Year 4 Number 89 November 30th 2002
4400 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE this week
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
I got up very early this morning. It´s eight now and everybody is sleeping at home (even dear old Ernie!) The boys came back home at around 6:00 a.m. from a party .The words “dance” and “disco” have long been banned here at home. Do I or Marina have anything against these two seemingly harmless words? Not in the least. When we were a bit younger (say 30 plus years ago)
we used to go dancing and we definitely loved discos. Our children say you simply do not use these words today which means “don´t you ever dare use them in front of my friends!”
Now everything is a party ( I don´t know what this might sound like in translation : what they say is “fiesta”). Teen jargon! I always make a point of learning the latest jargon. If you´ve got to teach them so much the better if you share a common language!
9:30. Marina´s got up now. She´s come and kissed me good morning. I can smell steaming coffee brewing in the kitchen and soon a breakfast of coffee and milk and medialunas (croissants) to go will follow. These are the times I want to commit suicide: I do not drink coffee (high blood pressure) and cannot eat medialunas (diabetis). But my cup of mate cosido (please don´t ask for a translation here) and brown bread toasts and light cream cheese are waiting for me. Martin´s coming down the stairs (the ghost of Hamlet´s dad looked more healthy!!). He´s got a Maths private lesson at 10:00. He´s got to make up for his first term next week. Poor Estela (his private teacher) will have a hard time trying to keep him awake, let alone teaching him some Trigonometry!!
Sebas is still sleeping (it will be “wake me up for lunch affair”, I´m afraid) Marina threatens to wake him up right now (he´s got to cut the grass). Ernie´s got up too and he´s got his fair share of medialunas too. How I envy him.
In SHARE 89
1.- Learning Strategies.
2.- Book Review: Practise writing.
3.- An Irish Friendship Wish.
4.- NLP Workshops in the Summer.
5.- Jujuy Teachers´Association: New Committee.
6.- Demanda de la Enseñanza del Español en Europa.
7.- Jornadas Internacionales de Lengua Española.
8.- Teaching positions in the USA.
9.- A Joke in Three Colours.
10.- News from The Suburban Players.
1.- LEARNING STRATEGIES
Our dear SHARER and friend Professor Douglas Town has sent us this article that we are honoured to SHARE with you. Professor Town halds a BSc in Psychology and an MA in English Language Teaching as well as a postgraduate Diploma in English and Spanish translation. He has worked for many years as an academic consultant and ESP teacher in Spain. He has also taught English for Academic Purposes at Manchester University and is currently living in Buenos Aires where he has recently given seminars on Academic Writing and Contrastive Linguistics at the University of Belgrano.
What are learning strategies?
The importance of learning strategies is now widely recognized in all areas of education. As Oxford says, "under various names such as learning skills, learning-to-learns skills, thinking skills, and problem-solving skills, learning strategies are the way students learn a wide range of subjects, from native language reading through electronics trouble-shooting to new languages" (1990:2-3). This article reviews some definitions and debates about the nature of learning strategies within the field of applied linguistics and ELT.
The Origins of the Term "Strategy"
The word "strategy" comes from the Greek "strategos", a root that originally meant "trick" or "deception". The Greeks later used the term to describe army generals: a general was one who could trick the enemy. The term first became current in English in the late 18th and early 19th century when "it denoted the overall military and psychological plans that a general made for a campaign" (Encyclopaedia Britannica 1985).
The term was first used in Cognitive Psychology in 1956 by Bruner, Goodnow and Austin in a paper presented at a meeting of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It was an auspicious meeting. The paper, which contained the first systematic attempt to consider concept formation from a cognitive perspective (Eysenck and Keane 1990:7), was presented alongside a preliminary paper by Chomsky on his theory of language, George Miller's paper on the magic number 7 in short term memory and Newell Shaw and Simon's "General Problem Solver", a computational model from which later theories relating to problem-solving and production systems are derived.
In Applied Linguistics, strategy research dates back to 1966 when Aaron Carton published his study, "The Method of Inference in Foreign Language Study". This was followed in the mid 1970s by a series of empirical studies of "good" language learners, notably by Rubin (1975), Stern (1975) and Naiman, Fröhlich, Stern and Todesco (1978). Since the late 1970s applied linguistics has turned more and more to cognitive science to provide the theoretical framework for language learning and this has led to valuable research into a whole range of strategies used in vocabulary learning tasks (Cohen and Aphek 1980, 1981), reading comprehension (Brown et al 1983, Chipman Segal and Glaser 1985; Dansereau 1985) and writing (Flower and Hayes 1981) to name only a few.
