An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©


Year 4                    Number 102               April 17th 2003


           4900 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week


Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED





Gee! Isn´t it great getting up late for a change? Isn´t it a special treat having breakfast with the family without a care in the world: chatting and laughing, laughing and chatting. Even Ernie who oversleeps every day seems to be enjoying this breakfast especially. Martin says he might get his tail cut off if he keeps on wagging it this hard. Funny! My father used to say the same about the many dogs we had at home when we were children __I remember “Fiel” (for “faithful”)__ in particular.

We are really enjoying this holy day in the family and we hope you are doing so too. A healthy family life, in this confused and cruel world that we are living in, is perhaps our small but important tribute to God and a way of soothing the pain he endured for us and which is re-lived today in the unfortunate many that are suffering hunger, destitution, discrimination or the devastating horrors of war in our time.  



Omar and Marina




In SHARE 102


1.-    The Non-Native Teacher of English.

2.-    How the brain processes emotional speech.

3.-    ARTESOL Convention makes a difference. 

4.-    Internet Reading-based Material in the Classroom (part 3).      

5-     International Conference in Arica, Chile

6.-    Good News from APrIR.

7.-    Third Issue of “Lenguas Vivas” Magazine.

8.-    The London Tests Website. 

9.-    Invitation from Academia Nacional de Educación.   

10.-   Feria del Libro: Justificación de Inasistencias.

11.-   Courses for Translators.

12.-   Course on Distance Learning.






Our dear SHARER Valeria Lopreste from Florida, Pcia de Buenos Aires, has sent us this article which, in spite of the fact of being in partly focused on the USA scene, will, no doubt, contribute to throw some light on this frequently debated issue.



Nonnative-English-Speaking Teachers in the English Teaching Profession


By Rosie Maum, JCPS Adult and Continuing Education


In the field of English language teaching (ELT), a growing number of teachers are not native speakers of English. Some learned English as children; others learned it as adults. Some learned it prior to coming to the United States; others learned it after their arrival. Some studied English in formal academic settings; others learned it through informal immersion after arriving in this country. Some speak British, Australian, Indian, or other varieties of English; others speak Standard American English. For some, English is their third or fourth language; for others, it is the only language other than their mother tongue that they have learned.

The strengths of these individuals as ESL teachers are still somewhat unknown and are often underestimated by their colleagues and students. This digest describes the contributions that these educators make to the ELT field, some of the challenges they face as teaching professionals, and ways in which these challenges are being addressed.


Status of the Nonnative-English-Speaking Teacher


The term nonnative-English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) has created a division among professionals in the ELT profession. Supporters of the term believe that it is necessary to distinguish between native- and nonnative-English-speaking teachers because their differences are, in fact, their strengths and should be recognized. Those who oppose the dichotomy feel that differentiating among teachers based on their status as native or nonnative speakers perpetuates the dominance of the native speaker in the ELT profession and contributes to discrimination in hiring practices.


Native English speakers without teaching qualifications are more likely to be hired as ESL teachers than qualified and experienced NNESTs, especially outside the United States (Amin, 2000; Braine, 1999; Canagarajah, 1999; Rampton, 1996). But many in the profession argue that teaching credentials should be required of all English teachers, regardless of their native language (Nayar, 1994; Phillipson, 1996). This would shift the emphasis in hiring from who the job candidates are (i.e., native or nonnative speakers of English) to what they are (i.e., qualified English teachers) and allow for more democratic employment practices.

Phillipson (1996) uses the phrase "the native speaker fallacy" to refer to unfair treatment of qualified NNESTs. The term was coined as a reaction to the tenet created at the 1961 Commonwealth Conference on the Teaching of English as a Second Language in Makarere, Uganda, which stated that the ideal teacher of English is a native speaker. There is no doubt that native speakers of a language have a feel for its nuances, are comfortable using its idiomatic expressions, and speak it fluently. However, the Makarere tenet is flawed: People do not become qualified to teach English merely because it is their mother tongue, and much of the knowledge that native speakers bring intrinsically to the ESL classroom can be learned by NNESTs through teacher training. Phillipson (1996), for example, points out that nonnative speakers can learn to use idioms appropriately, to appreciate the cultural connotations of the language, and to determine whether a given language form is correct. In addition, there are many ways in which nonnative teachers are at an advantage in teaching English.



Strengths of NNESTs


Phillipson (1996) considers NNESTs to be potentially the ideal ESL teachers because they have gone through the process of acquiring English as an additional language. They have first-hand experience in learning and using a second language, and their personal experience has sensitized them to the linguistic and cultural needs of their students. Many NNESTs, especially those who have the same first language as their students, have developed a keen awareness of the differences between English and their students' mother tongue. This sensitivity gives them the ability to anticipate their students' linguistic problems.

Medgyes (1996) conducted a survey of native-English-speaking teachers and NNESTs working in 10 countries to determine their success in teaching English. He concluded that the two groups had an equal chance of success as English teachers and that the only area in which the NNESTs seemed to be less qualified-English language proficiency-was also one that gave them a certain advantage over native speakers. As compared to their native-English-speaking colleagues who can be good language models for their students, Medgyes (1996) concluded that NNESTs can be good learner models, having gone through the experience of learning English as a second (or third or fourth) language. They have had to adopt language-learning strategies during their own learning process, most likely making them better qualified to teach those strategies and more empathetic to their students' linguistic challenges and needs.


