An Electronic Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac
Number 122 March
6000 SHARERS are reading
this issue of SHARE this week
candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not
be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being SHARED
A new school year is here and with it the renewed illusion
to make of it the best year of our teaching careers. With the start of the new
academic year, we also renew our firm commitment to accompany our colleagues as
we have done in these past four years of our publication. Let SHARE be our small
contribution to this profession that has given us so much and to those
colleagues from all over the country that have unfailingly given us their warmth
and affection throughout the years. May God help us to keep on enjoying the
pleasure of their company in the years to come.
On a more personal note, we would both like to thank all
those teachers that have accompanied Omar in his presentations of our latest
book from up North to the deep South of Patagonia and that have either
personally or by mail expressed their enthusiasm and loving care. To them and to
you,dear SHARERS, we shall always be indebted.
The Thinking Approach – Part 2.
Vocabulary in English.
3.- On the nature and role of
4.- How to memorize a
5.- Second Regional Conference in
6.- A Teacher on the
7.- Conference in Santo
Simposio Internacional de Bilingüismo.
9.- Congreso sobre Educación, Lenguaje y
10.- YeS is
11.- Curso de Interpretación
Message from Resistencia.
13.- Traductorado Público en Lomas
THE THINKING APPROACH – PART 2
Our dear SHARER Alexander Sokol from Riga, Latvia
generously wants to SHARE this collections of articles on the Thinking Approach
with all of us. Today we are publishing the second and last part of this set of
it is already commonly accepted that 'learning to learn' must become one of the
highest priorities for students, the English language curriculum is still full
of pre-packaged knowledge.
Apparently, if speaking of a 'futures curriculum'(Littlejohn, 1998b), a
shift of focus from giving knowledge to introducing methods aimed at acquiring
new knowledge is to occur not only in theory. A creative individuality of the
future is supposed to have mastered a large variety of skills (methods)
necessary to succeed in the rapidly changing world. The Thinking Approach (TA)
to teaching English is an attempt to make a step in the above direction.
is aimed at simultaneous development of language and thinking skills. Its
methodological basis is the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) developed
by Genrich Altshuller. For over more than 50 years since it appeared, TRIZ has
proved an effective problem-solving methodology, and it is currently used
virtually all over the world .
Unfortunately, nowadays the development of both thinking
and creativity is restricted by encouragement. Students are merely asked to
think and be creative. Within the TA the process is seen technologically.
Students must be given a tool that will help them arrive at new (creative)
solutions in various fields. In other words, students study exact (algorithmic)
methods and procedures which help them reach previously unknown solutions. Thus,
unlike many other approaches where the thinking focus is often used
interchangeably with any extra linguistic focus, here the thinking focus of
tasks and activities is assessed by the amount and complexity of models (tools)
students practice and acquire while working upon the task.
research on the TA started in 1997 with 10-12 forms of Riga Herder school. The
hypothesis which was to be confirmed sounded as follows: introduction of
extensive thinking skill training
into language classroom will not only provide students with new methods
of dealing with the world and thus prepare them to the life in the future,
but also improve their language
moment, there is an international team working upon the project. In several
schools in Latvia, students learn English upon a TA based programme. Over the
six years since the beginning of the research, six modules (or technologies)
have been developed under the Thinking Approach: the Text Technology that deals
with the use of texts in the language classroom; the Film Technology that deals
with the use of films; the Creative Grammar Technology and the Creative Lexis
Technology that demonstrate how the thinking focus can be incorporated into
teaching of grammar and vocabulary; the Speaking Technology that deals with
speaking training with a carefully selected thinking focus, and the Self-Study
Technology aimed at the development of students' ability to learn independently.
Materials under each module have been piloted with various categories of
students and largely proved successful.
are five meta-principles underlying the Thinking Approach to language
organization of the course.
in many traditional approaches where various parts of the syllabus are taught
step by step, the TA offers an opportunity to stop at virtually any part of the
syllabus at every lesson . Learning is organized through trainings - complexes
of tasks giving a full ranged practice of both language and thinking skills. We
may draw an analogy with driving here. In order to learn to drive, you have to
acquire a large number of various skills, i.e. using the pedals, shifting the
gear, noticing traffic signs, etc. However, you are not offered to do it in a
step by step fashion - the instructor makes you drive from the very beginning,
focusing on each of the skills in the process when it becomes essential. A
similar thing happens in the language classroom. Students are always in the
process of doing a task, while the teacher has an opportunity to focus on any
point of the syllabus as soon as they see that it becomes
incorporates many ideas from other approaches to language teaching. Depending on
the specific situation (class needs, peculiarities of the learners, teacher's
aims, etc), a certain lesson can be both teacher or student centred, the
emphasis may be on lexis, structures or pronunciation, exercises offered to
students may be both closed and open-ended, etc.
