An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Year 7 Number 155 November 8th 2005
9210 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
This issue marks the beginning of the seventh year of SHARE. Indeed, a very good opportunity for celebrating. And, as you very well know, there are many ways to celebrate. We could have run a “special issue” with big names in the ELT scene at home and abroad (as we did some other times in the past) or to publish congratulatory messages from some of our best known friends.
Instead, we chose to do it quietly this time. To have a warm and intimate celebration with our more than 9,000 dear SHARERS. To think back of our first SHARES when we defined ourselves as “an ideas page” (and in fact SHARE was not bigger than two screens long!) that reached a small group of barely forty or so colleagues and to think of the long road we have walked together and to hope for the many more miles of our road through life and the profession that we are sure we want to SHARE with all of you.
As we have said many times before, a big thank you for your unfailing loyalty, for your support, for spreading the word about SHARE, in shat, for being part of this big and blessed family of educators.
Omar and Marina
In SHARE 155
1.- How to teach Abstractions using TPR.
2.- If You Can Teach Teenagers, You Can Teach Anyone!
3.- Reading Aloud in the Classroom.
4.- The Maltese Falcon: Ways of looking and walking.
5.- Hornby School 2006 in Brazil
6.- Scholarships 2006-2008 from Escuelas del Mundo Unido.
7.- Concurso Docente.
8.- Richmond Publishing : Professional Development Session
9.- Lecture on National Identity in Literature
10.- News From MF Business English
11.- Children´s Literature Discussion Group.
12.- A Message from AQA´s JET-SET.
13.- On-Line Teacher Development Courses by Net Learning.
14.- Columna De “Idiomas, Arte y Cultura”
15.- Forthcoming Events by Apple Consultancy.
16.- Postgraduate Studies at Universidad Torcuato Di Tella
1.- HOW TO TEACH ABSTRACTIONS USING TPR.
Our dear SHARER Myriam Hirshfeld from Asunción, Paraguay wants to SHARE this article with all of us:
How to TPR Abstractions:
The critical role of imagination
By Dr. James J. Asher, Ph.D.
Professor of English
Dept. de Linguas Estrangeiras
Universidade do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil
In a short documentary film* produced in the 1970's, I coined the term Total Physical Response (which is now known worldwide as TPR). The film shows the complexity of spoken Japanese that three 12 year-old American boys could understand in only 20 minutes of training. Then, we located one of the boys a year later and after a few warm-up trials, his retention of Japanese was an extraordinary 90 percent.
Since that groundbreaking motion picture, I explored the parameters of TPR over a ten year period of time in a series of experiments supported by many agencies including the Office of Education, the Office of Naval Research, the Department of Defense, and the State of California. The research was published in academic journals such as: The International Review of Applied Linguistics, Child Development, The Modern Language Journal, The Journal of Special Education, The Journal of General Psychology, The Journal of Humanistic Psychology, SPEAQ Journal, and in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. For a review of this body of research and a complete bibliography, please see my book, Learning Another Language Through Actions, (6th edition).
The bottom line of my research can be summarized in one or two sentence: Acquiring any language from one's native language to other languages does not begin with production. It begins with a long period of silence, which for an infant, lasts for months. During this silent period, the child is decoding the noises coming from the mouths of caretakers. The decoding is not achieved with "translation" from one language into another but with what I call "language-body" conversations.
One of the very first language-body conversation goes like this: The newborn hears someone say: "Look at daddy! Look at Daddy!" and she turns her head in the direction of the voice. The caretaker exclaims: "She's looking at me! She's looking at me!"
Spoken directions continue with the caretakers speaking and the infant responding with body movements. The caretaker utters a stream of directions that become more and more complex and convoluted. The physical response of the child signals that a direction is understood.
Take my hand
Walk to Daddy!
Sit quietly in your chair.
Don't spit up on your shirt.
Let's go for a ride in the car.
When I clap my hands, you clap your hands.
Where is your cap?
Go find your cap in your bedroom.
Before the infant is able to utter "Mommy" or "Daddy" with clarity, the child can easily give an appropriate response to a complex direction such as: "Pick up your truck and your doll and put them on the bed in your room."
At some point in the decoding process, when enough of the linguistic map, showing how the target language works, has been internalized, production is triggered. Of course, speaking will not be perfect. There will be many, many distortions, but gradually, the child's utterances will match the native speaker.
From hundreds of classrooms where second languages are taught around the world, we now know that most students of all ages including adults can rapidly acquire understanding of a huge chunk of any target language if the instruction begins with language-body conversations called TPR. Since older children and adults are able to respond to directions in the target language with physical movements in a range that vastly outnumbers the infant's limited repertoire, decoding that requires months for the infant can be accelerated to only days.
Caution: Watch out for adaptation!
TPR is a powerful linguistic tool that results in instant success for students and the teacher. That is a heady experience that can become addictive. The instructor is so thrilled by the excitement of students learning in chunks rather than word-by-word that TPR becomes an all-purpose tool that is used continually day after day.
Students become exhausted and mutiny with comments such as: "Please, don't ask me to do anything today!" and "Can't we do something else today-please, please, please...!"
To neutralize adaptation, switch activities frequently.
The powerful tool of TPR is best applied to introduce new vocabulary and new grammatical features at any level. Then make a switch by using the new items in a different activity such as storytelling, dialogues, games, or a pattern drill. Again, start by playing to each student's right brain using language-body conversations. Then switch to the left brain with activities involving speaking, reading or writing. For more on this, read Contee Seely's book: TPR Is More Than Commands At All Levels and Ramiro Garcia's book: Instructor's Notebook: How to apply TPR for best results.
First, I believe the linguists are on the right track when they affirm that the 4 or 5 year-old child is a fluent speaker of the native language, even though the child's vocabulary is not rich in abstractions. One can achieve "fluency" at a concrete level of communication.
However, as the student progresses, one needs more abstractions to communicate. So how do we accomplish this with TPR? We will demonstrate next that with imagination, almost any abstraction can be communicated without "translating."
After twenty-five years of successfully teaching English with TPR to children and adults in the Amazon, Professor Silvers has written: The Command Book: How to TPR 2,000 vocabulary items. I asked him to TPR some abstractions to illustrate how the creative process works:
How to TPR the abstraction "later"
Abstract terms always present a small problem. It is one thing to say "Touch your nose" and demonstrate this and another thing to try to put the meaning across for a term like "later". The first is readily understandable, or at least not so likely to cause confusion. But a term like "later" is much more difficult to present. So, in the first place I would probably not use it until the students have internalized a lot of the "easily presentable vocabulary."