Challenges for NNESTs


The native speaker fallacy has created a number of challenges with which NNESTs must contend in the workplace and in their daily lives. Although the majority of English teachers in the world are not native speakers of English (Matsuda & Matsuda, 2001), NNESTs struggle for equal treatment in the ELT profession. They face a number of challenges, including those related to accent and credibility in the workplace.




The issue of accent has often been the cause of employment discrimination practices in ESL programs in the United States and other countries. Lippi-Green (1997) found that teachers with nonnative accents were perceived as less qualified and less effective and were compared unfavorably with their native-English-speaking colleagues. Other researchers (Canagarajah, 1999; Thomas, 1999) also found that native speakers of various international varieties of English, such as Indian or Singapore English, were considered less credible and less competent teachers than those who come from what Kachru (1985) defines as "countries of the Inner Circle" (i.e., Great Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand). Lippi-Green (1997) refers to this questioning of teachers' ability and credibility based on their accent as a form of linguistic discrimination.


Credibility in the Workplace


Issues of teacher credibility are encountered by many NNESTs in the classroom, where even students are influenced by the inevitable trickle-down effect of the native speaker fallacy. Some NNESTs have reported that many of their students resented being taught by a nonnative speaker until they were able to prove that they could be as effective as a native-English-speaking teacher. In reality, speakers of more than one language have both a sophisticated awareness of language and the ability to relate to students' needs (Canagarajah, 1996; Phillipson, 1992). Teachers who share the same language and cultural background as their students have an even greater advantage: Auerbach, Barahona, Midy, Vaquerano, Zambrano, and Arnaud (1996) found that they displayed an acute sensitivity to their students' needs and were better able to develop an effective curriculum and pedagogy.

In the English teaching profession, native English speakers grapple primarily with establishing their professional identities as ESL teachers, while NNESTs often have the added pressure of asserting themselves in the profession as competent English speakers. Kamhi-Stein (2002) claims that NNESTs' self-identification as teachers, immigrants, and language learners profoundly affects how they construct their classrooms and their instruction. She found that NNESTs draw on the commonalities among linguistic and ethnic groups represented in the class as a means to collaborate and create a community of learners; use instructional materials developed in countries outside the inner circle to offer a variety of perspectives; and use teachers' and students' experiences as immigrants and second language learners as sources of knowledge.




Despite their many challenges, NNESTs are beginning to see themselves and to be viewed by others as equal partners in the ELT profession, both in the institutions where they teach and within the professional organizations that represent them. In 1998, TESOL, an international professional association that represents teachers of English to speakers of other languages, approved the formation of the NNEST Caucus. (In this context, NNEST stands for nonnative English speakers in TESOL.) This recognition has given nonnative teachers more visibility in the profession and has helped create a professional environment for all TESOL members, regardless of native language and place of birth (NNEST Caucus Web site, n.d.).

In the last few years, universities in the United States have seen a large influx of NNESTs into their masters-level TESOL programs (Matsuda, 1999). In order to meet the needs of these students, some programs have begun to include issues of concern and interest to NNESTs in the curriculum. A major advantage to this approach is that it gives NNESTs a voice in their program and provides opportunities for native and nonnative English speakers to learn from each other (Kamhi-Stein, Lee, & Lee, 1999).

At some universities, native- and nonnative-English-speaking teachers collaborate with each other, focusing on and sharing their particular strengths. Matsuda and Matsuda (2001) describe a study conducted with two native- and two nonnative-English-speaking graduate teaching assistants who were teaching a composition course for first-year ESL students while taking a practicum course on teaching ESL writing. They shared online journal entries to address various teaching issues-discussing problems in second language writing, reflecting on their own development and teaching practices, sharing teaching ideas and information, and providing moral support for each other. By sharing their strengths and insights from their various linguistic, cultural, and educational backgrounds, the graduate students found that they benefited and grew professionally both as individuals and as a group.




Qualified and trained NNESTs can contribute in meaningful ways to the field of English language education by virtue of their own experiences as English language learners and their training and experience as teachers. Recent efforts, including research addressing the native speaker fallacy, the formation of the NNEST Caucus in TESOL, the development of innovative curricula in teacher training programs, and collaborative efforts between native- and nonnative-English-speaking teachers are helping to give NNESTs a voice in their profession and to recognize their position as equal partners in the field of English language teaching.

Note: To learn more about NNEST issues, visit the NNEST Caucus Web site at


Amin, N. (2000). Negotiating nativism: Minority immigrant women ESL teachers and the native speaker construct (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Canada, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, A 4579.

Auerbach, E., Barahona, B., Midy, J., Vaquerano, F., Zambrano, A., & Arnaud, J. (1996). Adult ESL/literacy from the community to the community: A guidebook for participatory literacy training. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Braine, G. (Ed.) (1999). Non-native educators in English language teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Canagarajah, S. (1999). Interrogating the "native speaker fallacy": Non-linguistic roots, non-pedagogical results. In G. Braine (Ed.), Non-native educators in English language teaching (pp. 77-92). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kachru, B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk & H. G. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literature (pp. 11-30). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Kamhi-Stein, L. (2002, April). The construction of a nonnative English speaker's classroom: Insights from a diary study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Salt Lake City.