Learner Strategies and Learning Strategies
A distinction is sometimes made in Applied Linguistics between learner strategies and learning strategies. Tarone (1981), for example, distinguishes three sets of learner strategies: learning strategies, production strategies and communication strategies. According to this view, learning strategies are the means by which the learner processes the L2 input to develop linguistic knowledge. Production strategies, on the other hand, involve learners' attempts to use L2 knowledge they have already acquired efficiently, clearly and with minimum effort (in Faerch and Kasper 1983:72-73 and Ellis 1985:13) while communication strategies consist of learners' attempts to communicate meanings that are beyond their linguistic competence by using such devices as paraphrase or gesture.
While the distinction between learner strategies (i.e. any strategies used by learners) and learning strategies (i.e. strategies used to process input) is a logical one and has been maintained by writers such as Wenden (1987, 1989) and Skehan (1989), this has not been the case in the United States where the term "learning strategy" is used to refer to any type of strategy used by learners. This is not a confusing as it might appear, however, since writers on both sides of the Atlantic (and elsewhere) now recognise that learning can take place through communication (Faerch and Kasper 1983: xvii) and production, as when a writer is forced to reprocess "old" information and language at a deeper level in order to express new meanings or more subtle nuances. Strategies that are used to manipulate or transform cognitive material are now generally known as "cognitive strategies"
Defining the Term "Strategy"
Nevertheless, strategies are not easy to define. As Ellis (1993:9) points out, "there is no agreement on exactly what (...) learning strategies are, how many of them there are, what they consist of, etc".
One problem is that the term "strategy" is widely used in psychology, education and applied linguistics, each of which has its own interests and its own theoretical approaches and research methodology. These differences, although they should not be exaggerated, have been notable in the past. In applied linguistics, for example, earlier definitions of strategies tended to stress their behavioural aspects simply because much research at that time was based on observation of what good language learners did to learn a language, whereas psychology took a more "mentalist" approach. Thus, Rubin (1975:43) originally defines strategies as "techniques or devices which a learner may use to acquire knowledge" and twelve years later she still stressed "what learners do to learn" as well as "what learners do to regulate their learning" (Rubin and Wenden 1987:19. italics in original).
By contrast, Gagné (1977:35) sees strategies as "skills by means of which learners regulate their own internal processes of attending, learning, remembering and thinking", and more recently Best (1986:463) writes: "Strategies are seen in behaviour, but the behaviour implies some sort mental effort. A strategy can therefore be defined as a move, trial or probe designed to effect some change in a problem and provide information by doing so." Best divides strategies into two broad classes: heuristics and algorithms, which are described in the psychology literature in connection with problem-solving.
These differences are nevertheless questions of emphasis rather than fundamental disagreements and the same is true of distinctions made within particular disciplines.
In education, for example, a "strategic approach" has been contrasted with a "deep approach" and a "surface approach" (Entwistle 1987:60). What was most distinctive about the strategic approach was the use of well-planned and carefully organised study methods or "study strategies". More recently, however, study skills or strategies have been introduced within a more general framework that emphasises "deep strategic approaches" (Entwistle 1987:69).
Similarly, differences in emphasis (admittedly more subtle ones) are to be found in applied linguistics among writers who have turned to information processing models for a theoretical framework in which to describe learning strategies. Rubin (in Wenden and Rubin 1987:19) following O'Malley et al (1983) defines learning strategies as "any set of operations, steps plans routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage retrieval and use of information". This definition, while excellent as far as it goes, seems to be based partly on the structural multi-store model of memory and says nothing about levels or depth of processing. Significantly, although Wenden and Rubin mention learning style in passing (1987:22), this concept-, which includes "deep" and "shallow" approaches-, is not developed in their work.
O'Malley and Chamot (1990), on the other hand, take a more process-based view derived from Anderson's (1983-1985) ACT* cognitive architecture. For O'Malley and Chamot, learning strategies are "special ways of processing information that enhance comprehension, learning or retention of the information" (1990:1), and while advocating that certain strategies should be taught to all students, they recognise (at least implicitly) that different learners prefer to process information at different levels. For example, "a visual learner may naturally use imagery as a preferred strategy, and a field-independent or analytic learner may naturally gravitate toward strategies such as grouping and deduction" (1990:163).
When we learn a new concept, we need to know which attributes are relevant and which irrelevant. We also need to know in what way the new concept is similar to or differs from other concepts and whether these are related hierarchically or not.
Irrelevant attributes may lead to definitions that are either too broad or too narrow. One definition which is too broad, I think, is that offered by Wenden (in Wenden and Rubin 1987:6-7), who claims that learner strategies refer not only to learner behaviours but also "to what learners know about the strategies they use" and "what learners know about aspects of their (...) learning other than the strategies they use". While such knowledge is invaluable for effective strategy training (see Oxford 1990:12), and may lead to learners discovering new strategies unassisted, the proof of the pudding is surely in the eating.