I might want to use a little more verbal context, to make sure that the students really get the concept of "later" like this:
Teacher: ER is on TV tonight. What time?
Student: 9 p.m.
Teacher: What time is it now?
Student: 3 p.m.
Teacher: Is ER on TV now?
Teacher: So, it's on TV later tonight, not now. If you are going to watch TV later, raise your hand.
In this case my suggestion used a little more teacher talking time before putting the term in a TPR command.
Teacher: Everybody, stand up. Wait don't do it now. Do it later. Wait a few seconds. (pause) OK, Now do it.
I would then ask the students in English: "How do you say LATER in Portuguese? "
I used to be totally against any translation, but now I view it as an excellent tool when used properly. In my example, I asked the question in English (How do you say...?) Even though the students used a translation, they did it within an English-speaking context, and it involved just a single word.
The abstraction can then be used in different TPR commands such as:
If you are going to go to a movie later, raise your hand. Shake hands with the student who says that he is going to go bowling later today.
How to TPR the abstraction: "from time to time"
I presume that the students are not beginners. So I will explain in the target language of English like this:
Teacher: There are some things I do regularly. For example, I take a shower every day. I go to class every day.
There are some things I do not do regularly. I do them "from time to time". I do them occasionally. For example: I go to the movies from time to time.
Notice that not only have I explained the new vocabulary item "from time to time" but, as an instructional bonus, I have included the synonym of "occasionally."
Now let's practice the new vocabulary using classic TPR
Teacher: During this class from time to time I am going to stop and clap three times. Now I want you all to work in pairs for five minutes and choose an action that you will do from time to time during this class.
Ask each student to write on a card something that he or she does from time to time. The students hold up their cards and the teacher can utter directions in English such as this:
Teacher: Juan, Shake hands with the student who plays tennis from time to time.
Maria, pinch the student who goes to a disco from time to time.
Still another option
Instead of asking students to write on a card, ask a number of students to state in English what they do from time to time. Then say in English:
Eduardo, wave at the person who likes to go dancing from time to time.
Elaine, pass a note to the person who likes to cook from time to time.
Notice that we are not using TPR to convey meaning of the new vocabulary. Rather, we are using TPR to add excitement to the class with a change of pace that doesn't take up much time, and encourages a group interaction that breaks down inhibitions that students often experience in their fear of speaking in front of their classmates.
The first step is to convey the meaning of the words. This can be done quite easily using a combination of simple drawings, symbols, gestures and facial expressions.
1. First divide the board into three sections.
2. In the first section, draw some carrots; in the middle section, some bananas; and in the third section, some apples.
3. Under the bananas, draw a happy face, and label it "Tom." Then smile, face the class, say: "Tom likes bananas," and write the sentence on the board under the drawing. (As another option, you can ask your students to repeat the sentence.)
4. Under the carrots, draw a sad face with a conversational balloon from its mouth saying "Ugh!" Label the drawing "Bill," make a facial gesture showing disgust, say: "Bill hates carrots," and write the sentence on the board.
5. Under the apples, draw a face in the shape of a heart with curly hair and label it "Mary." Face the class with a wide smile, say: "Mary loves apples," and write the sentence on the board.
Next, practice new vocabulary with classic TPR
Put up a wall chart with pictures or drawings of different fruits and vegetables. Call two students to the front of the class and ask them "to point to" or "touch" the pictures by following the sequence of the chart. Do it again except in random order to be sure that they have made the connection between the spoken forms and the visual representations. Here are some examples:
Rosa, point to the onions.
Marcos, touch the beans.
Ideally the students at their seats would also perform these actions on worksheets with pictures.
Further TPR commands:
Everyone who likes carrots, stand up.
Everyone who hates onions, walk to the door.
If you love apples, raise your hand.
Go to the chalkboard and draw a vegetable you hate.
If Anita hates beans, you (either an individual or the whole class) will point to the ceiling. If not, you will touch the floor.
Personalize the exercise for your students
Each student completes in writing the following sentence stems with fruits or vegetables, which can be from those taught or any other words they know or would like to learn.
The students then read their sentences to the class. After several students have read their sentence, ask the class (or individuals) questions such as the following about what the students heard.
Who likes apples? Who loves oranges? Who hates spinach?
What (fruit) does Carla love?
What (vegetable) does Roberto hate?
Does Anita like cabbage?
Does Carlos hate strawberries?
You are not limited to simple questions. Since comprehension precedes production, you can and should use more complex structures which the students will easily understand, but will not be able to produce immediately. This exposure to linguistic forms is important as it helps the students internalize a cognitive map of the language which will trigger future production when each student is ready. Here are some examples of more complex forms:
Can anyone tell me who likes apples?
Can anyone tell me who said that she likes apples?
Does anyone remember the name of the person who likes apples?
Does anyone remember if Susana hates grapes or mushrooms?
Does anyone remember what Ricardo hates?
Encourage your students to have fun socializing in the target language with a "TPR mixer"
The object of this activity is for the students to form pairs by finding someone who loves the same fruit or vegetable. Each student writes on a slip of paper the name of a fruit or vegetable that he or she loves. The students then stand up and walk around the room trying to find another person who loves the same fruit or vegetable, using the following simple interchange.
A: I love bananas. What about you?
B: Me too. I love bananas, too. or... Not me, I love strawberries.
When most of the students have found a partner and are seated, the teacher stops the activity and brings the class together. The pairs then tell the class what they love, for example:
Pedro and Jorge: "We both love peaches."
Roberto and Maria: "We both love grapes."
Understanding abstractions (without translating) is a fascinating challenge. We recommend several strategies that will work to help your students internalize abstractions for long-term retention using TPR.
First, delay the introduction of the abstraction (and idioms, too) until your students are further downstream in their language training. The advantage: You can explain the abstraction in the target language using words students already know. We do this all the time with children who are acquiring their native language. Examples:
Student: "What does it mean, 'He hit the roof?'"
Instructor: "It means, he was angry."
Student: "What does it mean when someone asks a hotel clerk, 'What are the rooms running for?'"
Instructor: "It means, What do the rooms cost?"