Kamhi-Stein, L., Lee, E., & Lee, C. (1999). How TESOL programs can enhance the preparation of nonnative English speakers. TESOL Matters, 9(4), 1, 5.

Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with an accent. Language, ideology, and discrimination in the United States. New York: Routledge.

Matsuda, A., & Matsuda, P. K. (2001). Autonomy and collaboration in teacher education: Journal sharing among native and nonnative English-speaking teachers. The CATESOL Journal, 13(1), 109-121.

Matsuda, P. (1999). Teacher development through NS/NNS collaboration. TESOL Matters, 9(6), 1, 10.

Medgyes, P. (1996). Native or non-native: Who's worth more? In T. Hedge & N. Whitney (Eds.), Power, pedagogy & practice (pp. 31-42). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nayar, P. B. (1994). Whose English is it? TESL-EJ, 1(1), F-1. Retrieved April 28, 2002, from

NNEST Caucus Website. Caucus Goals. (n.d.). Retrieved November 25, 2002, from

Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Phillipson, R. (1996). ELT: The native speaker's burden. In T. Hedge & N. Whitney (Eds.), Power, pedagogy & practice (pp. 23-30). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rampton, M. B. H. (1996). Displacing the "native speaker": Expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. In T. Hedge & N. Whitney (Eds.), Power, pedagogy & practice (pp. 9-22). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thomas, J. (1999). Voices from the periphery: Non-native teachers and issues of credibility. In G. Braine (Ed.), Non-native educators in English language teaching (pp. 5-13). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.



© 2002 by ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics





Our dear SHARER Jorgelina Rojas Huarte from Santa Cruz, Argentina wants to SHARE this article with all of us:


Both halves of brain process emotional speech

By E. Benson

Monitor on Psychology - APA online

Volume 34, No. 4 April 2003


Both halves of the brain are involved in understanding emotional speech, with the left side focusing on "what" and the right sight focusing on "how," according to a recent study in Neuropsychology (Vol. 17, No. 1).

Psychologist Guy Vingerhoets, PhD, and his collaborators at Ghent University in Belgium used a technique called functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (fTCD), a form of ultrasound, to measure brain activity. Compared with other brain-imaging methods, fTCD is noninvasive (no radioactive tracers or X-rays are used), inexpensive and easy to administer. Its main limitation is its very low spatial resolution.

Thirty-six right-handed, Dutch-speaking students and hospital staff participated in the study. They listened to recordings of actors pronouncing sentences with happy, sad, angry, fearful and neutral meanings using tones of voice that were either neutral or emotional. When the actors' meaning and tone of voice signaled different emotions--for example, when the sentence, "The little girl lost both her parents," was spoken in a happy tone--participants were asked to pay attention to either the meaning or the tone.

Vingerhoets and his collaborators found that the left side of the brain was equally active whether participants paid attention to meaning or tone, but the right side was more active when they paid attention to tone. Activity on both sides of the brain increased most when the meaning and tone were in conflict.

The results suggest the right side of the brain is important for processing emotional tone, or prosody, while the left side is important for processing emotional meaning, or semantics. Previous studies have come to similar conclusions, but this one adds to those findings by showing that the left-right difference is robust enough to be detected even by fTCD, a relatively insensitive measure of brain activity.

The left half may be equally active in both conditions because the semantics of an utterance are processed automatically, notes Vingerhoets. "Even if you pay attention to the 'how' information," he says, "you can't help hearing the semantic content, the 'what' of the message. We do this all the time; we're trained in it."

© American Psychological Association






Our dear friend and SHARER and our fairy godmother Elida Messina have sent us all this invitation:


17TH ARTESOL Convention


June 28 – 29, 2003

Universidad del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires   

Tandil, Provincia de Buenos Aires – Argentina.


“Despite ethnic discrimination and economic problems that were the lot of Sicilian immigrants to the United States, I was able to enter college and become a teacher.  Many people ask me how that was possible.  My answer is always, “ Well, you see, I had a marvelous teacher once who inspired me to continue my education..”   I hope that when some famous countryman is asked that question, s/he will be thinking of you as one who inspired, loved and respected your students, thus making their personal success possible and your cherished country a prouder, richer nation.”

                             Mary Finocchiaro, 1988



Dear Colleague,


Argentina TESOL (ARTESOL) is pleased to announce the 17th ARTESOL Convention, to be held on June 28 - 29, 2003 at Universidad del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Tandil, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA. The ARTESOL Convention is open to all members of the English Language Teaching community.


Argentina TESOL is an affiliate of a worldwide association of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, TESOL, whose mission is to improve the teaching of English all over the world. TESOL and its 90 affiliates provide information and counsel on the latest pedagogical advances for the acquisition of the English language through courses, seminars, conferences, publications, and study-trips.



Other professional activities during the Convention include plenaries, concurrent sessions, and exhibition of the latest publications in ELT. If you would like to be a presenter at the Convention, please complete the attached Call for Participation -Proposal Form and either fax it or email it to ARTESOL by May 31st, 2003. Fax #: 011 5382-1537 E-mail:



The 17th ARTESOL Convention is an excellent opportunity for EFL teachers throughout the country to gain insight into the state of the art of our profession on a national basis. Therefore we ask you all to help us make this event as enlightening and fruitful as possible.