By contrast, Seliger's (1984) distinction between strategies and tactics makes the concept of strategy too narrow. Seliger claims that strategies are "basic abstract categories of processing" in contrast to tactics, which "evolve to meet the demands of the moment or fluctuate more slowly..." (1984:41). This distinction recalls Gagné's (1977:36) claim that "cognitive strategies are largely independent of content, and generally apply to all kinds (of content)". But as Gagné himself recognises, "these mental operations must have something to work on - they cannot be exercised in a vacuum" (1977:37).
Seliger's distinction would only be meaningful if strategies were innate and tactics were learned (which he does not say) since all strategies must begin by meeting the demands of some moment or other, whether or not they are later generalised to other context. If, as Harlow (1959) claims, strategies consist of a general skill or a simple rule or code (Gross 1992:196), then it is likely that strategies become generalised in much the same way as skills through "tuning". (See also O'Malley and Chamot 1990:43).
Plans or processes?
Another problem that arises when defining strategies is whether to consider them as a process or a product of learning or both.
Both Faerch and Kasper (1983) and Ellis (1985) make a distinction between strategies and processes. Ellis (1985:166) defines strategies as "plans for controlling the other in which a sequence of operations is to be performed" while processes are "operations involved in the development or realisation of a plan".
In this sense, processes are subordinate to strategies. Faerch and Kasper (1983:29), on the other hand, point out that among other possible explanations, the term strategy may refer to "a specific subclass of processes". My own view is that it is not possible to separate the plan from the process (otherwise strategies cannot be described in behavioural terms either). In this sense, I would agree with Faerch and Kasper in considering strategies to be special kinds of processes.
The literature on learning strategies is confusing because, in the past, psychology, education and applied linguistics had quite different research agendas. In applied linguistics, the move from describing strategies in terms of behaviour to explaining them in terms of underlying mental processes reflects the abandoning of behaviourism as a general theory of learning in favour of models drawn from cognitive psychology. However, the problems of deciding whether strategies as universally valid procedures or a reflection of individual learning style, or whether they are best considered as generalised skills as distinct from responses to concrete situations, are difficult to grasp without understanding, too, how theories of memory and problem-solving have evolved over the years.
The broader challenge is understand how learning strategies interact with the learner's existing communicative competence in order to enhance learning. O'Malley and Chamot's adoption of Anderson's ACT* cognitive architecture (which may, itself, soon be superseded by connectivist models) unwittingly challenged the notion of language as a discrete set of competences, among which strategic competence originally played a relatively minor role, suggesting, as many psychologists already believed, that language is a skill like any other and that language learning is parasitic upon other more general cognitive processes.
In a sense, the wheel has come full circle in applied linguistics: Behaviourism was atheorethical in that it was not interested in mental processes; by failing to make explicit the theoretical framework on which they based their description of learning strategies, O'Malley and Chamot and Oxford simply exchanged one set of recipes for another.
But teachers always need to be clear about the theoretical underpinnings of what they teach in the classroom, don't they?
Best, J.B. (1986). Cognitive Psychology. 2nd ed. St. Paul, Mn.: West Publishing Company.
Ellis, R. (1985). Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: OUP.
Ellis, R. (1993). 'Second language acquisition research: How does it help teachers? An interview with Rod Ellis'. ELT Journal. Jan. 1993.
Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1985).
Entwistle, N. (1988). Understanding classroom learning. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Eysenck, N.W. and Keane, M.T. (1990). Cognitive psychology: A student's handbook. Howe, East Sussex: Erlbaum.
Faerch, C. and Kasper, G. (1983). Strategies in interlanguage communication. London: Longman.
Gagné, R.M. (1977). The conditions of learning. 3rd. ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Gross, R.D. (1992). Psychology: The science of mind and behaviour. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Naiman, N. et al. (1978). The good language leaner. Research and Education Series, 7. Ontario Institute for Study and Education.
O'Malley, J.M. and Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: CUP
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies. Boston, Mass.: Heinle and Heinle.
Palincsar, A.S. and Brown, L.A. (1986). Interactive teaching to promote independent learning from text. Reading Teacher. 32 (8). 771-777.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the good language learner can teach us. TESOL Quarterly 9. 41-51.
Rubin, J. (1981). Study of cognitive processes in second language learning. Applied Linguistics. 117-131.
Seliger H. (1984) 'Processing universals in SLA'. Universals in Second Language Acquisition ed. by Eckmann F. et al
Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. London: Arnold.
Wenden, A. (1989). Learner strategies for learner autonomy. London: Prentice Hall.
Wenden, A. and Rubin, J. (1987). Learner strategies in language learning. London: Prentice Hall.
