniers, desde donde parten los camiones hacia Santa Fe.

Otros puestos donde se recibe la ayuda solidaria son: Cáritas Santa Fe, San Jerónimo 1627, Santa Fe, teléfonos (0342) 4593591 y 4596890; y Cáritas Rosario, Balcarce 1077, Rosario, teléfonos (0341) 4493073 y 4407969 y en las sedes de Cáritas de todo el país.

Los aportes en dinero se reciben a través de la cuenta del Banco Nación Argentina, Sucursal Plaza de Mayo, número 038632/92, a nombre de Cáritas Argentina – Comisión Nacional, y las donaciones con tarjeta de crédito en la página de Internet:




In SHARE 103


1.-    Why can they speak and cannot talk?

2.-    How babies think.

3.-    Jornadas at Filosofía y Letras UBA.       

4.-    Regional Conference in Rio Cuarto, Córdoba.      

5-     II Encuentro de Gramática Generativa.

6.-    Not so great titles for “The Great Gatsby”.

7.-    Seminario Internacional en Paraná, Entre Ríos.

8.-    Talk on Contrastive Analysis.

9.-    Changing Students´Attitudes : A Workshop.   

10.-   News from The Buenos Aires Players.

11.-   How many dogs does it take?

12.-   APIBA Special Interest Groups.

13.-   Storytelling in your School.

14.-   VenTESOL 2003.






Our dear SHARER Fernanda F. Fernandez Jankov from Sao Paolo,Brazil wants to SHARE with all of us this article with a personal reflection on how to teach our FL students to converse.    


Why can they speak and cannot talk?

by Fernanda F. Fernandez Jankov


This article was motivated by the result of a research carried on with the aim of getting to know, in terms of Learners' Belief System, what sort of skill was the most important for learners, regarding their feeling of mastering English as a second language.

Students were given the following question:

'What you expect to able to do by the end of your course that will make you feel that you really learned English? Grade the following options according to your order of preference (1 for the most important):


1. Read a current newspaper or magazine in English with full understanding

2. Have a conversation with a native-speaker of English with full understanding and expressing your ideas confidently

3. Watch a movie understanding characters and dialogues

4. Make a speech or an oral presentation within your professional area

5. Produce different sorts of writings as formal and informal letters, essays, articles.


The questionnaire was given to 100 students in the initial levels, adults, starting a vacation course.

The results were as follows: 62% of the students had number 2 as the most important goal, and 38% others.


Some conclusions could be made after a certain analysis:


1. People in general, when acquiring a second language, aim to be able to apply its linguistic code, mainly through oral interaction.

2. If learners are following this path in terms of shared beliefs and motivation, it is crucial for English teachers to build up a model for understanding the skills required for the implementations of such task, and possibly to find out ways of facilitating its acquisition .

In the beginning of the study understanding the skills required, and consequently which teaching techniques were to be applied, did not seem to offer much challenge, as it seemed to be just a matter of using some of the well-known concepts of Second Language Acquisition Theory, mainly regarding oral skills.


However, after a second look, what seemed to be the case was that the general concepts of Second Language Acquisition Theory tended to be limited. Teachers showed a tendency to focus on features of language analyzing samples of learners' language to provide evidence of what students know about the target language. They were often too worried about how learners build up their vocabulary, how learners' accent changes over time or how certain grammatical structures are acquired by learners.

Instead, in order to create a model as mentioned above it was necessary to look at the complex connections between the variations within a language and the matching variations in the social groups that use it.

Teaching students to carry on a conversation in English could be compared to Professor Higgins teaching Eliza Doolilttle in 'Pigmalion'. How did he know which parts of Eliza Doolittle's speech needed to be changed to make her pass to be accepted by English society?

The study of oral interactions requires the incorporation of a social angle into the study of L2 acquisition. The description of language proficiency requires attention to the social factors because of the greater complexity of the L2 learner's social context and the resulting increase in its capacity to cause variability.


The concern for sociolinguistics


Sociolinguistics is interested in the way members of a speech community can, and do, identify and respond to the fine differences in language usage that are associated, within a speech community, to the social, economic, political, religious, cultural or other divisions within the society. There is a common theme that emerges which is the interplay of language structure with social structure, what means that any user of language is constantly responding to and signaling social information.


Understanding the ethnography of speaking


Sociolinguists believe that the study of language must go beyond the sentences that are the principal focus of descriptive and theoretical linguistics. The focus of attention shifts from the sentence to the act of communication, the speech event.

Building on a model of communication first proposed by Roman Jakobson, Dell Hymes proposed that this model should provide the basis for an ethnography of speaking (also called ethnography of communication), which is an approach to the description of speech events that calls for an analysis of each of the relevant factors. They may be studied independently, but all are closely interrelated in forming the structure of the whole event. For each genre or kind of speech event, the factors are realized and related in appropriate ways.

The major value of the ethnography of speaking to sociolinguistics is in setting up an approach to language that goes far beyond the attempt to account for single written or spoken sentences. It widens the scope to include all aspects of the speech event. This provides invaluable tool in considering the structure of one of the commonest of speech events, the conversation, when two or more people speak to each other.