Another strategy is to use your imagination to TPR the abstractions which we illustrated in this article. There are also books available with ready-made TPR exercises for abstractions (The Command Book: How to TPR 2,000 vocabulary items in any language by Stephen M. Silvers.). For grammar, you will find ready-made TPR exercises in English Grammar Through Actions: How to TPR 50 grammatical features by Eric Schessler (also available in Spanish or French).
Almost any abstraction (including idioms), can be presented to students using TPR. It does, however, require creative thinking from the instructor, but there are huge rewards: Student understanding is internalized for long-term retention which prepares your students for self-confident speaking, reading and writing.
*Documentary video entitled, "Demonstration of a New Strategy in Second Language Learning". Shows complexity of understanding for spoken Japanese acquired by three American children in only 20 minutes of TPR instruction (available through Sky Oaks Productions, Inc.).
Asher, James J. Learning Another Language Through Actions*, Triple-Expanded Sixth Edition, Year 2000. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Asher, James J. The Super School of the 21st Century*.
Demonstrates how students of all ages enjoy fast, stress-free learning on the right side of the brain for any subject or skill. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Asher, James J. "Year 2000 Update for the Total Physical Response, known worldwide as TPR." You can read this article on the web at: www.tpr-world.com
Asher, James J. "Year 2001 Update for the Total Physical Response, known worldwide as TPR." You can read this article on the web at: www.tpr-world.com
Cabello, Francisco. The Total Physical Response in First Year*. (Can be ordered in English, Spanish, or French.) 2001, Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Garcia, Ramiro. Instructor's Notebook: How To Apply TPR For Best Results*. Fifth Edition, 2001, Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California 95031.
Krashen, Stephen D. "TPR: Still a Very Good Idea." Novelty, Volume 5, Number 4. December 1998.
Márquez, Nancy. Learning with Movements*: Total Physical Response English for Children, 1999. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Márquez, Nancy. Apprendiendo con Movimientos*: Método TPR Español, 1999. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Márquez, Nancy. L'Enseignement Par Le Mouvement*, 1999. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
McKay, Todd. TPR Storytelling: Especially for Students in Elementary and Middle School*, 2001. Available in English, Spanish, or French. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Ray, Blaine and Contee Seely. Fluency Through TPR Storytelling*. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.)
Ray, Blaine. Look, I Can Talk!* (level 1). Look, I Can Talk More!* (level 2). Look, I'm Still Talking!* (level 3). Available in English, Spanish, French, or German. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031)
Schessler, Eric J. English Grammar Through Actions*.
How to TPR 50 grammatical features in English. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Schessler, Eric J. Spanish Grammar Through Actions*.
How to TPR 50 grammatical features in Spanish. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Schessler, Eric J. French Grammar Through Actions*.
How to TPR 50 grammatical features in French. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Seely, Contee TPR Is More Than Commands At All Levels*. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Silvers, Stephen M. Listen and Perform: TPR for Elementary and Middle School Children*. (You can order this book in English, Spanish or French.) Sky Oaks Productions, Inc.,
P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Silvers, Stephen M. Listen and Perform: Teacher's Guidebook*. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Silvers, Stephen M. The Command Book: How to TPR 2,000 Vocabulary Items in Any Language*. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031.
Wolfe, David and G. Jones. 1982. "Integrating Total Physical Response strategy in a level 1 Spanish class." Foreign Language Annals 14:273-80.
Woodruff-Wieding, Margaret S. and Laura J. Ayala. Favorite Games for FL-ESL Classes*. Sky Oaks Productions, Inc., P.O. Box 1102, Los Gatos, California, 95031
This article is to be published in: The Journal of the Imagination in Language Learning
A publication for language teachers at all levels, K-12 through College
Clyde Coreil, Ph.D. Editor, Program in English as a Second Language.
2.- IF YOU CAN TEACH TEENAGERS, YOU CAN TEACH ANYONE!
Teaching English to Young Learners
By NUTESA's Academic Consultants.
It has been said several times that 'language teaching is teaching language.' We certainly could not disagree with that. It is and has to be the first and foremost objective of our profession to ensure that our students get up-to-date and high quality professional language training that helps them to achieve good language proficiency.
As teachers of teenage students, however, some of us may occasionally feel that they don't quite get to the point of teaching language properly.
2. Angels or Monsters??
As teachers, we have felt more than once that students couldn't care less about the English class, and it does not mean they are ugly people or terrible kids- they're just too busy growing up! Anyone who has ever taught teenagers will possibly agree that teaching teenagers is quite a challenge! So we probably also agree with Michael Grinder who says that 'If you can teach teenagers, you can teach anyone!' Or, as a teacher recently put it: 'They're angels when you first meet them, and then they gradually turn into monsters!'
For English language teachers the question is 'Why?' The answer is certainly not that they hate their teachers. Quite the contrary: they often quite like their teachers, but of course they cannot show that. They have to be indifferent. They have to act cool. They can't or don't want to show their feelings. They're so busy growing up that they are often not even aware of the social implications of their behaviour - and it is often behaviour, or rather lack of it, that we are talking about when we complain about the difficulty of teaching teenage students.
3. The need of self-esteem recognition
We have to discuss the issue of teenage behaviour, by looking at some of the powerful forces behind that behaviour. Earl Stevick claims that "success depends less on materials, techniques and linguistic analyses, and more on what goes on inside and between the people in the classroom" (1980: 4). This implies that there is a wide range of factors that influence the outcomes of the teaching / learning process.
Whereas Stevick does not maintain that materials and the skills and techniques that teacher training generally tends to focus on are insignificant, he stresses the even greater importance of less obvious processes in language learning. As we will see, these less obvious processes play a vital role - especially in the teenage classroom.
We have to recognise the focal role that the development of the students' sense of self, or identity, has on their learning outcomes because of its determination of their motivation and the way it influences their self esteem, together with their positive and negative beliefs about themselves and their learning capabilities.
As mentioned earlier, the key problems in teenage classrooms are most often noticeable in the form of behavioural symptoms. Students show lack of interest, indifference, provocative and / or disruptive behaviour, they try to ridicule their classmates or their teachers; they are sometimes at least verbally aggressive towards their peers or their teachers. They show a limited concentration span, refuse to do their homework, forget to learn for tests - you name it!