Douglas Town holds workshops and private classes in Paper and Thesis Writing, Research Methods,The Psychology of Learning (Multiple Intelligences, Cognitive Approaches to Language Learning etc.) Teaching and Language Upgrades. Tel. 4328-5285. firstname.lastname@example.org
2.- BOOK REVIEW : PRACTISE WRTING
Our dear SHARER Jeremy “El Jem” Goodchild from Bahía Blanca has sent us this book review we are very proud to publish.
I wrote this book review some weeks ago, and as such is literally hot off the press. It has not been published anywhere else.
The book itself is one of my favourites, I have used it time and again and
it never fails to stimulate. It is great as a framework for teaching
elements of writing skills.
Jeremy el Jem Goodchild
Pearson Education/Longman 1997, 78pp., £8.40 (revised edition)
ISBN 0582 279224
When you consider the range of writing genres that exist, everything from a note to a letter to the editor, it is hardly surprising that many of them remain unused by native-speakers, let alone by learners of English as a foreign language.
While it is possible to learn to speak a foreign language without learning how to write in it, Byrne (1988: 6) suggested that writing itself is the most difficult skill for all language learners to master and the one that they will have the least use for. In this respect, writing is a skill that escapes many of us, in both our own, or other languages. As White and Arndt (1991: 1) argued, in the EFL context despite the power of writing - as a permanent record, as a form of expression and as a means of communication - it has tended to be a much neglected part of the language programme.
Byrne (1988: 6-7) observed that in the early stages of a course oriented towards oral proficiency, writing serves a variety of pedagogical purposes. The introduction and practice of some form of writing allows for different learning styles, particularly for those students that feel more secure and therefore at ease when they read and write in the language. Whereas writing makes students feel comfortable in their learning experience, use in written tests provides a solid a tangible indication to the student that they have become able to use the language productively. Additionally, exposure through the integration of skills appears to be more effective than using one medium, while at the same time writing provides a break from oral work.
Most of us do little more than use our writing skills in our first language to produce personal letters or complete forms. Most students however, need to write in a foreign language only for examination purposes. With this in mind, as a teacher or intermediate student of the language, pick up the skills development book "Practise Writing", and you will find something rather satisfying.
The revised edition blurb exclaims that it now covers various kinds of writing needed by students at intermediate level, with special emphasis on the requirements of Paper 2 of the Cambridge First Certificate in English examination (FCE). From a cursory glance it is unclear whether the book was written for classroom use or individual use, however it becomes apparent that while it is primarily for use in the classroom, most, if not all of it is adaptable for use by an individual. Indeed, the cover, the layout of the pages and the overall look of the book all appear uninspiring, but on closer inspection it becomes evident that the book deals with a complex skill in a straightforward manner.
The contents page is clear and identifies the seventeen topics covered which range from specific transactional letters such as job applications, to descriptive writing. Under each unit heading there is a brief summary of the aspect of writing skills explored within the unit, for example informal letter writing is considered under unit 2 titled "A friendly letter". This contrasts friendly (informal) and formal language and explores the layout of such informal correspondence.
Strangely the contents page fails to refer to the introductory section titled "Writing for the Cambridge First Certificate Examination". That section itself is logically organised, but limited in its consideration of certain key points. Although an explanation is given about what FCE candidates should expect in the examination, this is limited in scope along with much of the accompanying advice. More informative course books such as "First Certificate" (Prodromou, 1998), "First Certificate Gold" (Burgess & Acklam, 1997) or, of course, the "Cambridge FCE Handbook" provide better detail.
Despite this, probably the greatest strength of the section is its encouragement on page 4 that students consider the reader and in particular ask themselves questions regarding purpose and audience before actually starting to write, that is:
* Who am I writing to? Should I be friendly or formal?
* Why am I writing this - to explain, to persuade, to apologise, to inform, to amuse, to give facts?
* What effect do I want to have on the person who reads this?
* What style do I need to use to achieve this effect?
* Should the text be formal or informal?
* What sort of layout should I use?
A brief explanation of the skills that examiners are looking for is also provided in bullet point form, which usefully states what a candidate should be able to do to write a good text.
Frequent practice is recommended long before the examination as a way of making production easier, more realistic and true to life. However, limited strategies are suggested, notably that students keep a diary, or get a pen friend, but these are not really developed. Further, while students clearly need boundaries or guidelines within which to work, the writer's suggestion that students keep to the processes they meet in the book, appears limiting. Each unit provides a topic-based framework upon which a teacher or student will need to add vocabulary, sentence structures and further practice. Consequently, it would appear that this suggestion is restrictive as it discourages students from seeking alternative-, or added material.
Brainstorming and planning are encouraged. However, the examples provided are simplistic and lack explanation as to when each type of plan is appropriate. Although Stephens exemplifies a linear plan for narrative writing, and spidergraphs and headings for descriptions, the student is left wondering whether this is always the case, or just illustrative. This is a deficiency which could put off some readers, and which is more fully dealt with in other publications.