Understanding conversations


In the study of speech events the conversational interchange is considered as a unit, just like sentences, words and sounds for linguists. Applying the concept of conversational interchange as a unit of the spoken language, it is possible to build up a model (pattern) that would allow us to conclude that certain conversations tend to be rule-governed behavior, as it can be seen by observing certain formal and informal conversations ex. setting an appointment with the doctor, making a collect phone call, buying tickets for the movies or taking part in a job interview.

There is a great deal of culturally and socially determined variations in the possible choices within the patterns set out here. There are national differences in these rules. However, the important point is that there is a formal structure in conversations, in part determined by the nature of the event (until the answerer says something, the caller has no one to talk to), and in part determined by social rules (what it is appropriate to say to specific people in defined circumstances).

This analysis of the different conversations demonstrates the existence of socially structured rules for conversational interchanges. There have been studies of various aspects of conversation, such as the nature of service encounters (such as the bargaining process), the rules for turn-taking and interruption, the organization of invitations, the normal patterns of social intercourse in casual conversations.

In Turn-taking, the question of who speaks, is the most intriguing aspect of conversational interchange. If two people are speaking at once, they and others find it difficult to understand everything that is said. In informal conversations and informal meetings, the issue of turn-taking is often quite complex, depending on power and status. Who has the floor (the right to talk at any given moment) varies according to the rules of the social group. Once someone has the floor, it is possible to try to interrupt, but a speaker can ignore it.

Creating a model to teach 'sociolinguistic competence'

The study of the elements mentioned above, through the sociolinguistic point of view, allows us to understand what is needed in order to help our students master English with the feeling of achievement according to their Belief System.


What seems to be the case is that learners and teachers are very much concerned about the acquisition of the linguistic code and, when it comes to oral interactions, there is a high degree of frustration. Students are being trained in building an abstract model of language through inter-language. However, as 'conversations' are made of other elements such as speech events, conversational interchange, turn-taking and social intercourse, students tend to use them in oral interaction based on the model found in their mother-tongue, not in L2. This behavior causes a great deal of disappointment as learners seem not to be able to get and pass the appropriate 'message'.


Once we understand the elements and the skills required for successful oral interactions, the second step is to go to our language classes and consider our students as individuals with the strong need of communicating, waiting for us to give them the clues for fulfilling it. It might be the case of some revolution in standard aspects of teaching, like the importance of presentation based on a 'model sentence' that is supposedly a part of a context (usually a dialogue in initial levels) and therefore effective in providing 'real situations'.

As we introduce the context and go on to the model sentence, what is left of the so-called 'real situation' as students get desperate to get the new structure? How 'real' this situation is? For whom - for the author of the textbook or for the students? Based on which elements of students' lives?

The answer to these questions require thinking and working, outside and inside the classroom.



Fernanda F. Fernandez Jankov is the President of Yep! International and, with 12 years of teaching experience, is responsible for the development of YCTE (Yep! Certificate for Teachers of English) and for the application of the Oxford Examinations of English as a Foreign Language. She is graduated in law from USP and in classical ballet from Royal Academy of Dancing - London. She is a member of NAPENA (Núcleo de Apoio à Pesquisa em Estudos Norte-Americanos) - USP and is currently working on her MA on International Trade at USP.

Tel.: (011) 572-0277 e-mail:


1. Cook G. Discourse. Oxford University Press; 1989

2. Ellis R. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press; 1994

3. Gunn C. Testing Sociolingustic Competence. IATEFL Issues, 146: p 17-18; Dec 1998

4. Holmes J. An Introduction to Sociolingustics. Longman; 1992

5. Huntington SP. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Simon & Schuster; 1996

6. Spolsky B. Conditions for Second Language Learning. Oxford University Press, 3rd Ed; 1992

7. Tarone E, Yule G. Focus on the Language Learner. Oxford University Press; 1989


© 2003 by Fernanda F. Fernandez Jankov





The following is a reproduction of the book review by Ann Dowker published in The Human Nature Review 2003 Volume 3: 41-43 (19 January)



How Babies Think: The Science of Childhood by Alison Gopnik, Andrew Meltzoff and Patricia Kuhl

Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 (First published in the U.S.A. as: The Scientist in the Crib; William Morrow and Company, 1999)


Reviewed by Ann Dowker, Ph.D., Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.


"Most of us see a picture of innocence and helplessness: a clean slate. But, in fact, what we see in the crib is the greatest mind that has ever existed, the most powerful learning machine in the



This book is an account of, and an attempt to explain, babies' and toddlers' capacities and methods of learning about the world. The central themes may be summarized as follows:


(1) The human brain is like a computer, but a far more sophisticated and powerful one than has ever yet been designed or programmed by human beings.


(2) Human brains are extremely flexible, plastic and sensitive to environmental influences. We are born with a considerable amount of pre-existing knowledge, but more importantly, we have a remarkable ability to learn and adapt.


(3) There is no dichotomy between 'nature' and 'nurture'. "For human beings, nurture is our nature." Cultural adaptations are as much the product of our brains as the control of universal

physiological functions. Evolution has not only created babies with a remarkable ability to learn, but adults with a remarkable ability to teach their children.