Let’s all meet in Tandil,


Warmest wishes,


Vivian Morghen

ARTESOL President


The ARTESOL Organizing Committee will send you information on transportation and special convention hotel rates.


You will be able to find The Call for Papers and registration form in SHARE´s Website : as from next Monday 21st April.



The Keynote Speaker at the Convention this year will be Dr. Dianne Larsen-Freeman Ph.D.-University of Michigan.


Dianne Larsen-Freeman holds a doctorate in linguistics. Associated with SIT faculty since 1978, she teaches courses in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. She has authored many publications on discourse analysis, English grammar, language teaching methodology, and second language acquisition research, and is the series director for Grammar Dimensions, a grammar  series for ESL/EFL students.Former member of the national English Teaching Advisory board of the USIA. She currently serves as professor and director of the English language Institute at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.







The following is the third and last part of the article that our dear SHARER from Canada, Professor Rosalyn Mundani sent us. Find parts 1 and 2 in SHARE 99 and 101 respectively.



Integrating Internet-based reading materials into the foreign language curriculum:

From teacher –to student-centered approaches.


By Klaus Brandl - University of Washington




In the section above, I have provided a pedagogical rationale of three different approaches to using an online environment to explore Internet-based resources. I have discussed pedagogical issues such as the degree of teacher-centeredness, learner control of contents and learning processes, level of proficiency, the scope of Internet resources, and text types that need to guide the design of Internet-based reading lessons and task design (see Table 1 for overview). In the next section, I will conclude with a set of guidelines summarizing those pedagogical and instructional design issues that need to be considered during the planning and development process of any of the three approaches to lesson design.


Teacher-Centered Approaches


This section provides a set of guidelines pointing out pedagogical and instructional design issues that need be taking into account to avoid some of the pitfalls and to make the learning activity a successful experience for the learner.

Does the design of your reading lesson justify the use of its medium, that is, do the learning tasks take full advantage of the potential of the medium?

Needless to say, asking students to fulfill learning tasks online should entail pedagogical advantages to the learner and the instructor. Otherwise, it may be difficult to justify the development time and potential challenges that are involved in using this medium. The decision of having student do Internet-based activities should be based on a clear rationale that justifies its use. For example, are students to explore at least two or three different sites and/or multimedia resources. Do students have a choice in selecting the content? If a print out of an Internet-based resource can be made and used in the classroom, sending students online may not be the best instructional practice.


Are the reading materials and learning tasks appropriate for the students' level of proficiency?

As Walz (2001) reminds us, "To make the critical reading of authentic texts from the Internet feasible for students at the lower levels of proficiency, independent readings as well as those with pedagogical support must have tasks aimed at the reader's level" (p. 1202). As a general guideline, text type, reading tasks and the learner's level of proficiency are criteria that need to be taking into account in the approach to and choice of contents of Internet-based reading resources.


Do the activities engage the learners in real-world and meaningful tasks as well as in a variety of skills (e.g., communicative, reading, cultural explorations, writing)?

As pointed out above in Osuna and Meskill's (1998) study, students feel more engaged when the purpose of their tasks simulate real-world tasks. The exploration for any available multimedia resources should also have a purpose and be associated with a meaningful task. For example, instead of having students provide general descriptions of images or photos,asking them to identify specific cultural aspects and compare them to their own cultural background makes a task more purposeful and focused, and thus enhances their awareness and understanding of cultural differences.


How do students demonstrate what they have learned?

There are many instructional practices to assess what students have learned. Traditional examples include true-false types, matching, comprehension questions, filling in charts, summaries, comparisons, reactions to the texts, comments, and so forth. By and large, they depend on the approach, the type of materials and texts, and the students' level of proficiency. Furthermore, as the use of the open-ended structure of the Internet lends itself in particular well to make use of authentic exploratory tasks, the students' assessment can be based on the degree and quality of the fulfillment of these tasks. Examples may include a presentation of an end product, such as a report, a description of an itinerary, a food menu, and a prepared meal. The presentations can also be easily integrated into the classroom. In this way, students can exchange and compare information with each other, while getting engaged in the application of oral communicative skills. At the same time, this allows the teacher to further clarify or follow up on linguistic and cultural issues.


Are all the instructions clearly stated?

Not only is it easy to get lost, but also stuck in a hypertext environment. This often has to do with lack of instructions or dysfunctional hyperlinks that one encounters when surfing the Internet. Therefore, precise instructions are necessary on how to navigate or what navigational path to take when exploring Internet sites. Ask yourself, when students navigate between sites, do they know what to do and how to return to your home page? Are precise instructions or examples provided, online or on a worksheet, telling students what to do?

Are all the hyper links functional?

URL addresses change and sites often disappear. One strategy to guarantee functionality is to thoroughly test your own lesson making sure all URL addresses are correctly stated and the sites and links work when you access them. Another strategy is to provide alternative sites, in case some sites are no longer available.


Student-Centered Approaches


Are your students prepared to do project-oriented work?

Provide clear guidelines to your students on the process and nature of project-oriented work. You may allow your students to select their own topic, materials, end product, and form of assessment. This does not mean that the instructor becomes redundant. On the contrary, the teacher plays an important role, that of a guide and coach. At the same time, the students may be required to follow a certain timeline and other stipulations built into the projects. That means, students need to know when it is important to consult with the their teacher. They need to have a clear understanding of the procedures and any rules.