Stephens' recommended strategy for improving writing is the adherence to a rigid linear process method of practice, plan, draft, make necessary changes, write a second draft, assess yourself (preferably with a friend), and produce a third draft if necessary. This presents two problems. Firstly, and confusingly, the section explains that in the actual examination there is insufficient time for redrafting and so the importance of planning is further emphasised. It is tempting to suggest that students should be trained to prepare and produce in the format of the actual examination; why encourage practice in drafting skills, only for students not to be able to use them on the day of the examination? That said, most writers, regardless of the language being used, would draft and redraft until satisfied with their production. However, Batstone (1994: 84) suggested that learners should not become over-dependent on planning time, and that the aim should be to ease them gradually into the pressures on real-time language use.
Secondly, as Raines (1985: 29) quoted in Tribble (1996: 39) observes, contrary to what many textbooks advise, writers do not follow a neat sequence of planning, organizing, writing and then revising. For while a writer's product is presented in lines, the process that produces it is not linear at all. Instead, it is recursive, and failure to recognise this appears to be a flaw with the book.
The introductory section's shortcomings aside, each unit is self-contained; a major plus for this book. The style is similar for each unit, but without that repetitiveness becoming boring. Each unit begins with a lead-in, a typically straightforward consideration of the background to a topic. In this way the student is successfully put in the situation (or at least a similar one) to be written about.
An asset for any teacher using this book is the inclusion of relevant oral activities. There are many questions to consider orally, in pairs or in groups: the activities are also usable when teaching on a one-to-one basis. This may be helpful for the speaking component of the FCE, and so is an unexpected additional benefit from the book. However, this could be a problem for a student using the book unassisted.
A variety of activities is provided and in this regard the book is extremely satisfying. However, some are rather limited in their potential for student practice, as they include just a few examples. These activities include rewriting sentences using prompts to illustrate the use of different verb tenses when writing, word transformations, completing words or phrases by matching parts from separate lists, selecting linking words and expressions from options to complete a piece of writing, and retrospective planning, as well as true or false statements. Combined, these effectively build up the learner's understanding of the style of writing covered in each unit.
As an example, Unit 1 "Describing a person", is clearly organised. To begin with, the student is provided with a text to skim and consider its source, that is decide whether it is from a letter, a report, or a newspaper. This acts as a stimulus since the students must provide a reason for their answer. The text, a magazine article, is incomplete. The student is introduced to the concept of topic sentences, and required to fill four gaps with the appropriate topic sentence from the four provided. With more careful thought however, Stephens could have improved reliability by adding one or two more topic sentences to avoid students unavoidably matching a second sentence incorrectly, because of one initial mismatch.
The activities that follow are logically organised and include a variety of relevant exercises, all of which succeed in building upon each other. Each unit includes an example of the style of writing focused upon, although in many cases for the student to see the complete version there is a need to successfully complete an activity.
Vocabulary is developed with students required to consider adjectives to describe themselves. The list includes pairs of antonyms. Although limited in scope, an additional exercise encourages the students to add any others they know of. Brief consideration is given to hyphenated adjectives and the usual order of adjectives in sentences.
A further criticism that can be raised against the book is that insufficient practice is provided within the body of each unit. Any teacher selecting this book would need to expand on structures and provide more opportunities for vocabulary development. Furthermore, it is a pity that a teacher's book is not available. Although not essential, the principles underlying the book and some ideas about how to exploit the material could have been useful. The separate key to the exercises which accompanies the book is equally simple. Very straightforward to refer to, each unit, section and exercise is clearly identified. The key is like the book that it complements, a simple and straightforward affair.
A significant asset is the fact that throughout, the four skills are integrated in a simple but effective framework. With each unit culminating in a written task supported by a useful language box, there is something satisfying about each unit. The handy tips sections at the end of each unit encourage students to think how they might improve their writing skills in areas of layout, paragraphing, register and style.
The range of subjects involved is interesting and appropriate to the style of writing or skill under consideration within each unit. Being topic-based and self-contained, a teacher does not have to present units in a specific order, but just make a selection as needs dictate.
Batstone, R. 1994. Grammar. OUP
Byrne, D. 1988. Teaching Writing Skills. Longman
Willis, J. 1996. A Framework for Task-Based Learning. Longman
White, R. and Arndt, V. 1991. Process Writing. Longman
Tribble, C. 1996. Writing. OUP
Nunan, D. 1989. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. CUP
Prodromou, L. 1998 First Certificate Star. Heinemann
Burgess, S. and Acklam, R. First Certificate Gold. Course Book. Longman.