(4) Other animals are born with a wider range of pre-existing adaptations to a specific type of environment; human beings are born with a greater capacity to develop adaptations to any of an

extremely wide variety of environments: both social and physical.


(5) The price paid by human beings for this greater adaptability is that we are more helpless at birth than most other animals, and undergo a much longer period of immaturity and need for support from parents and other adults.


(6) Despite this helplessness and dependence, infants are not just 'blank slates' to be written on by adults. They "think, observe and reason. They consider evidence, draw conclusions, do experiments, solve problems and search for the truth...even the youngest babies know a great deal about the world and actively work to find out more" (p. 13).


(7) The things that children need to learn about come into three broad categories: knowledge about people, knowledge about things, and knowledge about language.


The authors' discussion of development of knowledge in these areas can be summarized as follows:


Some knowledge about people seems to be present from the beginning: newborn babies look at the human face in preference to other objects, and imitate facial movements such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue. By a year, babies point to attract other people's attention to objects, and look at things to which other people point. This involves some understanding of attention and communication. Babies also seem aware of others' emotional

reactions and some of their implications: they will open a box that elicited a happy expression from their mother, but avoid one that elicited a disgusted expression. After 18 months, they become aware that others' desires may conflict with their own; their experiments' on this issue may be a factor in the rebellious behaviour of the 'terrible twos'. By four, they understand that others can have different beliefs from their own.


Babies are born with considerable knowledge about objects: they can match cross-modally between sight, hearing and touch; they can perceive and interpret movement and the third dimension. They do not, as [20]Piaget had thought, always think that objects cease to exist when out of sight. However, they do have trouble in understanding what happens when one object is hidden by another,and may consider that the hidden object is thereby obliterated.


From a very young age, they understand the basic principles of cause and effect, and realize that their own actions can influence external events. However, they can be confused about which causes produce which effects; and in particular may not differentiate between psychological and physical causality: they think that social signals such as smiling and cooing will influence the

behaviour of objects as well as people.


Young babies are in some ways better than adults at discriminating the sounds of language. They can distinguish between any two sounds which represent distinct phonemes in any of the world's languages.

Adults - and babies over about 10 months - can only make the distinctions that are relevant to their own language(s): e.g. American babies can no longer distinguish between the two Spanish

'b' sounds; and Japanese babies can no longer distinguish between English 'l' and 'r. They also show an early ability to distinguish between the intonation patterns of their own language and others.

In the second half of the second year, they experience the naming explosion, where they show a serious interest in the names of objects, and start rapidly mapping objects to their names. But not all early words are object names: important early words include requests (more!), references to success (there!) and failure (oh dear!), motion (up! down!), and disappearances (all gone!). Words are soon combined, heralding the beginnings of grammatical production. In the preschool years, children show a strong tendency to over-regularize the rules that they learn; e.g. saying childs for children.


The authors see important parallels between children and scientists: both work intensely and enthusiastically at gathering information and revising their theories in the light of new



Children´s learning is not merely a function of the brain: it leads to important modifications in the connections and networks within the brain. A newborn babys brain has almost the same number of neurons as an adult brain, but far fewer connections between these neurons. Through learning and experience, connections are increasingly established between the neurons: by the end of the first three years, the childs brain has twice as many neuronal connections as the adult brain. The number of connections then remains similar until the age of 9 or 10, when pruning begins.


Although this pruning appears to be necessary for the final stages of learning and development to occur, the authors speculate that perhaps we do lose something by it. They suggest that the Romantic view of childhood has some validity: when we had twice as many neuronal connections as we do now, perhaps we did experience the world more intensely, and see the world in a grain of sand and a heaven in a wild flower. However, they disagree with the Romantic view that a childlike sense of wonder is fundamentally opposed to scientific reasoning: in the view of the authors, scientists and poets resemble one another in their sense of wonder, and in the intense way in which they experience the world; and both groups share these characteristics with young children.


The book is one which will appeal considerably both to researchers in child development and to parents. It is interestingly and clearly written, and the theories about brain development, and the similarities between children and scientists, are very intriguing.

There are a few criticisms that could be made. Because the book is broad in its coverage, it does not cover all theories about child development, and there are places where it is not made entirely clear that a statement or viewpoint is still controversial: e.g. that there is as yet no consensus on the degree to which infants understand object permanence. The discussion in the last chapter about social policies and practices with regard to children and families could constitute a book in itself, and, in the opinion of the present reviewer, it might have been preferable either to omit or expand this section.


Despite this qualification, it is one of the best and most coherent recent books on early child development. I would strongly recommend it to anyone with an interest in this subject.


Dr. Dowker has interests in mathematical development and cognition; individual differences in cognition; language acquisition; language and play; cross-linguistic research; cognitive modularity; folk developmental psychology.




© 2003 by The Human Nature Review. 