Are your students familiar with the process on how to conduct research?

The preparation phase for project learning may also include information on the process of conducting research. As suggested by Gaspar (1998), a useful model to teach might be McKenzie's "Iterative Research Cycle" consisting of questioning, planning, gathering, sifting, synthesizing, and evaluating. Despite the open-ended nature and student-centered approach, it most likely is necessary to provide examples and models of student projects to demonstrate on how to go about planning and conducting projects that result in entirely different end products.

Do the students know how to search the Internet?

Internet-based project learning involves gathering and identifying information. This requires knowledge about how to use search engines. Most students are familiar with the basics of using Web browser (e.g., Internet Explorer or Netscape) search engines. In the last few years, however, search engines have become more sophisticated allowing searches to be specified, for example, based on foreign languages or multimedia contents. Students may require additional training in the use of such features as well as information-seeking skills in general.




At the beginning of this article, I raised the question regarding the design of reading-based learning activities for Web-based environments that differ from the design of text-based or multimedia stand-alone systems. In response, I have presented three different approaches to lesson design that engage foreign language learners in developing reading skills by exploring authentic Internet-based materials. None of these examples is absolute, that is to say, different variations of lessons may fall at different places along a continuum from being teacher-determined or -facilitated to student-determined. They may vary in areas such as the choice of the learning materials, the scope of the learning environment, the learning process, and the degree of teacher guidance. In this sense, the sample lessons provide teachers with general direction in the design process.

There is no doubt, the vast amount of authentic resources on the Internet provides learners an opportunity to immerse themselves in a plethora of cultural readings. Yet, to make the integration of WWW-based activities a successful learning experience, it requires effective organization and presentation of that information. The use of the WWW for delivery of reading instruction or the integration of Internet-based readings needs to go beyond what the teacher can offer in the classroom to justify its use. The decision, whether and how to use it, must be based on a clear pedagogical rationale, while technological and developmental issues need to be carefully considered.



1. There are many other ways of using the WWW as well, such as for synchronous or asynchronous communication, delivery of audio and video-based materials. Until limitations on interactivity and bandwidth have improved, such applications will not become common practice in the standard language classroom.

2. Half-Baked Software (1999) is produced by M. Holmes and S. Arnell at the University of Victoria.

3. Internet resources promoted through the AATs can be found on the following Web sites: American Association of Teachers of French; American Association of Teachers of German; and American Association of Teachers of Spanish & Portuguese.

4. Source -- M. Bansleben, Department of Germanics, University of Washington.

5. This lesson was designed by Sharon O¹Keefe as part of her class project in TEP 589 at the University of Washington in 1998.

6. This lesson was designed by Donna Hood as part of her class project in TEP 589 at the University of Washington in 1998.



Thanks to Ali Moeller for her comments on an early version of this article. In particular, I am grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and suggestions.


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Walz, J. (1998). Meeting standards for foreign language learning with World Wide Web activities. Foreign Language Annals, 31(1), 103-114.

Walz, J. (2001). Critical reading and the Internet. The French Review, 74(6) 1193-1205.

Warshauer, M. (1997). Computer-mediated collaborative learning: Theory and practice. Modern Language Journal, 81, 470-481.

Warshauer, M. (2000). On-line learning in second language classrooms: An ethnographic study. In M. Warshauer & R. Kern (Eds.). Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 41-58). New York: Cambridge University Press.

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(c) Copyright Klaus Brandl

Language Learning & Technology
Vol. 6, No.3, September 2002, pp. 87-107






Our dear friend and SHARER Gladys Aguilera from Universidad de Tarapacá, Chile has sent us this message:

8th International Conference for Teachers of English

10th, 11th and 12th September 2003 – Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica - Chile

Main Theme: New Approaches in EFL Learning/Teaching

Dear colleagues:

We are working hard preparing the detailed information for the Eighth International Conference for EFL Teachers. Please, submit for consideration a one double spaced page abstract on one aspect of the main topic. Please, make sure to specify whether your presentation will be a paper (30 mins.) or a workshop (90 mins.)

Send abstract to: Gladys Aguilera Muga, Coordinadora General del Congreso,

Fax 58 205231< > o a Jaime Gómez Douzet <>

Visit our Website:  





Our dear friends and SHARERS from Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Rosario have sent us this update of their forthcoming activities:


Chatting Teas                                Coordinator:  Martha Puiggari de Gaspar


A fine opportunity to chat – in English of course! – with a small group of your peers while having tea in a friendly, informal atmosphere.

First Meeting:  April 24th, Thursday - Time:  at 4 pm -

From May onwards, meetings on the third Thursday of the month. Contribution:  $ 4.

When you decide to come, please, let us know!


Workshop:  "Books & Films”                 Coordinator:    Nora Lilián Séculi


Monthly meetings, and in every one of them a film and the corresponding book (novel or play) presented and then commented, discussed, compared and/or contrasted (as the case may be)  all in an informal, thoroughly relaxed manner.

First Meeting:  May 30th, Friday  -  from 5 to 7 pm  -

Subsequent meetings: last Friday of the month.

Fee:  $ 4.- (per session) - Enrol by phone, fax or e-mail –

* Contact APrIR to find out about  the book & film to be discussed next.