Obviously, it is these behavioural symptoms that frequently hinder us from doing our real job, that is teaching language properly. But we also know that telling them to stop their behaviour is not enough. It's a negative imperative, and psychologists convincingly tell us these are a tricky tool to use in behaviour modification. In many teenage classrooms, they have the same powerful effect that I would achieve if I told you 'Don't think of a red apple now!' It doesn't work. If you say to a teenage group 'Don't do that', all they hear is 'Do that!'. We know that, in adolescence, quite a few boys and girls show polarity responses to such teacher intervention. They hear what you say, and do the opposite!
4. Teenage behaviour
In order to understand more about teenage behaviour, we need to consider the complexity of human thinking from a systemic point of view. Following on from the work of the anthropologist Gregory Bateson, Robert Dilts developed a model that specifies the different levels of influences on the human thinking process and shows how these different levels organically influence one another. Dilts claims that human thinking is organised on five different logical levels. The basic level of influence on an individual's thinking is his or her environment.
What are the factors that can be regarded as 'environment' in the English class? Examples include the seating arrangement, the size of the classroom, the number of students, the availability and quality of technical equipment, the teaching materials, the structure of the timetable, and so on.
These are all important factors, although some may be more influential than others. The teacher and the students (inter)act in that classroom environment through their behaviour. Behaviour, in this case, does not mean only disciplinary behaviour, although any teacher of teenage students will certainly agree that this is an important element that does have a serious impact on learning outcomes. Behaviour implies more - it implies everything that the teacher and students do in the English language class. It also implies all the teaching and learning routines. We know that they are important. Does it, for example, take you ten minutes every lesson to collect the homework books from your laid back and reluctant students, or have you established a routine by which the students put their homework books on your desk at the beginning of the lesson without you having to beg for it every time? Well established behavioural routines that are accepted by students do make a difference!
The students' behaviour is, to a certain degree, influenced by their capabilities, their mental maps. A student who has efficient learning strategies will learn better and faster than a student who lacks them. Students who have learnt to accept and understand that people do not only act in different ways, but also think in different ways, that it is absolutely normal for humans to have individual strengths and weaknesses in their learning capacities, that people are intelligent in different ways, are less likely to give up when they come to impasses in their learning. Once they have learnt to appreciate where their own cognitive strengths lie and how they can draw on them in the best possible ways, and where their potential weaknesses lie and what they can do to improve in those areas, they are far less likely to develop negative beliefs about their capabilities or their identity.
5. Beliefs and Motivation
Beliefs are on the same psychological level as motivation, and that is why they are so powerful. Have you ever tried to successfully teach a class of students who were completely de-motivated? It's not impossible, but it's hard work! We have to start working on their beliefs first, and respectfully try to influence them so that the might become ready to change their beliefs, before we can even start thinking of doing our job as language teachers properly. And that might take a long time - or we might even fail! Beliefs are strong perceptual filters. They serve as explanations for what has happened and they give us a basis for future behaviour. This is why sports professionals, for example, regularly work on the development of positive beliefs. Picture the state of concentration of professional skiers before the start of a run. They engage in meditative mental routines, visualisation techniques and positive affirmation exercises aimed at releasing as much of their resources as possible.
The effect of learner beliefs on learning outcomes, often materialising in negative or positive self-talk, has been discussed in various studies, for example by Seligman (1991), Oxford & Shearin (1994), Ehrmann (1996), and, most recently, Arnold (1999). The latter stresses the impact that such negative belief patterns exert, without students (and teachers I may add) being aware of the power that such beliefs commonly have. "Many learners, especially low-achievers, have been strongly affected by years of negative self-talk, much of it on a semi-unconscious level." (1999: 17).
What is important for us is the question of how beliefs are formed and maintained. Beliefs have an important function because they serve as our guiding principles. They are generalisations about cause and effect, and they influence our inner representation of the world around us. They help us to make sense of that world, and they determine how we think and how we act. There are certain beliefs that have a high level of testability and stability. These are beliefs about the physical world. They are based on laws of nature. We do not need to find out every day anew that we need to look right and left (or left and right) before we cross a road, for example. Beliefs like that are learned at a very early age, and we can trust them and rely on them. However, there are other beliefs, for example, beliefs about identity or capability, where the evidence we use in order to form them can be much less reliable. And yet, once we have formed such beliefs, we take them as reality.
When we believe something, we act as if it is true. And this makes it difficult to disprove. Beliefs are strong perceptual filters of reality. They make us interpret events from the perspective of the belief, and exceptions are interpreted as evidence and further confirmation of the belief. In contrast to the conclusions we draw about the laws of nature, however, many limiting beliefs are not based on reality. How then are they formed? Primarily through the modelling of significant others, especially when we are young, and through conclusions we draw from repetitive experiences.
6. How teachers face teenage students.
Teachers have certain belief systems, and these belief systems influence their expectations. If a teacher is to teach a class that she has strong and positive beliefs about, her expectations will be different from those she will have for a class that she does not think very highly of. The next step in the pattern is that we do not leave our expectations in the staffroom. We take them with us into the classroom, just as we take with us the teaching materials that we need. And we communicate our expectations to our learners. Some of this communication is done verbally, but most of it works on an unconscious or semi-conscious level, because it is carried out in non-verbal ways. This communication in turn evokes certain behaviour on the students' side. If this process is repeated, over time what we get is that the students' actual behaviour comes close to what we initially expected. If we look at how expectations are communicated to students at the micro level, various studies show the following pattern of interaction between teachers and so-called 'Lows' (students of whom we expect little), on the one hand, and 'Highs' (students of whom we have a high level of expectation), on the other:
a.. We tend to smile more often and have more eye contact when we interact with Highs than with Lows.
b.. Lows get less time to answer a question, whereas we tend to give Highs more time to think. While we wait for an answer, we tend to send out non-verbal signals to the Highs that are perceived as supportive - for example, we nod our head or smile. Lows often do not get any non-verbal communication in this phase at all, or they get signals that can be interpreted to mean that the teacher is impatient or is sceptical that the student can provide a good answer.
c.. When a High gives a wrong answer, the teacher tends to reframe it. For example, "That's an interesting answer. It's not quite correct, but..." Or the teacher repeats the question, and gives hints that enable the student to self-correct the answer. Or the teacher asks another question. When Lows give wrong answers, they more frequently get negative feedback from the teacher, often followed by a reprimand.
d.. When Lows give a correct answer, teachers frequently do not react at all. They call upon the next student without giving the learner previously called upon any feedback at all.
e.. Lows generally get less challenging tasks. It often seems we have given up on them. Interestingly, Highs not only get the more challenging tasks, they also seem to get more support from the teachers in solving them.