Our dear SHARER Ana Maria Rocca, a teacher in the Department of Modern Languages at UBA sent us this invitation:


El Departamento de Lenguas Modernas de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires invita a participar en las IX Jornadas de Enseñanza de Idiomas Extranjeros en el Nivel Superior que se llevarán a cabo los días 17, 18 y 19 julio de 2003, en la sede de nuestra facultad.


Comité académico

Alemán:       Prof. J. Fischbein – Prof. G. Mársico - Francés: Prof. E Klett – Prof. M.Vidal

Inglés:        Prof. María Susana González – Prof. Laura Roseti

Italiano:       Prof. P.Riva – P. H. Biondi - Portugués:    Prof. R. Cormanich – Prof. C.Pasero


Comité organizador: María Claudia Albini, Alejandra Bariffi, Ana Delmas, María Ignacia Dorronzoro, Patricia Insirillo, Marta Lucas, Alejandra Nasser, Alicia Nerguizian, Ana Otero, Rosana Pasquale, Inés Regueira, Marco Antonio Rodriguez, Ana María Rocca.




·         Favorecer el diálogo entre docentes e investigadores de las diferentes lenguas extranjeras y segundas e instrumentar mecanismos de intercambios regulares entre dichos agentes.

·         Crear un espacio de reflexión y debate sobre políticas lingüísticas a nivel nacional y regional.

·         Promover la investigación en las diferentes áreas propuestas.

·         Propiciar la reflexión sobre un nuevo perfil de docente/investigador inserto en una realidad regional y nacional cambiante.

·         Implementar acciones conducentes a mejorar el posicionamiento de las lenguas extranjeras en el ámbito superior.


Destinatarios: alumnos, docentes e investigadores de lenguas extranjeras y segundas del nivel superior


Areas temáticas:

·         Los trabajos teóricos y de investigación se relacionarán con los siguientes temas:


La didáctica de las lenguas extranjeras y segundas

El lenguaje como objeto de análisis

La adquisición-aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras y segundas

Políticas lingüísticas

La dimensión cultural

La formación docente

La problemática de la traducción

La lectocomprensión y la comprensión aural



Conferencias plenarias. Estarán a cargo de especialistas nacionales e internacionales

Paneles. Estarán conformados por cuatro o cinco ponencias relacionadas con una de las áreas temáticas. El tiempo previsto para cada ponencia será de 15 minutos con el fin de dar lugar a debates de 30 minutos. Las ponencias no serán leídas y deberán ser presentadas en español por su(s) autor(es) únicamente. El plazo para presentación de ponencias venció el 30 de Noviembre de 2002.

Posters. Estarán reservados para la presentación de propuestas didácticas y experiencias áulicas



En una segunda circular enviaremos la ficha de inscripción, el monto de la misma y la cuenta a la que deberá enviarse el dinero.






Our dear SHARER Romina Picchio from Asociación Riocuartense de Profesores de Inglés (ARPI) sends us this announcement:



Teaching and Learning English in the 21st Century


Asociación Riocuartense de Profesores de Inglés (ARPI)

Departamento de Lenguas, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, UNRC.


June 6th and 7th, 2003

Centro Comercial Río Cuarto (CECIS) - Constitución 846 - Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina


This Annual Meeting will be a Regional Conference, organized by the Asociación Riocuartense de Profesores de Inglés (ARPI) and the Departamento de Lenguas, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto. It is hoped that it will serve as a multi-disciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on all topics related to Teaching and Learning English, such as:


- Grammar and vocabulary teaching

- Reading and aural comprehension

- The development of writing and speaking skills

- Strategies for EFL learning

- Literature and language teaching

- The integration of technology in the classroom

- English language and culture


- Applied linguistics

- Phonetics and Phonology teaching


Participants:  Primary, secondary and university teachers, from public and private schools and institutes are encouraged to participate with communications, posters, and/or panel presentations. Contributions will aim at sharing ideas for classroom practice (either past experiences or planned activities)


Preliminary program of activities: * Panels -  Speakers -  Papers -  Roundtables

* Interactive Sessions * Posters * Bookshop Showcases & Demonstrations


Registration fee: Members: ARPI Annual Fee: $20 - Non-members: $25

The fee can be paid either in Librería Blackpool or on the conference venue.


Editorial Guidelines:


Accepted papers will be published in the proceedings.

* Length of paper: 1.500 words.

* The paper should include the title, author/s, academic institution, e-mail address/es.

* Paper size A4 (210 x 297 mm). * Font: Times New Roman 11, single spacing.

* Margins: top and left margins at 3 cm, bottom and right margins at 2 cm.

* Do not number the pages.

* Headlines should be written in capital and small letters (e.g.: Teaching and Learning English).

* Quotes should be highlighted in italics or written between inverted commas.

* Bibliography must be written on a separate sheet following these criteria:


Books: Nunan, D. and C. Lamb. 1996. The Self-Directed Teacher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Articles: Underhill, A. 1989. Process in humanistic education. English Language Teaching Journal, 43, 250-256.


* The papers can be sent either by e-mail in RTF format to or can be handed in personally in Librería  Blackpool, General Paz y Vélez Sarsfield (Galería Río Cuarto).