are at least 2 parts of the syllabus in any TA language course, i.e. language
and thinking ones. In addition to this, other parts may be integrated into
syllabus depending upon the requirements of a specific situation. Any of the TA
modules can be developed into
a separate part of the syllabus.
Thinking Models or
tasks and activities offered under TA have a carefully selected thinking focus.
An activity may appear familiar at a first glance, yet the way students deal
with it is often radically different. Rather than just encouraging students to
think and be creative, the TA teacher offers students specific models or tools
for thinking, i.e. it teaches students how one can be creative.
the highest priorities of the TA is to develop an independent learner, the one
who can master necessary skills without or with the minimum assistance from the
following methodological principles are essential when working in the framework
of the TA.
learn best when they have to deal with problems and look for suitable solutions
to them. Under a problem in the context of the TA we understand a situation when
contradictory requirements have to be met. Problems can be both language and
non-language ones. In the former case, language itself will be the object of
study at the lesson (e.g., in case of grammar), while in the latter case
language will be a means, and linguistic skills will be practiced while working
upon the problem.
to the module structure of the TA, it easily integrates with other subjects in
the curriculum. The modules mastered by students can be applied to acquisition
of various disciplines, while
trainings and activities developed under the TA may be successfully
employed for teaching other subjects, especially
promotes awareness activities as an alternative to mere memorization as much as
possible. It does not mean, however, that memorization should be excluded from
the language classroom, however its role should be restricted and awareness
activities should have preference.
focus. Most tasks in the TA have an extra
linguistic focus. Language is used as one of the means for finding a solution to
a problem. The emphasis is on mastering processing (how to)
Extension of cultural
values. Various materials offered under the TA
(texts, films, etc) aim to extend the cross-cultural knowledge of students,
awareness of the target culture as well as promote the formation of their own
Emphasis on Learner's
Individuality. As any TA course is non-linear, each
student has a chance to acquire as much as he or she is ready to do at any given
moment of time and later add 'new knots' of the semantic net of the subject to
their knowledge. The information presented at every lesson is multi-layered,
thus teaching becomes much more individual.
Those students who have already mastered important aspects of the syllabus
('nodes') start explaining some points to other students, thus performing some
of the teacher's functions. Besides increasing learners' independence, it leads
to a useful discussion as a result of which students reach a deeper
understanding of the subject.
the principles separately can be hardly called new. Moreover, most of the ideas
emphasized by the TA have been known in education for many years. What makes the
TA stand aside however, is a systematic course which comprises ALL of the above
principles and as a result leads us towards the resolution of the key
contradictions of language teaching and education
Understanding of thinking skills within the Thinking
Approach is based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving developed by
Genrich Altshuller. At present, the work on the system of thinking skills
continues. A list below is an attempt to make a first step in this direction. It
was written by Nikolai Khomenko and Alexander Sokol as a part of their joined
paper for the Altshuller Institute Conference in the year
Group 1 - The Model Vision of the
ability to think in terms of models;
ability to see the Applicability Limits of the given Model;
ability to compose an unlimited number of models of the given Element with a
different degree of abstraction and accuracy from different points of view
(using the Full Scheme Model);
ability to operate with the Models which break causal relationships between the
ability to withdraw from individual experience and peculiarities of personal
perception of the situation. Ability to simultaneously view the situation from
the vantage point of other participants and an impartial
Group 2 - The Main
Model for Description of an Element
(substantial or non-substantial): Element - Name of Feature
- Value of Feature
ability to describe an Element as a set of Features;
ability to describe a Feature as an Element that has a Name and a Value: one
Name of Feature and several various Values of Feature;
ability to describe Process as an Element;
ability to describe Fact as a change of one Value to another under the same Name
ability to describe Phenomena or Objective Laws of System (Element) Evolution as
causes and effects of several Facts: one or several effects is a cause of at
least one other effect;
ability to see Laws of Evolution, Phenomena, Effect or Function as a result of
interaction of several Elements (using the Full Scheme Model);
ability to see the Function of a System (or an Element) as one of its Features:
the Systemshape Feature;
ability to describe a System as a set of Elements (using the Full Scheme Model)
aimed to perform the given Systemshape Feature;
ability to vary the Values of Element Features on a large scale and track the
changes in the Full Scheme Model of Elements (i.e. in the world). Ability to
track the qualitative changes of other features caused by the procedure of
varying the values. Such changes which lead to the qualitative leap in the Full
ability to look for Elements using their description presented as a List of
Features or/and a List of Values of Features.