7. How can I become a "cool"
For linguists, there are some especially interesting aspects of how teens express themselves. Language is of course another way of belonging to a group.
As James Banner has observed, some speech patterns that are real cool and young include:
1) The frequent and varied use of "so" as a intensifying adverb (especially in a negative context):
It's so uncool!.
I am so not looking forward to Christmas!
I heard a young girl complaining about Penelope Cruz "getting off with" (starting a relationship with, starting dating) Tom Cruise - "She is so not good enough for him!"
This can also be used ironically: I am so looking forward to Christmas, I don't think!
2) Question formation, usually ending in "that", as intensifiers:
He still lives at home with his parents. How sad is that?! (meaning: How pitiful! How inadequate!)
How mean is that?!
How cool is that?!
How dumb is that?!
3) The use of "like" to introduce speech or as sign posting, rather than as a comparative:
He is so, like, uncool.
I was, like, wow, man, that's cool.
My teacher was, like, no, you can't do that.
He said, like, that's real sweet. (cool)
Everybody was having, like, such a wicked time. (a good time)
4) Ironic contradictory statements:
I am so looking forward to Christmas - I don't think!
You look so cool in those straights - I don't think
Let's finish by making two suggestions. The first one is not new, but forms the basis of any successful classroom culture. The second one is a consequence of findings related to 'romantic understanding', and shows how we can utilise the key concepts of romantic understanding in order to maximise on our teaching.
1. Firstly, we should stress the need to establish a classroom culture of rapport and mutual trust.
This is certainly not a new demand, but one that I believe awaits implementation in many teenage classrooms. And that is small wonder, given the fact that teachers are often under enormous pressure in dealing adequately with the challenges they are faced with. When the students are accepted not only as learners but also as individuals, and when the classroom culture is one that allows for the strengthening of the students' self-esteem and confidence, there is less danger of confusion of logical levels. Then errors are more likely to be seen as what they are, signs of learning, and not messages about one's capabilities or one's identity.
2. Secondly, we should consider the key concepts of romantic understanding when choosing the content and determining the organisation of your students' learning.
When we choose content, we need to keep in mind that romantic learners
a.. seek out the limits of the real world, looking for binary opposites within which reality exists. Thus, they are fascinated with extremes.
b.. are fascinated by realistic details - the more different from their own world, the better.
c.. prefer stories and story forms that incorporate realistic detail, and heroes and heroines with whom they can identify, who embody the qualities necessary to succeed in a threatening world.
When we decide on the organisation of our students' learning, we need to keep in mind that
a.. learning can be successfully organised by starting with something far away from the students' experience, but connected to them by some transcendent quality with which they can associate.
All this is especially important for the choice of text. Adolescents do not always and only and mainly want to read about Eminem, Inspiral Carpets, Brittney Spears, and System of the Down in their English lessons. Such an approach might soon become pretty boring, and might be interpreted as a weak attempt by the teacher to make himself or herself popular. The approach could fail, and we might thus achieve the opposite reaction to what we want to achieve. They do want to explore texts that have the qualities mentioned above, though, and they do want to read about and deal with people and the life experiences of people who they can associate with .
"It is not what we do with our students; it is who we are. No great teaching method will be enough if we ourselves are not 'at home'. We are all students and learners; educators can educate only if they are willing to put themselves into question as well. The answer does not lie in better classrooms, more equipment, new tools and methods, although these things may help. It lies in YOU!" (Diana Whitmore)
© 2005 by NUTESA
3.- READING ALOUD IN THE CLASSROOM
Our dear SHARER Kenton Sutherland has sent us this short reflection to SHARE with all of you. Kenton and his charming young daughter were in Bahía Blanca for the Tenth National Congress of Teachers and Students of English in 2004. He is well-known and well-loved by those colleagues that attended that Congress.
TO READ ALOUD OR NOT TO READ ALOUD is a battle that has been fought several times previously on this list. Teachers who favor the technique sometimes give quite specious reasons for using the technique: "It's a good way to teach reading." "I use it to teach pronunciation." In fact, it has little to do with the reading process and very little to do with active pronunciation skills. Students who read aloud usually can't answer questions about what they have just read because they are so busy sorting out word-by-word pronunciation that the whole doesn't make any sense to them even though it might (or might not) make some sense to the listeners as does Joan Sutherland's Italian arias to Italian speakers.
In a nutshell, there seems to be general agreement among TEFL-TESL-TESOL professionals that reading aloud has little or no place in English language classrooms. Even as far back as the 1950's, Earl Stevick called reading aloud a "blind alley." Thank you, Earl, for beginning this discussion fifty years ago!
Just why the technique continues to hang on so tenaciously is a mystery that is probably related to using the technique to teach native English speakers to read. "If it works for native speakers, then of course it will work for non-native speakers as well" seems to be its pedagogical justification by untrained ESOL professionals. Whether or not it is a valid technique to use with native speakers is questionnable, of course, but this forum is not the place to air this thorny question.
Even though we in-the-know, sophisticated English-language teachers avoid having students read aloud, a curious fact is that students seem to like to do it, perhaps from carrying pedagogical baggage along from previous instruction, perhaps because the instructor stresses it (and teachers are always right, n'est-ce pas?), or perhaps because the the students just want to show off a little. This last reason might provide some psychological motivation, so maybe letting students read aloud from time to time for motivational purposes might not do any harm.
One way to accomplish this is to have students occasionally read a sentence -- one sentence -- for example, the first sentence of a paragraph and have the class talk about what they think will follow in the paragraph (with books closed). In this way, a student gets a psycholigal/motivational reward from reading the sentence aloud, the class gets to contribute orally (using active pronunciation skills, of course), and we engage the students in reading and listening comprehension. After the classroom discussion, the students read the paragraph silently to see which of the discussion points were correct. Isn't this what learning English is supposed to be all about?
Kenton Sutherland, Menlo Park, California, USA
© 2005 by Kenton Sutherland
4.- THE MALTESE FALCON: WAYS OF LOOKING AND WALKING.