* The e-mail with the attached paper should contain the title and the authors / s of the presentation. * Only the papers that respect the indicated format will be published.

Deadline for submitting proposals: April 30th  


For further information contact:

or Librería Blackpool: General Paz y Vélez Sarsfield - Tel. 0358- 4623662






Our SHARER Elena Ganazzoli has sent us this reminder:


II Encuentro de Gramática Generativa


Auspiciado por la ALFA (Asociación de Lingüística Formal de la Argentina), el Proyecto de

Investigación “Criterios generales para el análisis del error: descripción de errores sintácticos y

léxicos e hipótesis sobre su origen” y la Maestría en Lingüística (Universidad Nacional del



Como ya se ha anunciado en la primera circular, los días 7, 8 y 9 de agosto de 2003 se llevará a cabo en el I.E.S en Lenguas Vivas “Juan Ramón Fernández”, de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, el II Encuentro de Gramática Generativa.

El Encuentro constará de una mesa única (sin sesiones paralelas) y una serie de conferencias

plenarias. Entre los investigadores a los que se ha invitado a participar en el Encuentro en

calidad de plenaristas se cuentan Jorge Hankamer (University of California), Jairo Nunes

Universidade de Campinas) y Celia Jakubowicz (Université de Paris V – CNRS).


Áreas temáticas: fonología, morfología, sintaxis, léxico, semántica, interfaces (fonología-morfología, sintaxis-morfología, sintaxis-léxico, etc.), adquisición del lenguaje, filosofía del lenguaje.


El arancel de inscripción al encuentro es de $30 para todos los participantes, salvo los estudiantes de grado, que quedan exceptuados del pago. Se otorgarán certificados a los ponentes y a los asistentes.

Comité académico

Cristina Banfi (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba)

Eduardo Bibiloni (Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco)

Heles Contreras (University of Washington)

Marcela Depiante (Universidad Nacional del Comahue)

Angela Di Tullio (Universidad Nacional del Comahue)

Celia Jakubowicz (Université de Paris V – CNRS)

Pascual Masullo (University of Pittsburgh)

Nora Múgica (Universidad Nacional del Rosario)

Jairo Nunes (Universidade de Campinas)


Comisión Organizadora

Patricia Jacob (IES en Lenguas Vivas)

Marcela Depiante (U.N. del Comahue)

Laura Kornfeld (CONICET/ Universidad de Buenos Aires)

Silvia Iummato (IES en Lenguas Vivas)

Moira Alvarez (CONICET/ Universidad de Buenos Aires)

Julieta Barba (IES en Lenguas Vivas/ Universidad de Buenos Aires)

Lucía Brandani (CONICET/ Universidad de Buenos Aires)

Carolina Fraga (IES en Lenguas Vivas)

Mercedes Valerga (ISP Joaquín V. González)

Elena Ganazzoli (Universidad Nacional de La Plata)

Cecilia Pfister (ISP Joaquín V. González)


Informes: Para mayor información, escribir a:    





Our dear friends and SHARERS from Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Rosario have sent us this update of their forthcoming activities:


Not So Great Gatsby Titles

by Steve King

On 19th  March 1924, F. Scott Fitzgerald enthusiastically wired his editor, Max Perkins, from Paris to tell him that he had finally found a title for his new novel: "CRAZY ABOUT TITLE “UNDER THE RED WHITE AND BLUE...." Already abandoned titles had included "The High Bouncing Lover," "Among the Ash Heaps," and most recently, "Trimalchio." Not as crazy as her husband about these, Zelda (and Perkins) eventually talked him into The Great Gatsby.

A late-draft version of the novel was published in 2000 under the "Trimalchio" title. Fitzgerald was borrowing here from a character by that name in the first-century Roman story, Satyricon, thought to be written by Petronius. As "director of pleasures" for Nero's imperial court, Petronius would have had dealings with people of Trimalchio's status and style -- rich and vulgar social climbers who enjoy playing host to an endless supply of party-goers and parasites. After being carried in to dinner by his slaves, Petronius's Trimalchio likes to recline on cushions, clean his teeth with a silver tooth pick, drink "Opimian Falernia, one hundred years old," and expand:

Just a hut once, you know---now a regular temple! It has four dining rooms, twenty bedrooms, two marble porticoes, a set of cells upstairs, my own bedroom, a sitting room for this viper (my wife!) here, a very fine porter's room, and it holds guests to any amount. There are a lot of other things too that I'll show you by and by. Take my word for it, if you have a penny you're worth a penny, you are valued for just what you have. Yesterday your friend was a frog, he's a king today---that's the way it goes."


"Under the Red, White and Blue" would have at least suggested the decline and fall of a later empire, but by any name the book did not sell when it came out in 1925. In 1927, Fitzgerald received only $153 in royalties; two years after that only $32; by the last year of his life, 1940, second-printing copies of Gatsby were still unsold, and all his books brought in only $13.13.