Workshop: “Reading for Pleasure           Coordinator:    Nora Lilián Séculi  -


Monthly meetings, in which to read, analyze and discuss short stories, poems or plays, according to the preferences of the group.

Next Meeting:  May 7th, Wednesday - Time: 10 to 12 a.m.

Subsequent meetings:  on the first Wednesday of the month- 

Fee:  $ 4.- (per session) - Enrol by phone, fax or e-mail –

* Contact APrIR to find out about the reading material to be discussed.


Venue for all the activities above: APrIR - Buenos Aires  1127  P.B. "A" -  Tel/Fax: (0341) 447-5636  - E-mail:

Office Timetable:  Mondays & Wednesdays  from 5 to 7 pm - Fridays from 3 to 5 pm -






Our dear SHARER Elena Marzón has sent us this call for articles for the IES en Lenguas Vivas “Juan R. Fernandez” magazine:  


IES Lenguas Vivas J. R. Fernandez

Temario para número 3 de Lenguas Vivas

Tema general: la formación de docentes en lenguas (primera, extranjera, segunda)


Hemos elegido este tema por considerar que los problemas, desafíos e intereses que supone cubren, de alguna manera, muchas de las expectativas, preocupaciones y trayectorias específicas de la institución. El sintagma “enseñanza de lenguas” une dos términos polémicos en sí mismos. Si bien “enseñanza” remite a una práctica, ligada tanto a las determinaciones políticas e institucionales como a las complejas respuestas particulares de sus actores, es un término que supone concepciones y teorías más o menos evidentes. Por otro lado, “lenguas” remite a un contenido, a un objeto cuya transposición puede planificarse en niveles de complejidad creciente y, al mismo tiempo, implica prácticas en las que se construye su conocimiento: hablar, escuchar, leer y escribir. En la “formación de docentes en lenguas”, entonces, se ponen en juego concepciones sobre lo que es enseñar y sobre lo que es enseñable, sobre lo que es una lengua y sobre sus usuarios, representaciones e imágenes sobre las culturas vehiculizadas por ellas y sobre el lugar y las funciones políticas y sociales de los docentes, de los institutos de formación y de las universidades.




La amplitud del tema nos obliga a discriminar ejes conceptuales y de discusión. La enumeración que sigue trata de poner el énfasis en subtemas específicos que, de acuerdo a los conocimientos y experiencias de los que quieran participar con artículos para la revista, invitan a pensar y escribir acerca de la formación de docentes en lenguas desde alguna perspectiva determinada y a partir de un recorte del campo. El listado, entonces, no intenta determinar o limitar el contenido de cada artículo, que presumiblemente tocará varios subtemas, sino abrir el tema general hacia aquellos tópicos que consideramos centrales.

Se espera que cada uno de los temas que siguen podrán recibir un tratamiento teórico, histórico o comparativo, o estar más fuertemente ligado al relato de experiencias significativas. En cada caso, es importante que los artículos planteen nudos problemáticos comunes a los profesionales del área. En este sentido, estamos pensando en textos que, sea cual sea la perspectiva adoptada, inviten al debate y a la puesta al día en el contexto actual de la Argentina.


-         requerimientos y demandas del sistema educativo en relación con la formación de   

          docentes en lenguas

-         ámbitos privados y ámbitos públicos de formación y actualización docente

-         instituciones de educación superior universitarias y no universitarias:   

          especificidades y articulación

-         formación inicial/de grado y formación permanente

-         pedagogía del nivel superior

-         investigación, producción de conocimiento e innovación pedagógica

-         política lingüística y política educativa en la formación docente

-         el diseño curricular en los planes de formación

-         perfil del profesor de nivel superior: ¿privilegiar la especialidad en la disciplina o 

           la competencia en la lengua extranjera?

-         lugar de la enseñanza de lenguas en el curriculum

-         articulación teoría(s) práctica(s) en la formación docente

-         relaciones lengua materna-lengua extranjera

-         didácticas de lenguas (primera, extranjera, segunda) y representaciones docentes

-         tendencias: ¿formación instrumental o académica-profesional?

-         caracterización socio-demográfica y educativa de los ingresantes y egresados

-         acceso, promoción y egreso en la formación docente en lenguas

-         caracterización y evolución de la matrícula

-         expectativas y demandas de los ingresantes

-         normativa y reformas educativas

-         el Diseño Curricular de Lenguas Extranjeras de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Res.

           260-SED-2001) y la formación docente

-         la formación docente en la reforma educativa de los ’90 

-         formación continua y profesionalización docente


Características generales, envío y aprobación de los artículos


Se espera que los artículos, ya sean relatos de experiencias o exposiciones en torno a alguno de los temas seleccionados, planteen problemas, propongan hipótesis e interpretaciones y abran debates. Se trata, entonces, de artículos donde esté presente la argumentación y que se acerquen al ensayo.

Los textos, de entre 2000 y 6000 palabras (incluida la bibliografía), deberán entregarse en formato RTF o en Word 95 o superiores. El envío deberá hacerse por correo electrónico, hasta el 31 de mayo de 2003, a las siguientes direcciones:


La aprobación de los artículos para su publicación quedará a cargo del Consejo de redacción y de los editores






Our dear SHARER Paola Danesi has an important announcement to make:  


We have great news for all of you!