Group 3 - The Full Scheme Model of
ability to recognise Elements using the Full Scheme Model;
ability to operate with impossible, exceptional, fantastic. Ability to think
beyond possible and real;
ability to operate the mechanisms allowing free but controlled mental move from
a specific real situation towards a fantastic situation and backwards from the
fantastic situation to the real one. Ability to make distinctions between real
and imaginary. Ability to use fantastic, fairy and any other imaginary
transformations for problem solving. Ability to turn fantastic assumptions into
reality ("The Golden Fish" technique);
ability to broaden the area of the considered variants beyond known and
naturally possible to the field of unknown and impossible where causal
relationships are broken;
ability to navigate in the space of Objective and Subjective Factors. Ability to
differentiate between them;
ability to describe Elements on different Levels of Abstraction;
ability to see an Element as a whole of other Elements and a part of a larger
set of elements;
ability to see an Element in the process of its transformation in accordance
with Objective Laws, regularities and effects;
ability to see an Element in the Hierarchy of Elements of the world;
ability to see the Evolution of an Element - how the Past could predetermine the
Present and how the Present can predetermine the Future;
ability to see an Element and all of its
Group 4 - The Resource Model
ability to find and use Resources necessary for problem solving on the basis of
the Main Model and the Full Scheme Model; ability to combine them with Elements
of Supersystem and their derivatives; the use of Internal Resources (those of
Subsystems) and their derivatives, the use of Modification of any Resources in
time: not only their condition in the present, but also in the past and
ability to find resources necessary for the Problem Situation Solution beyond
the possibilities of the described situation (including the use of the Main
Model and the Full Scheme Model)
Group 5 - The Ideality Model
ability to compose an ideal model of Elements using different levels of Ideality
and the Systemshape Feature;
ability to formulate a particular Ideal Final Result (IFR) for a particular
ability to see the difference between Contradiction and Ideal Final Result;
ability to compose an ideal model of the Problem Solution using different levels
Group 6 - The Contradiction
ability to see Contradiction as a barrier on our way from Resources of Initial
Problem Situation to Ideal Final Solution;
ability to recognise Contradiction as the Underlying Cause of all problems;
ability to see Contradictions and operate them;
ability to intensify Contradiction in order to reduce the Solution Search Area;
ability to recognise various types of Contradictions in Problem Situation;
ability to see, perceive and operate opposites (their combination and
ability to see undesirable negative consequences of positive desirable results
and vice versa: ability to see desirable positive consequences of negative
ability to see a System of Contradictions using the Full Scheme
Group 7 - The Problem Situation
ability to recognise the Underlying Cause of the Problem;
ability to analyse any Problem Situation taking into account its Specific
Conditions and variants of their evolution;
ability to see the whole Hierarchy of Problems behind the given problem in
accordance with the Full Scheme Model;
ability to analyse the Problem Situation in the same way as any other element of
ability to choose (using the Full Scheme Model) from the System of Problems
exactly that problem (and at that moment of time) the solution of which will
produce the best effect on the given stage of
Group 8 - The Problem Solution
ability to differentiate between the estimation of Partial and Final Solutions;
ability to use common sense and the OTSM-TRIZ tools in order to reduce the
Solution Search Area during the process of problem solving;
ability to extract Key Elements of Problem Situations - the elements which cause
the highest number of undesirable effects and contradictions;
ability to estimate and take account of the Processes Predetermination Degree in
the past and future;
ability to find Partial Solutions to the Problem and transform them into the
Complex Solution suitable for the current specific situation;
ability to admit the need to solve a completely different problem hidden under
the mask of the given situation. Being ready to refuse from solving the given
problem if it is forced by external
Group 9 - TRTL (Theory of Creative Personality
(Qualities of Creative Personality)
a new or unachieved ultimate Goal (or a System of Goals) which is worthy and
valuable to the community;
a Program of Activities (or several programs) aimed to achieve the set goal and
control the process of its execution;
and Concrete Results in carrying the heavy workload necessary to go according to
ability to solve problems encountered on the way to the Goal;
ability to defend one's own ideas, bear public unacknowledgement and
incomprehension, ability "to stand punishment" and keep loyal to the Goal;
Commensurability of Achievements (or their dimension) with the set Goal.