The critical reaction was mixed, many of the more literary publications tending to the 'modern classic' view, many in the popular press finding it "decidedly contemporary: today it is here, tomorrow--well, there will be no tomorrow. It is only as permanent as a newspaper story, and as on the surface."
Gertrude Stein's letter to Fitzgerald shows her going her usual, uncategorizeable way:

Here we are and have read your book and it is a good book. I like the melody of your dedication ["Once again to Zelda"] it shows that you have a background of beauty and tenderness and that is a comfort. The next good thing is that you write naturally in sentences and that too is a comfort. You write naturally in sentences and one can read all of them and that among other things is a comfort. . . . You make a modern world and a modern orgy strangely enough it never was done until you did it in This Side of Paradise. My belief in This Side of Paradise was alright. This is as good a book and different and older and that is what one does, one does not get better but different and older and that is always a pleasure. . . .


© Copyright 2000-2003. Today in Literature. All rights reserved.






Our dear SHARER Estela Gambelín from Eccleston College, Paraná has sent us this invitation:


Seminario Internacional para profesores de Inglés “Creative Teaching”


La Universidad Estatal de San Diego, California, Estados Unidos (San Diego State University) junto a American English Institute y a Sarah Eccleston College (Profesorado Superior de Inglés), con quienes mantiene convenios, llevará a cabo un Seminario para profesores de Inglés.

Dicho Seminario dictado totalmente en inglés, se desarrollará el próximo 9 y 10 de mayo, en Salón California, de las mencionadas instituciones educativas.


Disertantes y Temáticas:


La autora del libro “Rhymes and Fingerplays”, Patricia Gómez, tendrá a su cargo tres presentaciones dirigidas fundamentalmente a la enseñanza del inglés en Nivel Inicial y EGB.

El profesor Oriel Villagarcía, quien tendrá a su cargo dos sesiones de actualización idiomática. El profesor Oriel Villagarcía, fue recientemente consultor del nuevo Diccionario publicado por Macmillan.

La profesora Estela Gambelín, Directora de American English Institute y Rectora del Sarah Eccleston College, abordará el tema que relaciona la programación neurolingüística y la estimulación cerebral, especialmente en niños de Nivel Inicial y EGB.

Las Profesoras Juliana Sarlo y Marilú Pulido, abordarán las temáticas: cómo  estimular expresiones escritas en alumnos de inglés en forma amena y correcta; y también la influencia que tiene la música en el desarrollo cerebral y su impacto en el proceso de aprendizaje.


Este Seminario cuenta con el Reconocimiento de la Dirección de Cultura Municipal y  certificados finales por San Diego State University,Estados Unidos.


Para mayores informes e inscripción dirigirse a Belgrano 179, o por tel. 0343-4315018 – 0343-4217311, o por e-mail:  o






Our dear SHARER and friend Martha Ortigueira has an announcement to make:  


9 de mayo: Charla Gratuita en inglés en la Universidad Católica Argentina en Puerto Madero

“Contrastive Analysis: Turning Theory into Practice”

by Dr. Héctor Valencia
Profesor de Inglés graduado de la UCA y Doctor en Lenguas Modernas por la Universidad del Salvador. Director del Doctorado en Lenguas Modernas del Salvador y  Director de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas. Coordinador de los cursos de español para extranjeros y asesor del Rectorado. Profesor Titular de Fonética y Dicción I y II, de Dicción, de Estructuras Comparadas y de Lingüística de la UCA . Coordinador del Área Lingüística.
Dirigido a estudiantes del Profesorado y Traductorado de Inglés y a Profesores y Traductores Graduados.
Fecha y Horario: Viernes 9 de Mayo de 14 a 16 hs.
Cupos limitados. Se deber realizar la inscripción previamente por mail a        o por teléfono  al 4338-0775.




Our dear SHARER Pierre Stapley has sent us this invitation:

ELT Clinics was formed as a result of having taught for a good number of years, observed
numerous classes, held heated conversations in many staff rooms and conducted educational
research. Graciela, Clarisa and Sandy, with more than 40 years ELT experience between them,
an MA in Education & Professional Development from a UK University and a Postgraduate in School Administration , have found themselves  engaged in spontaneous, though never-ending, discussions on teaching and learning issues. Their common goal has always been minimizing teachers' efforts while maximizing learners' success.

A Workshop on: Changing The Student’s Attitude Towards Learning English
(with Graciela Castelli, Sandra Marmora & Clarisa Remy)

AIM: The aim of the workshop is to share activities that will foster CONFIDENCE in the use of L2 in order to ensure students' MOTIVATION through finding PLEASURE in learning  while accepting the CHALLENGE of problem-solving. The development of the above-mentioned objectives will help students develop a different ATTITUDE towards learning a foreign language.

PROCEDURE:  Workshop modality.  Theory through practice approach. Inter-actional approach.
Loop input. Observing. Diagnosing. Awareness raising.

EXPECTED AUDIENCE: Teachers of English as a foreign language who are keen on motivating
their students of all ages to learn more, and more easily through an eclectic approach to
teaching which will be both challenging and pleasurable to students.

CONTENTS:  A different class planning. Selection and order of activities. Rationale for each
activity and procedure. A bagful of ideas and tips.