3.- AN IRISH FRIENDSHIP WISH
Our dear SHARER Debbie Nacamuli Klebs email@example.com writes to us:
Got this blessing from someone and wanted to share it with you all
An Irish Friendship Wishmay
May there always be work for your hands to do;
May your purse always hold a coin or two;
May the sun always shine on your windowpane;
May a rainbow be certain to follow each rain;
May the hand of a friend always be near you;
May God fill your heart with gladness to cheer you.
4.- NLP WORKSHOPS IN THE SUMMER
Our dear SHARER and friend Jamie Duncan sends us this information and an invitation to visit his and Laura Szmuch´s website, which he calls “ our newly revamped (but still very modest) site”. Find it at http://rt.totem.com.ar ( and don´t believe Jamie. It´s really gorgeous!)
Summer Sizzlers with Laura Szmuch and Jamie Duncan
The creativity week! Following the success of our Winter Wonders programme last July, we are presenting a new series of workshops designed to give you an introduction into the techniques and research of NLP. These practical sessions will give you a wealth of insights into the learning process each of your students uses, their reactions and responses in class and the magic of clean communication. You will learn how to effect improvements in your classroom environment and to enhance your lessons to better reach all students.
We will be presenting new activities and perspectives not previously seen in our workshops or Practitioner Certificate course. Each workshop lasts three hours.
The workshops will take place from Tuesday February 11 to Friday February 14 from 9 am - 12 pm and 2 pm - 5 pm. There will be a free introductory workshop for those without previous contact with NLP on Monday February 10 from 10 - 12. Enrolment essential.
Tuesday February 11
AM: What do I want? Discover the key to making your dreams come true! Achieving our objectives can be a challenge for us all. Through the use of simple productive techniques, we will learn to better identity what our real aims are and how to go about reaching them. These activities are also designed to be used with students.
PM: Enriching your creative work Why do we use visualisations and other creative tools in class? Practical exercises to improve the creative output of your students. How to write and use visualisations and to stimulate the student´s imagination.
Wednesday February 12
AM: Language for Flexibility The way we respond to difficult situations can lead the way to a rapid solution or not. What can we say in the face of resistance, excuses and simple 'I don´t knows'? This workshop will give you some easy to remember language tips to help unblock the flow of communication.
PM: Really Listening Do we really listen to what the other is saying? As teachers, this skill is becoming increasingly central to our work. Efficient listening can smoothe communication and speed up work. In this session we will explore means of listening more effectively and show how this ability can be transferred to work with students.
Thursday February 13
AM: What lies beneath? What we do and how we behave in class are simply manifestations that can be seen on the surface. What really drives us as teachers and learners are our beliefs, the underlying 'filters' we have of our world. Discover a way to liberate yourself from limiting thoughts and ideas and move towards empowering new mental pathways.
PM: Another slurp of Passionfruit More multisensory activities for the classroom. This workshop will present new ideas using the passion of your students in their creative work so that they produce more and have a real investment in the use of the language. All levels, ages and interests.
Friday February 14
AM: Options for Resourceful Leadership In these days, heads and administrators of educational institutions need a wide variety of skills to deal with the demands of their work. Neuro Linguistic Programming has numerous useful tools for handling the challenging situations involving students, teachers and parents that you may be facing. It can also provide clear strategies for helping your institute or department function smoothly and efficiently.
PM: I´m a Superteacher The work of a teacher includes many facets that are not taught on the training courses. Let´s recognise these and learn simple ways of appreciating and protecting ourselves so that we can give our best to our students.
Fee Schedule: Profesorado students with current libreta de estudiantes $50
For teachers - Before 1 December $120 for all eight workshops
Before 15 January $140
Before 10 February $160
Special discounts on enrolments before 1 December for people enrolling together, current Resourceful Teaching Practitioner students and Profesorado students . Please contact us for details. Fees for individual workshops on application.
NB: There are limited vacancies per workshop. Enrolment is only guaranteed by payment of fee.
5.- JUJUY TEACHERS´ ASSOCIATION: NEW COMMITTEE
Our dear SHARER Marcela B Pawlak sends us this announcement. Our best wishes to all our dear friends in Jujuy!