The webpage of the LONDON TESTS has been updated and new material has been added.

Now, just click on the icons and read or print what you need:


We hope you find the page useful, complete and above all hassle-free and teacher-friendly. For the CDs of the 2002 tests, contact us. Hope you enjoy surfing the site and we welcome your comments and feedback.


For further information, contact:  Paola Danesi - Asesora Pedagógica - Exámenes Internacionales - LONDON EXAMINATIONS

Leeds School of English - Zabala 1686 - (1486) Cap.Fed. - Tel/Fax: 4788 5052 // 4783 4414






La Academia Nacional de Educación invita a usted a la sesión  pública que se realizará, en el salón de conferencias de su sede de la calle Pacheco de Melo 2084, el lunes 28 de abril a las 18 y 30.

En la oportunidad el académico doctor Dr. Alberto C. Taquini (h) disertará sobre “Integración de la educación superior”.


Avelino José Porto               -  Académico Presidente

Alfredo Manuel van Gelderen    -  Académico Secretario                                              






La siguiente es una trascripción del texto de las Resoluciones de las áreas de Educación de

la Provincia de Buenos Aires y del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires en la que se autoriza a los docentes a asistir a la Feria del Libro de Buenos Aires sin que se les computen inasistencias.

Resolución nº 2/03 de la Dirección General, Cultura y Educación de la Provincia de Buenos Aires

Art. 1° - Declarar de Interés Provincial las actividades que la Comisión de Educación de la Fundación El Libro está organizando en el marco de la 29º Feria Internacional de Buenos Aires - El Libro del Autor al Lector, que se llevará a cabo entre los días 14 de abril y 5 de mayo de 2003, en el Centro de Exposiciones, predio La Rural.

Art. 2° - Establecer que las inasistencias de los docentes que asistan al citado evento podrán encuadrarse en los términos del Artículo 115 inciso c) del decreto 688/93, con sueldo.
Resolución nº 3355/02 de la Secretaría de Educación de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires

Art.1º - Auspíciase la 29º Feria Internacional de Buenos Aires - El Libro del Autor al Lector, organizada por la Fundación El Libro a realizarse en el Predio La Rural del 14 de abril al 5 de mayo de 2003

Art.2º - Los directivos de los establecimientos escolares podrán designar a un (1) docente para participar en dichas actividades, siempre que no se vea afectado el normal desenvolvimiento de la jornada escolar, sin computarle inasistencias, con la presentación del certificado de asistencia a los eventos.

Les recordamos a nuestros queridos SHARERS que los docentes y estudiantes universitarios con constancia de servicio o libreta universitaria tendrán entrada gratuita a la Feria de Lunes a Viernes.




Our dear SHARER Silvana García Calabria from Comisión de Prensa del CTPZN wants to invite all SHARERS to the following activities:

"Debtor/Creditor Relationship"

Disertante: Graciela Souto, Traductora Pública y Abogada

1. Unsecured Debt : Enforcement of unsecured debt.

2. Secured Debt and Priorities: Distinction between Personal Liability and the Charge on the Property (Collateral). Lien: Creation. Different Categories. Effect. Enforcement (Seizure, foreclosure). Priority Rules

3. Debt Collection under State Law: Executable Property and Levy. Judicial Prejudgment Remedies. Due Process. Attachment. Prejudgment Garnishment. Prejudgment Replevin (Claim and Delivery). Receivership. Injunctions.

4. The Judgment and Its Enforcement. Execution. Garnishment.

5. Proceedings in Aid of Execution

6. State Law Insolvency Proceedings. Compositions and Extensions. Assignment for the Benefit of Creditors.


Se trabajará sobre los conceptos, comparándolos con figuras similares del Derecho Argentino.

Se hará hincapié en la traducción de documentos relacionados con el tema.

Fecha: Mayo, dos clases de 3 horas c/u.

Arancel: $60 Lugar : Colegio de Abogados de San Isidro, Martín y Omar 339, San Isidro.


Informes e Inscripción: Martes y viernes de 9 a 12 en la sede San Isidro 4-732-0303 int. 22. Inscripción en Capital: Santa Fe 882 6to E. Te.: 4314-4964 (9 a 17).

Para más datos contactarse con la TP María Inés Boniver: , a cargo del Área Capacitación




Disertante: Dra. Alicia María Zorrilla


Destinatarios: traductores de todas las especialidades y alumnos del último año de la carrera de Traductor; correctores; profesores; periodistas, etc.

Temario: La Normativa: concepto. La oración. El orden de las palabras en español.  Ambigüedad o anfibología. La puntuación: su concepto. Uso correcto de los  signos de puntuación. Los signos auxiliares de  puntuación. Diptongos y triptongos. Silabeo ortográfico. Unión  y separación de palabras. La acentuación. Distintas clases de acento (ortográfico, prosódico, diacrítico). Sílabas átonas y tónicas. Palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas y sobresdrújulas. Otras reglas de acentuación. Uso correcto de mayúsculas y de minúsculas. Los barbarismos. Corrección de construcciones vulgares. La preposición. Su uso correcto. Palabras que rigen preposición. Las locuciones prepositivas. Sinónimos, antónimos, parónimos (homónimos, homófonos, homógrafos).