Date:                  Saturday 17th May 2003
Times:                 9:00 to 12:30
Venue:                Paraguay 1186, Rosario
Registration:          Graciela Castelli -
Fee:                   $15,00





Our dear SHARER and friend Celia Zubiri writes to us:



PREVIEW> May, 10th > 11 Am - duration: 40 minutes . For children aged 3 to 5

Teatro Santamaría > Montevideo 842

Please, confirm your attendance - (011) 4812-5307 / 4814-5455  or  



Moppy, a very sweet Martian, is trying to learn English, here on planet Earth. Susan, a very intelligent girl, tries to help him and they have great fun together. Felicity, Susan's cat, joins them. Suddenly another Martian, Eaterall, arrives from Mars so as to have fun too but there is a big problem: Eaterall eats everything and his favourite meals are pencils and cats! What can Moppy do to save Felicity? Children beware of Eaterall and put away your pencils!


Puppets have always been a great attraction for small children. They stimulate their concentration, fantasy and imagination. When kids watch a puppet-show they generally have fun, try to interact with the characters, want to reproduce what they heard and saw by using their own puppets and sometimes feel the need to create their own stories. In a few words, this activity is motivating, educational, amusing, magical and theatrical.

If the puppet-show is in English for Spanish-speaking children we are adding some more virtues to this activity: listening-comprehension and meaningful communication in the second language they are trying to acquire. Thus, we decided to offer schools the possibility to have on their premises and at our headquarters a professional puppet-show in English for small children.







Our dear SHARER Teresa D´Amico from La Pampa has sent us this contribution. Let us this be our homage to Animal´s Day (April 29th) and to our dear old Doberman Ernie who has made the last 12 years of our life a little bit better by being by our side (and who´s also slept on the couch most of that time!).



How many dogs does it take to change a light bulb?

Golden Retriever: The sun is shining, the day is young, we've got our whole lives ahead of us, and you're inside worrying about a stupid burned out bulb?

Border Collie: Just one. And then I'll replace any wiring that's not up to code.

Dachshund: You know I can't reach that stupid lamp!

Rottweiler: Make me.

Labrador: Oh, me, me!!!! Pleeeeeeze let me change the light bulb! Can I? Can I? Huh? Huh? Huh? Can I?

German Shepherd: I'll change it as soon as I've led these people from the dark, check to make sure I haven't missed any, and make just one more perimeter patrol to see that no one has tried to take advantage of the situation.

Tibetian Terrier: Let the Border Collie do it. You can feed me while he's busy. !

Jack Russell Terrier: I'll just pop it in while I'm bouncing off the walls and furniture.
Poodle: I'll just blow in the Border Collie's ear and he'll do it. By the time he finishes rewiring the house, my nails will be dry.

Cocker Spaniel: Why change it? I can still pee on the carpet in the dark.

Doberman: While it's dark, I'm going to sleep on the couch.

Boxer: Who cares? I can still play with my squeaky toys in the dark......

Irish Wolfhound: Can somebody else do it? I've got this hangover.....

Pointer: I see it, there it is, there it is, right there....

Greyhound: It isn't moving. Who cares?

Australian Shepherd: First, I'll put all the light bulbs in a little circle...

Old English Sheep Dog: Light bulb? I'm sorry, but I don't see a light bulb?

Hound Dog: ZZZZZZzzzzz.z.z.z..z..z..z...z

Cats: Dogs do not change light bulbs. People change light bulbs. So, the question is: How long will it be before I can expect light?

All of which proves, once again, that while dogs have masters, cats have staff...





Our dear SHARER Alejandra Jorge, APIBA SIGs Co-Liaison Officer wants to invite all SHARERS to the following activities:

Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Buenos Aires (APIBA) is pleased to announce the timetable of the second SIG meetings to take place in 2003.


*Applied Linguistics SIG*

Coordinators: Martha Crespo - Sandra Revale

Date: Saturday, May 17th, 2003 -- Time: 10.00 – 12.00

Venue: Liceo Cultural Británico, Corrientes 5305 (y Malabia), Buenos Aires

Agenda: Discussion of chapters 7, 8 and 10 from Affect in Language Teaching.

Copies at ISP J. V. González (1st floor).


*Business SIG*

Coordinators: Marisa Bilbao- María Laura Speziali

Date: Wednesday, May 7th, 2003 -- Time: 10 - 12

Venue: Asociación de Ex-alumnos del Lenguas Vivas “J. R. Fernández”, Paraguay 1935, Bs As Agenda: 1. Election of new coordinators,  2 Oilwatch (discussion led by M.Laura Speziali).


*Computers SIG*

Coordinators: Nora Lizenberg - Mónica Pastorino

Date: Saturday, May 3rd, 2003 -- Time: 10 - 12

Venue: Liceo Cultural Británico, Callao 362, Buenos Aires

Agenda: 1. Election of coordinators. 2. Internet without connection: how to work with frozen pages. Useful ideas for the classroom. 3. How to plan your virtual lesson


*Language SIG*

Coordinators:  Myriam Sosa Belenky – Graciela Torres

Date: Saturday, May 24th, 2003 -- Time: 9.00 (just this once) – 12.30

Venue: Cultural Inglesa de Buenos Aires (CIBA). Viamonte 1745.