Me dirijo a Uds. a fin de informarles que en la Asamblea Ordinaria del pasado 26 de Octubre resultamos electas como la nueva Comisión Directiva de AJPI (ASOCIACIÓN JUJEÑA DE PROFESORES DE INGLES) para el periodo 2002-2004:
Presidente: Prof. Marcela Burgos Pawlak
Vice-presidente: Prof. Mabel Rodríguez
Secretaria: Prof. Roxana Ramos
Pro-secretaria: Prof. Mónica Orieta
Tesorera: Prof. Patricia Horihuela
Pro-tesorera: Prof. Alba Sandoval
Vocales: Prof. Maria Fernanda Rodriguez
Prof. Valentina Salinas
Vocales Suplentes: Prof. Griselda Chaile
Prof. Erminia Sanchez
Rogamos a Uds. actualizar los siguientes datos, para una óptima comunicación:
Sede AJPI: 9 de Julio 310. CP 4500. San Pedro de Jujuy
Tele/fax: 03884-422338 - e-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org
También los invitamos a visitar nuestra página web: www.ajpi.htmlplanet.com
Prof. Marcela B. Pawlak
6.- DEMANDA DE LA ENSEÑANZA DEL ESPAÑOL EN EUROPA
Our dear friend Gerardo Lafferiere sends us this article from Educyt 205
El castellano puede convertirse en la segunda lengua extranjera en Francia y Alemania debido al incremento de la demanda de aprendizaje en dichos países, comentó Jon Juaristi, director del Instituto Cervantes. En la presentación en Madrid de la quinta edición del anuario "El español en el mundo", destacó que en los países de la Unión Europea (UE) unos 3,4 millones de personas fuera de España estudian castellano, de los cuales el 60 por ciento se encuentra en Francia, el 15 por ciento en Gran Bretaña, y el 11 por ciento en Alemania.
Entre los motivos que impulsan el estudio del castellano en esos países, Juaristi indicó que está vinculado al trabajo y la economía, pero también con causas personales de los jóvenes europeos. En su anuario, el Instituto Cervantes subrayó que gran parte de los estudiantes europeos no
españoles que aprenden castellano lo relacionan con el conocimiento cultural hispano, la vida de España y América y razones económicas.
"El español libra una batalla difícil ante otras lenguas para consolidarse como segunda lengua extranjera en Francia y Alemania", aseguró el titular del Instituto Cervantes. Añadió Juaristi que mientras en el Reino Unido se compite con el francés y alemán por ser la segunda lengua,
en Francia y Alemania pugna con el inglés, que es segunda lengua extranjera en muchos países europeos y del mundo.
El informe también trató la situación de Australia, donde encontró la necesidad de difundir el castellano en un país donde existe menos tradición por las lenguas extranjeras. En Australia viven sólo unos 91 mil hispanohablantes (el 0,5 por ciento del total del país), y es la octava lengua más hablada tras el inglés, italiano, chino, griego, árabe, vietnamita y alemán. Y últimamente ha habido poco crecimiento de población hispanohablante. El castellano comenzó a enseñarse en cuatro universidades en 1975, y en la actualidad se dicta en 23 de ellas (la mitad de las universidades australianas), llegando a unos 146 centros educativos de
Más información: http://cvc.cervantes.es/obref/anuario/
© Educyt Nro 205, semanario de noticias de Educación, Universidad, Ciencia y Técnica
7.- JORNADA INTERNACIONAL SOBRE LENGUA ESPAÑOLA
Our dear SHARERS from Torre de Papel email@example.com send us this invitation. We thought this conference might be of special interest to our translators and specialists in Grammar, Comparative Structures and Linguistics:
Jornada Hispanoamericana sobre la Lengua Española
con el auspicio de la Embajada de España - Consejería Cultural
Jueves 5 de diciembre de 2002 - de 8.30 a 17.00
Lugar de realización de la jornada: Paraná 1159 - Buenos Aires - República Argentina
8.30 a 9.00 Acreditación
9.15 a 9.30 Palabras del Consejero Cultural de la Embajada de España,
Lic. Luis Prados Covarrubias
9.30 a 9.45 Palabras de la Presidenta de la Fundación LITTERAE,
Dra. Alicia María Zorrilla
9.45 a 11.00 Dr Alfredo Matus Olivier, Director de la Academia Chilena de la
Lengua "Corrección académica: ideal panhispánico y norma culta"
11.00 a 11.30 Dr Pedro Luis Barcia, Presidente de la Academia Argentina de Letras "Un diccionario del habla de los argentinos"
11.30 a 12.00 refrigerio
12.00 a 12.30 Dra. Norma Beatriz Carricaburo (Universidad de Buenos Aires. Universidad Católica Argentina). "La sintaxis de la oralidad"
12.30 a 13.00 Prof. María Elena Vigliani de la Rosa (Universidad Austral).
"Necesidad de capacitación lingüística para los profesionales"
15.00 a 16.00 Prof. María Antonieta Dubourg (República Oriental del
Uruguay. Diario EL PAÍS). "El lenguaje en los medios de comunicación uruguayos"
16.00 a 16.30 Prof. Ninette Cartes-Enríquez (Universidad de Concepción, Chile). "Estrategias sociolingüísticas aplicadas por chilenos en actos de conversación"
16.45 a 17.15 Trad. Graciela Steinberg (Colegio de Traductores Públicos de la
Ciudad de Buenos Aires). "El español en la traducción"
17.15 a 18.00 Dra. Alicia María Zorrilla (Miembro de Número de la Academia
Argentina de Letras. Universidad del Salvador. Fundación LITTERAE).