Our dear SHARER Mariana Meltzer has sent us these exercises for publication:
The Maltese Falcon is both a book and a movie. It is a novel written by Dashiel Hammett in 1929, featuring the unforgettable private detective Sam Spade. Several film versions of this novel were made, but the one that is remembered as a classic of "film noir" is John Huston's 1941 masterpiece with Humphrey Bogart and Mary Astor in the starring roles.
Ways of Looking
A vocabulary exercise based on situations from The Maltese Falcon
Use the context provided below to choose the correct verb for each sentence. Note that the situations are in the past.
frown, stare, peep, wink, glance,
blink, squint, glare, gaze, glimpse
(a) Spade at Iva with bulging eyes. He was shocked.
(b) Wilmer at Spade and O'Shaughnessy through the window of a parked car.
(c) O'Shaughnessy her eyes several times as if she'd gotten something in them.
(d) Gutman at the shiny black figure of the falcon with wonder and amazement.
(e) The two detectives were really annoying him. Spade at them darkly.
(f) Archer scarcely the gun before it killed him.
(g) Gutman laughed and at Spade to show that he was only joking.
(h) Cairo into the dark appartment, but there wasn't enough light to see where things were.
(i) Spade suggested turning Wilmer over to the police, and the young man furiously at him.
(j) Spade quickly out the window to see if the man were still there watching him.
To complete the exercise, you should define all of the words according to the way of looking they represent. For example:
"To peep" means to look at something from hiding, as through a hole or a window.
"To gaze" means to look longingly or lovingly at something that is beautiful or amazing.
Now try to define the rest of these words, based on the examples given above.
A vocabulary exercise based on situations from The Maltese Falcon
Use the context provided below to choose the correct verb for each sentence. Note that the situations are in the past.
crawl, trip, dash, trudge, slip, creep,
limp, stagger, wander, stroll, march
(a) Captain Jacobi, weak from loss of blood, into the room.
(b) Spade slowly down the busy street, pretending he didn't notice the man following him.
(c) Wilmer's foot had been injured in the struggle with Spade, and he over to the sofa.
(d) Archer stepped back, on the loose gravel, and fell over the embankment.
(e) Cairo into Spade's room so that no one would hear him.
(f) On his hands and knees, Spade towards the door.
(g) Wilmer caught his foot on the chair and over it.
(h) Spade down the stairs in a hurry so that the man wouldn't see him.
(i) Captain Jacobi, mortally wounded, through the trash and litter in the alley to reach Spade's office.
(j) O'Shaughnessy around the city for hours, uncertain where to go for help.
(k) The policemen apprehended Wilmer and him down to the station.
To complete the exercise, you should define all of the words according to the way of walking they represent. For example:
"To dash" means to walk or run somewhere very quickly.
"To wander" means to walk aimlessly, without knowing or caring about your destination.
Now try to define the rest of these words, based on the examples given above.
© by The English Multiverse
The English Multiverse is a resource site for students and teachers of English as a Second Language (ESL/EFL). For additional information about these sites, please contact the webmaster, Philip Benz. You can contact me at Philip.Benz@ac-grenoble.fr
5.- HORNBY SCHOOL 2006 IN BRAZIL
Our dear SHARER Telma Gimenez has sent us this announcement:
Hornby School 2006 in Brazil -
8 to 18 January 2006
Location: Sorocaba (Sao Paulo State), Brazil
English is now used across the world as the preferred language for international communication. The purposes for learning English in the classrooms of 2005 are much less to fit into a native speaker context and much more for improving our own world and learning about others.
Around the world educators are using materials in English to achieve a much broader range of objectives from teaching civic duties and responsibilities to examining their own society and discovering others.
The theme of the Brazil 2006 Hornby School is: English as Global Language: Implications for Innovation in teaching and learning.
This Hornby Summer School will look at the ways in which English is being used in the world today and will examine the implications that this has for teachers and learners in schools, colleges and universities.
What is the Hornby Summer School?
It is a 10-day event for professionals involved in the teaching of English at all levels and in the private and public sectors. The event is an opportunity to network to build stronger ties across Brazil and Latin American and Caribbean region for the development in English Language Teaching. There will be lectures,workshops, seminars and lots of
opportunity for informal exchange of ideas.
Hornby Schools are held regionally every year bringing together leading practitioners in ELT around a topical theme.
The programme was developed in collaboration with Hornby Educational Trust, which is funded by A.S.Hornby, the creator of the Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary and supports the improvement of the teaching and learning of English as a Foreign Language.
English Language Teaching Professionals interested in participating in this event should contact Karen Halley and request an application form and return it to the British Council Sao Paulo.
Deadline to receipt of application is November 15,2005.
There will be a course fee of R$1000,00 (um mil reais) for all participants to contribute to costs including accommodation, meals and transport. The payment of the fee will be subject to your application being accepted.
Criteria for Participants
Professionals in the field of education from both public and private sectors with:
- a competent command of English, able to interact professionally and over a sustained period in English;
- a degree in education, Modern Languages and Literature, or similar;
- at least 2 years of teaching experience;
- demonstrated a high degree of commitment to the Teaching profession in either school or higher levels;
- used initiative and determination to develop their own and their students' language abilities;
- worked on a project in ELT which has brought professional benefit to a group of teachers;
- and who are potential 'movers and shakers' in ELT!
The Hornby Summer School Brazil Committee consists of:
- Sara Walker (Brasilia)
- Ana Falcao (Recife)
- Telma Gimenez (Londrina)
- Mariza Almeida (Curitiba)
- Andrea Calvozo (Sao Paulo)
- Mike Thornton (Sao Paulo)
For more information contact:
Karen Halley, Creativity and Learning Officer,
British Council, Sao Paulo, Brazil - +55 (11) 2126-7522 - email@example.com
6.- SCHOLARSHIPS 2006-2008 FROM ESCUELAS DEL MUNDO UNIDO
Our dear SHARER Bernieh Banegas has sent sent us this announcement:
La Asociación Civil Colegios del Mundo Unido de
Argentina (ACCMUA) informa que ha
abierto la inscripción para las BECAS 2006-2008, destinadas a estudiantes interesados en
terminar los 2 últimos años del secundario en el exterior.