“Thinking Skills” © by Nikolai Khomenko and Alexander
2003 The TA Group, all rights reserved.
Do you want to get to know more about the Thinking
Approach? Visit Alexander´s Thinking Approach Project website at www.thinking-approach.org
2.- FRENCH VOCABULARY IN
SHARER Maria del Rosario Morales from Mendoza has sent us this interesting
article which, as she says, she
dedicates to all word lovers.
French terms and expressions commonly
used in English
years, the English language has borrowed a great number of words and expressions
from French. Some of this vocabulary has been so completely absorbed by English
that speakers might not realize its origins. Other words and expressions have
retained their "Frenchness" - a certain je ne sais quoi which speakers tend to
be much more aware of (although this awareness does not usually extend to
actually pronouncing the word in French). The following is a list of French
terms which are commonly used in English.
meaning: until God. Used like
"farewell"; when you don't expect to see the person again until God (when you
die and go to Heaven)
meaning: provocative agent . A
person who attempts to provoke suspected individuals or groups into committing
military officer who serves as a personal assistant to a higher-ranking
Something that acts as an aid to memory, such as crib notes or a mnemonic
meaning: on the menu*. French
restaurants usually offer a menu with choices for each of the several courses at
a fixed price. If you want something else (a side order), you order from the
carte. *Note that menu is a false cognate in French and
meaning: in fashion,
English, this means "with ice cream" - apparently someone decided that having
ice cream on pie was the fashionable way to eat
meaning: self love, self
meaning: cocktail . From Latin, "to
French term actually refers to snow boots, but the literal translation of the
term is what is meant in English, as in "après-ski" social events.
meaning: on the subject
French, à propos must be followed by the preposition de. In English, there are
four ways to use apropos (we leave out the accent and the space):
Adjective - appropriate, to the point: "That's true, but it's not
Adverb - At an appropriate time, opportunely: "Fortunately, he arrived
Adverb/Interjection - by the way, incidentally: "Apropos, what happened
Preposition (may or may not be followed by of) - with regard to, speaking of:
"Apropos our meeting, I'll be late"; "He told a funny story apropos of the new
meaning: decorative art. Short for
meaning: attached. A person
assigned to a diplomatic post
is used in British English to mean "familiar" or "conversant": She's not really
au fait with my ideas.
meaning: with gratings. In French,
au gratin refers to anything that is grated and put on top of a dish, like
breadcrumbs or cheese. In English, au gratin means "with cheese."
meaning: in the juice. Served with
the meat's natural juices.
meaning: in reality, unseasoned .
In this case naturel is a semi-false cognate. In French, au naturel can mean
either "in reality" or the literal meaning of "unseasoned" (in cooking). In
English, we picked up the latter, less common usage and use it figuratively, to
mean natural, untouched, pure, real.
meaning: at par . A person who
works for a family (cleaning and/or teaching the children) in exchange for room
meaning: before guard. Innovative,
especially in the arts
meaning: to have weight. This word
has a very interesting etymology. The words avoir du poids are French, but the
expression itself is English: the words were (in a nutshell) imported into
English from Old French, strung together, and then the new term, which referred
to commodities sold by weight, was exported back to French in the 15th century.
Today it is an informal, general term for weight.
meaning: black beast. Similar to a
pet peeve: something that is particularly distasteful or difficult and to be
meaning: sweet note, Love
meaning: fair-haired. This is the
only adjective in English which agrees in gender with the person it modifies:
blond is for a man and blonde for a woman. Note that these can also be
meaning: good appetite. The closest
English equivalent is "Enjoy your meal."
meaning: good "liver". Someone who
lives well, who knows how to enjoy life.
meaning: good trip. English has
"Have a good trip," but Bon voyage is more
meaning: small, dark-haired female.