"Sobre el régimen preposicional en español"
Informes e inscripción: Fundación Litterae - Virrey Arredondo 2247 2.° "B"
1426 Buenos Aires - Tel. 4786-1127 (de 16.30 a 20.30)
INSCRIPCIÓN: $ 20 (US$ 7)
8.- TEACHING POSITIONS IN THE USA
Our dear SHARER Tuky Chiaraviglio from Rafaela sends us this announcement:
Live, Teach and Learn in the USA.
Since 1962, Amity Institute has been committed to inspiring international friendship through language learning. Hundred of American schools have been able to enrich foreign language instruction by inviting Amity volunteers from abroad to personify their native language and culture in schools across the nation. American students have benefited through exposure to another culture and firsthand contact with a native speaker of the language they are studying. The Amity Intern Teacher Program focuses on sharing language and culture. It is for those who want to gain teaching experience, immerse themselves in American culture and participate in an American community. Who can apply? You must be: 1) interested in teaching youths; 2) a graduate from a University or Teacher Training College; 3) single, between the ages 20 and 30; 4) able to communicate well in English. Length of assignments: 1) full school year (August/September to May/June); 2) semester (approximately 5 months); 3) quarter (approximately 9 weeks).
On the other hand, over the years, Amity Institute has periodically enabled Americans to travel to other countries to serve as teaching assistants in English language classrooms.
In recent years, requests for English teachers in many countries have increased. Responding to this need, the Amity Volunteer Teachers Abroad (AVTA) Program was developed for Americans and other native English speakers. Through AVTA Program, Amity Institute offers schools the opportunity to invite a native English speaker into their classrooms to share their language and culture and enhance English language instruction.
Other than that, the Exchange Teacher Program or Amity International Teachers, are filling vacancies in many US schools teaching Math, Science, Foreign Languages and Special Education. All candidates for this position are required to hold at least a Bachelor's (or equivalent -Teachers Training Colleges-) degree, have three years experience in teaching and speak English well.
For further details visit their web site: www.amity.org where you'll find not only all information about these programs but also the names and addresses of your nearest Screening Officers in Argentina.
If you feel like communicating with me and asking any questions, please, don't hesitate to do it.
Tuky Chiaraviglio: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: 03492 426661
9.- A JOKE IN THREE COLOURS
Our dear SHARER María Paula Pessino sends us this contribution which she has entitled “Una de gallegos… en inglés”
Three men, an Italian, a French and a Spanish went for a job interview in England.
Before the interview, they were told that they must compose a sentence in English with three main words: green, pink and yellow.
The Italian was first: "I wake up in the morning. I see the yellow sun. I see the green grass and I think to myself, I hope it will be a pink day."
The French was next: "I wake up in the morning, I eat a yellow banana, a green pepper and in the evening I watch the pink panther on TV." Last was the Spanish: "I wake up in the morning, I hear the phone "green...green...", I pink up the phone and I say "Yellow?"
10.- NEWS FROM THE SUBURBAN PLAYERS
Our dear SHARER Susan Hillyard writes to us with some news from the Suburban Players:
Time for the Younger Crowd to be in the limelight!
The Suburban Players Junior proudly announces its Third Talent Show for & by Children
Coordinated by Ximena Faralla
If you have or know of children who are potential actors and are willing to have a go with a song, sketch, magic trick, dance (either as a group or individually), share a funny story or anything they would like to show to others, they now have a chance in the limelight!
On Sunday, December 8th at 7 pm The Playhouse (Moreno 80, San Isidro) will be open for these budding artists to perform in front of a live audience. All they need to do is get in touch with us and we will arrange a get-together to see what they want to stage.
So if you are a Drama Teacher or just happen to like the Performing Arts, or your child or grandchild is ready to hit the boards... this is your chance to help your kids onto a real stage!
Sunday December 8th - 7 pm
Ticket: $5- -Members and participants: Free-
Leave us your message at 4747.4470 or email us at email@example.com and we will get back to you.
End of the Year Party!
Join us to celebrate the end of the year. Live entertainment, food, drinks, dancing!
Saturday, December 14th - 9 pm
"The Playhouse" - Moreno 80, San Isidro
Tickets: $5- Food ticket: $5-.
Please contact Hugo Halbrich at firstname.lastname@example.org
Today we will say goodbye with a message that our dear SHARER and friend Marcela Santafé y Soriano has sent us:
HAVE A WONDERFUL WEEK!
Omar and Marina.
SHARE is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced or the views expressed by the contributors. For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit: http://groups.yahoo.com/sharemagazine
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : http://www.shareeducation.com.ar There you can read all past issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.