United World Colleges (Colegios del Mundo Unido) brinda esta oportunidad a jóvenes sin
distinción de raza, credo, orientación política o situación económica, en la creencia de que
esta experiencia educativa contribuirá a levantar las barreras construidas sobre prejuicios
étnicos, religiosos, sociales o políticos.
Los requisitos para postularse son:
• Ser argentino nativo o haber vivido 8 de los últimos 10 años en el país
• Tener 3er año del secundario (1er año del Polimodal) totalmente aprobado al
• Ser menor de 18 años al 1 de julio de 2006
Los interesados en postularse pueden descargar el formulario de inscripción desde nuestra
página web www.ar.uwc.org y enviarlo a firstname.lastname@example.org hasta el 12 de abril de 2006
United World Colleges es una fundación internacional dedicada a promover la paz a través de
la educación. Para ello, cuenta con diez colegios especialmente diseñados para recibir,
durante dos años, a estudiantes seleccionados y becados de MÁS DE 150 PAÍSES, para que estudien y convivan en un ambiente multicultural único. Los diez colegios están ubicados en: Gales, Gran Bretaña; Italia; Canadá; Estados Unidos; Hong Kong; Noruega; India; Singapur; Venezuela y Swazilandia. Actualmente, la presidencia de United World Colleges es compartida por la Reina Noor de Jordania y Nelson Mandela (Presidente Honorario).
Para mayor información los invitamos a visitar www.ar.uwc.org o escribir a email@example.com
7.- CONCURSO DOCENTE
El Instituto Superior del Profesorado "Dr. Joaquín V. González" llama a selección docente para designar profesor suplente en la siguiente cátedra para el ciclo 2006:
Diplomatura en Ciencias del Lenguaje.
Taller de preparación de material didáctico - 8 hs
Inscripción: en la secretaria del Instituto (av. Rivadavia 3577. Ciudad de Buenos Aires) desde el 02/11 al 10/11/05 finalizando a las 21 hs. Ver reglamento de selección docente
8.- RICHMOND PUBLISHING : PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT SESSION
Our dear SHARER Miriam Dámico has an invitation for all of us:
Workshop: "THE REAL ISSUE"
by Susan Hillyard
Organized by Richmond Publishing and Quilmes High School.
Exploring the meaning of content area subjects in the language classroom.
Susan was awarded a B.Ed.in Educational Drama from Warwick University (U.K.) in 1972 and has lived and worked, since then, as a classroom teacher, a coordinator or Head of sector in five different countries. She was Director of the ESSARP Centre for five years, was Secondary Headmistress of a number of bilingual schools and is now a freelance Educational Consultant.
Venue: Quilmes High School - Rivadavia 460 - Quilmes
Date: Saturday, November 12th
Time: 10:00 am to 12:30 p.m
Enrolment: (011) 4119-5000 ext 3066 - firstname.lastname@example.org
Certificates of Attendance will be issued
9.- LECTURE ON NATIONAL IDENTITY IN LITERATURE
Our dear SHARER María Teresa Fernández, Information Assistant - British Council, has sent us this invitation to publish:
Patrick Williams, Professor of Literary and Cultural Studies, Nottingham Trent University, will be delivering a presentation on National identity: language and representation, this contrasts Kipling's formulation of ' proper'/improper Britishness with a contemporary re-working of Kipling in Billy Bragg's songs of the 80s and 90s.
Instituto de Enseñanza Superior en Lenguas Vivas “Juan R. Fernández”
Date: 16 November 2005 - Time: 10:30 – 12:00
Registration: British Council - 011 4311 9814 / email@example.com
Patrick Williams will also be working with postgraduate students at the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo in Mendoza and will be opening the Jornadas Nacionales de Poscolonialismo en la Literatura Anglofona at the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán.
Marcelo T. de Alvear 590 - Piso 4 - C1058AAF - Buenos Aires –Argentina
T +54 (0)11 4311 9814 - F +54 (0)11 4311 7747 - firstname.lastname@example.org - www.britishcouncil.org.ar
10.- NEWS FROM MF BUSINESS ENGLISH
Our dear SHARER Matilde Fabrello has sent us this message:
MF BUSINESS ENGLISH inaugura hoy una nueva etapa. Con motivo de la apertura de nuestro portal en Internet, hemos trabajado para poder brindarles no sólo la posibilidad de los cursos y jornadas presenciales que Uds. ya conocen sino también una modalidad a distancia. Con el objetivo de lograr el nivel académico que acostumbramos a ofrecerles, nos pusimos en contacto con la Lic. Ana María Andrada, especialista en el área de Tecnología y Educación, quien trabaja en múltiples proyectos educativos para instituciones tales como UCA, Duke University, NASA, etc. Con su valiosa ayuda, hemos diseñado cursos a distancia nacidos para la Web, que llevarán al participante a poder adquirir conocimientos del tema específico y a la vez, a manejar las herramientas propias de un ámbito virtual.
También integra nuestro grupo de trabajo el Ing. Martín Parselis, quien ha desarrollado la plataforma C-learn, de iGnisis, que hemos elegido por ser poderosa y flexible en cuanto a las prestaciones educativas que brinda.
Los invitamos a visitar nuestro sitio web en www.mfbizenglish.com . Esperamos que les guste nuestro nuevo ámbito, así como también seguir construyendo con Uds. un espacio de comunicación. Por eso, son siempre bienvenidos sus comentarios y consultas.
Matilde L. Fabrello
Traductora Pública Inglés
Directora MF Business English
25 de Mayo 758, 4º F (1002)
Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
Phone/Fax: (54 11) 4311 9988 - email@example.com
11.- CHILDREN´S LITERATURE DISCUSSION GROUP
Affective Methods in the Teaching of Reading & Writing
Children's Literature Discussion Group
Facilitated by Maria Teresa Manteo
NLP and Literature
Aimed at teachers of EGB1, 2 & 3
Saturday, November 19th from AM 10 to 12
The session will include:
Literature that can help us create a better world and build repair gestures in our kids: picture books, novels and poems.
Strategies to draw on this vast and rich literary treasury.
Language suitable for the generation of discussion and thought.
The use of the metaphor and some forms of writing most sensitive to promote self awareness and change.
María Teresa Manteo
Language and Literature Teacher at IGCSE & IB levels
Former Scholastic Literacy Consultant
Fee: 30$ - Groups of teachers 25$ each participant
Venue: Zeal-School of English Av 25 de Mayo 349 - San Isidro Tel: 4747- 3037
For enrolment, contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org - 4503 0605
www.supportlearning.com.ar - Visit us and learn about Touch the Author , Outreach Educational Programme for Children. Book dates for 2006!