Agenda: 1. How-do-you-say spot? (09:00 – 09:10) 2. Vocabulary related to war: Video Presentation by  Julieta Lorenzetti & Romina Arena. 3. Classroom expressions. Presentation by Viviana Myslicki.


*Phonology SIG*

Coordinators:  María Valentina Roldán - María Isabel Santa 

Date:  Saturday, May 24th, 2003 -- Time:  10.30 (just this once) – 1.00 P.M.

Venue: Cultural Inglesa de Buenos Aires (CIBA). Viamonte 1745.

Agenda: 1. Decisions on topics to be dealt with during 2003: * Theoretical approach. * Which model to teach, * How to help adults improve their oral production. * Activities to improve our own production. * Voice care. * Decoding. * Intonation of classroom expressions


*Literature – Cultural Studies SIG*

Coordinators: Valeria Artigue – Susana Groisman.

Date: Thursday, May 10th, 2003 -- Time: 2.00 – 4.00 PM

Venue: AB School of English. Av. Montes de Oca 340, Buenos Aires.

Agenda: 1. Classic colonial poets v. Post-colonial poets. 2. Analysis and discussion of Kipling's "Christmas in India " and Zephaniah's poems.


*Professional Development SIG* (Pilar, Prov. of BA)

Coordinators: Silvia Caporale - Gabriela Domínguez 

Date: Saturday, May 15thth, 2002 -- Time: 4.00 PM

Venue: Wellspring School – Km 42.5. Las Camelias  3883- Del Viso, Prov. of B.A.    

Agenda: 1. Election of coordinators 2. Discussion on topics to be dealt with during 2003.


*SLT (Second Language Teaching) SIG* (Lomas de Zamora, Prov. of BA)

Coordinators: Mónica Gandolfo - Silvia Rettaroli

Date: Saturday, June 21st, 2003 -- Time: 10 - 12

Venue: ISP "Presbitero A. Saenz", Calle Saenz 740, Lomas de Zamora, Prov. of B.A.

Agenda: a) L2 adult learners: why do they fail to acquire the morphology of the TL accurately. b) Classroom management. Each of the SIG members will carry out a mini action research project and next meeting they will share the results with the rest of the participants.


*SLT (Second Language Teaching) SIG* (Bernal, Prov. of BA)

Coordinators: Mónica Gandolfo - Silvia Rettaroli

Date: Saturday, May 24th, 2002 -- Time: 10 - 12

Venue: EGB 18 (ISFD No. 24, Dr Bernardo Houssay), Avellaneda 177, Bernal, Prov. of B.A.

Agenda: 1) Diagnostic tools, especially geared to the detection of “needs” and or views on the learning of EFL. 2) Materials Development as part of an Institutional Project for ELT.


For further information contact : APIBA SIGs   






Our dear SHARER Ximena Faralla has sent us this information:


On the Road Theatre Company

Storytelling for all ages at your School!


Kindergarten: Beauty and the Beast

The classic tale in a 25 minute enacted session. Six characters played by two actors. Music, songs and a lively scenery provide youngsters with an easy to follow storytelling session which leaves a moral to work on as well as triggering interest in book reading.



Primary School: Red Riding Hood and her Robin

-the story of Little Red Riding Hood & Robin Hood- A twist which joins two classic tales such as these ones, arousing children´s interest in classics and triggering their imagination to any other possible combination. 25 minutes of an active enacted storytelling session.



The Haunted House -a Halloween story-  When Nick & Veronica decide to enter the Haunted House several revolting surprises were awaiting them. A 25 minute long enacted story with simple vocabularies and spooky realia.



Secondary School: The Fall of the House of Usher - "On the Road" brings Edgar Allan Poe´s short story down to a 30 minute session in which the main characters have become narrators of their tragic and fatal story.



The Pit & the Pendulum

A darkened room. The Spanish Inquisition. Edgar Allan Poe´s famous short story retold by its survivor and his feelings. A 30 minute modern theatre stage version for advanced learners of the language.



Further information:  4568-7125.



14.-   VENTESOL 2003

VenTESOL Annual event, Caracas, Venezuela May 2003.

From the Venezuela TESOL (VenTESOL) Executive Board:
VenTESOL will hold an Annual one-day event on May 31st, 2003 at the Universidad Metropolitana, Caracas, Venezuela. We expect to have a Plenary and several presentations
through the day. The event eagerly looked forward to and attended by most of our members will include a publishers' exhibition and sale of ELT materials.

For more information please check for updates at
Padmini Sankaran -Communications Coordinator.


Today we want to say goodbye with one of the most beautiful Easter greetings we have ever received. This one was from one of our dear SHARERS, Maria Rosa Ghione. It is also our way to say thank you to all the SHARERS who have sent us their greetings and to wish you all you can go on living the Easter spirit of Resurrection all through the year.

Gracias por estar siempre ahí....
.......vivir sirviendo......
.......vivir amando.........
que ésta haya sido la mejor PASCUA de vuestras vidas.
María Rosa Ghione


Omar and Marina.


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