El verbo. La correlación de tiempos y modos verbales. Perífrasis verbales. El verbo "deber" y la frase verbal "deber de" más infinitivo. Los verbos "ser" y "estar".  Uso correcto de los verbos irregulares.  Clases de verbos (regulares, irregulares, transitivos, in-transitivos, copulativos, pronominales, defectivos, auxiliares, impersonales).  Paradigma de la conjugación regular. Derivados verbales. Uso correcto del gerundio. El artículo. Su uso correcto. Dificultades que presenta el uso del artículo con algunos sustantivos. El artículo ante los sustantivos que comienzan con “a” acentuada. Uso correcto del sustantivo. Sustantivos masculinos y femeninos dudosos. Plurales dudosos. Uso correcto del adjetivo. La sustantivación del adjetivo.  Concordancia del artículo y del sustantivo con el adjetivo. El adjetivo en grado positivo, comparativo y superlativo. Uso correcto del pronombre. Casos de laísmo, leísmo y loísmo. Uso correcto del adverbio. El adverbio en grado superlativo.  Las abreviaturas y las siglas.


Fecha de inicio: miércoles 7 de mayo de 2003, de 9.30 a 11.30

Duración: 8 meses

Arancel: $120 por mes.  No se cobra matrícula.


Lugar: Virrey Arredondo 2247 - 2.° "B" - 1426 Buenos Aires

Inscripción: enla Fundación Litterae ( ), de lunes a viernes, de 16.30 a 20.30, y en el CTPZN, Martín y Omar 339, San Isidro. 4732-0303, martes y viernes, de mañana.






Our dear SHARER and friend Susana Trabaldo from Net Learning has sent us this invitation to a re-run of their successful course on Design and Development of Distance Education. A number of SHARERS are participating with great success in the first edition of the course. Our sincere congratulations to our dear SHARERS both participants and organizers.


Diseño y Desarrollo de proyectos de e-learning y capacitación a distancia 




Instituciones de educación que hayan adoptado la modalidad del campus virtual y deseen capacitar a su personal.

Responsables de áreas de capacitación o recursos humanos.

Profesores que deban desempeñarse como tutores.

Profesionales involucrados en el desarrollo de cursos y elaboración de contenidos.

Toda  persona interesada en conocer sobre educación a distancia 



Presentar la modalidad de la educación a distancia y el e-learning.

Describir los procesos y decisiones necesarias para su gerenciamiento.

Proveer herramientas teórico-prácticas para el diseño de cursos.

Guiar en la selección y elaboración de materiales.

Brindar recursos para el seguimiento y evaluación de los alumnos.

Asesorar en el uso de herramientas tecnológicas.


Duración y dinámica del curso

Este curso tienen una duración de seis semanas durante las cuales tutores y cursantes, se encontrarán virtualmente para realizar las siguientes actividades:

Descarga de los materiales:

Cada semana usted podrá bajar a su computadora los materiales formativos. El curso cuenta con archivos organizados para descargar, de modo que usted pueda estudiar sin necesidad de estar conectado.

Interacción en-línea:  Se utilizarán asiduamente herramientas de comunicación como el correo electrónico, Chats y foros de intercambio colectivo, donde, cursantes y profesores, se reunirán para discutir sobre las temáticas planteadas.

Realización de actividades: Este curso se propone dialogar con usted y guiarlo en su proceso de aprendizaje, que se desarrollará mediante diversas lecturas y experiencias del campo de la enseñanza. En cada módulo usted encontrará actividades de reflexión y aplicación para realizar y enviar al tutor. El tutor las corregirá y se las enviará nuevamente con sus comentarios. Usted podrá trabajar off-line guardando la actividades para enviar al tutor en su disco rígido y al completar la actividad enviarla al tutor como un adjunto.

También se presentarán actividades de intercambio entre los participantes de a pares o en pequeños grupos virtuales.

Seguimiento del alumno: El seguimiento del alumno por parte de los profesores en esta comunidad virtual es constante, con el objetivo de acompañar y sostener el éxito del proceso.

Evaluación final: Al finalizar el curso lo invitaremos a presentar una propuesta personal de aplicación de los contenidos desarrollados.


Tutores: Equipo multidisciplinario de egresados del Máster en EAAD de la UNED ( España) de la UOC (Cataluña) y la Open University (UK).

Lic. Nancy Píriz, Lic. Susana Trabaldo, Ing. Patricio Rey, Lic. Daniel Núñez, Lic Rosario Vega.

TUTORIA:   desde Buenos Aires, Argentina

Fecha De inicio:  24 de abril de 2003 – Duración: 6 semanas

COSTO:  $125 (en Argentina)     U$S 80 (en otros países) - Consulte precios en Uruguay   

Descuentos grupales

Más datos en:    o TE: (011) 791-6009 / (011) 4654-8945

desde el exterior: +(54 11) 4791-6009 -                                                     



On a very special day like this we want to say goodbye with a shart and simple poem that our dear friend and SHARER Susan Cantera from La Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires sent us:

The secret of living


The secret of living

is learning to pray.

It´s  asking Our Father

for strength for the day.

It´s trusting completely

that his  boundless grace

will overcome care

and each problem we face !


Omar and Marina.


SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors.  For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:

VISIT OUR WEBSITE : There you can read all past  issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.