12.- A MESSAGE FROM AQA´S JET-SET
This is a short message to keep you up to date with news on our Certificate in English Skills (ESOL)- JET SET.
The 2005 exam season is drawing near and I would like to invite you to contact the JET SET TEAM to ask for guidance if you are planning to enroll your students for the end-of-year sessions at the approved centres in all the provinces. We will be glad to help you out so the registration is done smoothly.
Let us remind you of some issues on our flexible system of qualifications.
If you have already decided the levels your students will apply, contact us and we will send you the right specimen papers. If you have any doubts regarding the level your students can apply, let us know the course books you are using and the ages. We will send you the details shortly.
Remember JET SET do not intend to assess exam courses. You teach English, we accredit your students´ achievement with international standards!
If you would like to know the current fees, administration guidelines, etc. , contact us.
Make sure you have the Administration guidelines and specifications. If you do not, you can download both documents from the link http://www.aqa.org.uk/qual/esol.html
If you would like know what the nearest approved centre is, give us the following details and we will send you the local contact and the date they are planning to administer their exams. The JET SET members will be willing to receive your registrations.
Name / City/ Province/ Telephone Number/ Estimate number of students
Setting Standards Around The World!
Mr. Fabian Wallace
AQA Representative for JET SET
011 15 5402 3247 - 011 4481 2555
13.- ON-LINE TEACHER DEVELOPMENT COURSES BY NET LEARNING
Our dear SHARER Susana Trabaldo writes to us:
Topic: English teachers' and translators' development courses
Course: From Creative Learning to Creative Teaching
Tutor: Susan Hillyard - Starting date: November, 8th - Duration: 6 weeks
Further information: http://www.net-learning.com.ar/cursos/clct.htm
Fee: AR$ 160 – US$ 100
Certified by Asociación de Ex Alumnos del Lenguas Vivas
Topic: Distance education (in Spanish)
Course: Diseño Didáctico de Materiales para el Entorno Virtual
Starting date: November, 18th - Duration: 4 weeks
Further information: http://www.net-learning.com.ar/cursos/dmev.htm
Fee: AR$ 160 – US$ 90
Certified by UTN FRBA
14- COLUMNA DE “IDIOMAS, ARTE Y CULTURA”
Columna de "Idiomas, Arte y Cultura"
de Analía Kandel
Tercer sábado de cada mes a las 15.30 hs.
en "Bureau de Arte" www.bureaudearte.com.ar
Sábados de 15.30 a 17 hs. por Radio Argentina AM 570
On-line en www.am570radioargentina.com.ar
Sábado 19 de Noviembre, 15.30 Hs.
Ben Goldstein, Autor del libro de texto Framework (Editorial Richmond, 2005)
Ben Goldstein estima que en una década la mitad de la población mundial
hablará inglés, y se pregunta, ¿qué inglés escucharemos? El autor de
Framework defiende lo que él llama ILF (Inglés como Lengua Franca) en
contraposición a ILE (Inglés como Lengua Extranjera).
Informe Especial: Programa De Escuelas Plurilingües de la Secretaría de Educación del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires
Con testimonios de
- Lucila Gassó, Coordinadora del Programa de Política Plurilingüe
- Laura Castillo, Coordinadora General del Programa de Escuelas Plurilingües
- Gabriela Gasquet, Coordinadora de Italiano
- Directora, docentes y alumnos de la Escuela N° 14, Distrito Escolar 2,
Sábado 17 de Diciembre, 15.30 hs.
Roberto Arias, Periodista y capacitador de la Radio Comunitaria Mapuche- FM Pocahullo
Reciente e histórico otorgamiento por parte del Comfer de una licencia a una radio comunitaria aborigen: FM Pocahullo (98.5 MHz, Aucapán,Neuquén). Sus objetivos. Su rol en la preservación del mapudungun, la lengua mapuche.
Columna anteriores: En www.analiakandel.com.ar podés escuchar fragmentos de las entrevistas más recientes
15.- FORTHCOMING EVENTS BY APPLE CONSULTANCY
Our dear SHARERS Valeria Goluza & Gabriela Diaz have sent us this invitatoion:
November 17th: 'Using Authentic Assessment in your Classroom' at Colegio del Libertador – Capital Federal.
November 18th: End of the Year Celebration at Instituto Superior Grilli . Monte Grande.
Registration is essential!
For further information and registration, please contact : Apple Consultancy- Valeria Goluza & Gabriela Diaz : email@example.com
16.- POSTGRADUATE STUDIES AT UNIVERSIDAD TORCUATO DI TELLA
Our dear SHARE María Gracia Arzani writes to us:
Queríamos comunicarle que ya está abierta la inscripción tanto para la Especialización en Políticas Educativas, como para la Especialización en Administración de la Educación que dicta la Universidad Di Tella para el ciclo que comienza en marzo de 2006.
A continuación, encontrará el calendario de la misma,
* miércoles 23 de noviembre, 18.00 hs
* miércoles 22 de febrero, 18.30 hs.
* martes 7 de marzo, 18.30 hs.
Cierre de Inscripción: lunes 13 de marzo
Comienzo de clases: jueves 23 de marzo, 18 hs
Asimismo, de querer mayor información acerca de alguno de los programas o para la solicitud de formularios, contáctese con nosotros.
María Gracia Arzani
Contacto: Maria Gracia Arzani
Tel. (54.11) 4784.0084 / Fax: 4784.5055
Miñones 2177, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Today we would like to finish this issue of SHARE with a “glamorous” reflection about Grammar by Richard Lederer
“Believe it or not, grammar and glamor are historically the same word. Back in the eighteenth century, one of the meanings of grammar was "magic, enchantment"; the Scots let the r slip into an l, and lo, came forth glamor. In the popular mind, however, grammar is anything but glamorous. Whatever magic resides in the subject is felt to be a sort of black magic, a mysterious caldron bubbling with creepy, crawly creatures.”
HAVE A WONDERFUL WEEK
Omar and Marina.
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free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also
absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or
the views expressed by the contributors. For more information about the
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VISIT OUR WEBSITE : http://www.ShareEducation.com.ar There you can read all past issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.