The French word brun, dark-haired, is what English really means by "brunette."
The -ette suffix indicates that the subject is small and
meaning: blank card. Free hand,
ability to do whatever you want/need
meaning: cherry. The French word
for the fruit gives us the English word for the
meaning: that's life. Same meaning
and usage in both languages
meaning: long chair. In English,
this is often mistakenly written as "chaise lounge" - which actually makes
meaning: charged with business.A
substitute or replacement diplomat
meaning: Frisian horse. Barbed
wire, spikes, or broken glass attached to wood or masonry and used to block
meaning: horse mirror. A long
mirror set into a moveable frame
meaning: stylish. Chic sounds more
chic than "stylish."
meaning: mercy blow. Deathblow,
final blow, decisive stroke
meaning: state blow. Overthrow of
meaning: cream of cacao.
meaning: cream of the cream.
Synonymous with the English expression "cream of the crop" - refers to the best
of the best.
meaning: cream of mint.
meaning: fresh cream. This is a
funny term. Despite its meaning, crème fraîche is in fact slightly fermented,
meaning: critical, judgment.
Critique is an adjective and noun in French, but a noun and verb in English; it
refers to a critical review of something or the act of performing such a
meaning: kitchen, food style. In
English, cuisine refers only to a particular type of food/cooking, such as
French cuisine, Southern cuisine, etc.
meaning: bottom of the bag.
meaning: beginner. In French,
débutante is the feminine form of débutant - beginner (noun) or beginning (adj).
In both languages, it also refers to a young girl making her formal debut into
society. Interestingly, this usage is not original in French; it was adopted
back from English.
meaning: low neckline. lowered
neckline. The first is a noun, the second an adjective, but both refer to low
necklines on women's clothing.
meaning: tasting. The French word
simply refers to the act of tasting, while in English "degustation" is used for
a tasting event or party, as in wine or cheese
meaning: already seen. This is a
grammatical structure in French, as in "Je l'ai déjà vu"=> I've already seen
it. It can also disparage a style or technique that has already been done, as in
"Son style est déjà vu" => His style is not original.
English, déjà vu refers to the scientific phenomenon of feeling like you have
already seen or done something when you're sure that you
meaning: half world. 1. A marginal
or disrespectful group . 2. Prostitutes and/or kept
meaning: half cup. Refers to a
small cup of espresso or other strong coffee.
meaning: out of fashion. Same
meaning in both languages: outmoded, out of
meaning: of rigueur. Socially or
meaning: last cry. The newest
fashion or trend
meaning: of too much. Excessive,
meaning: double hearing. A word
play or pun. For example, you're looking at a field of sheep and you say "How
are you (ewe)?"
meaning: of the day. "Soup du jour"
is nothing more than an elegant-sounding version of "soup of the
meaning: toilet water. Toilet here
does not refer to a commode; see toilette, below. Eau de toilette is a very weak
meaning: again. A simple adverb in
French, "encore" in English refers to an additional performance, usually
requested with audience applause.
meaning: terrible child. Refers to
a troublesome or embarrassing person within a group (of artists, thinkers,
meaning: on guard. Warning that one
should be on his/her guard, ready for an attack (originally in
meaning: in mass. In a group, all
meaning: on route. On the
meaning: in sequence. Part of a
meaning: group spirit. Similar to
team spirit or morale
meaning: done deed. Fait accompli
seems more fatalistic to me than done deed, which is so
meaning: false, fake. I once saw an
ad for "genuine faux pearls." No worries that those pearls might be real, I
guess - you were guaranteed fake ones. :-)
meaning: false step, trip.
Something that should not be done, a foolish mistake.
meaning: deadly woman. An alluring,
mysterious woman who seduces men into compromising
meaning: fiancée. engaged person,
betrothed. Note that fiancé refers to a man and fiancée to a
meaning: black movie. Black is used
here in the sense of morbid or depressing, as in black
French, this can refer to either the final in sport (e.g., quarter-final,
semi-final) or the finale of a play. In English, it can only mean the
meaning: end of the century.
Hyphenated in English, fin-de-siècle refers to the end of the 19th
meaning: flower of lily. A type of
iris or an emblem in the shape of an iris with three
meaning: craziness for two. Mental
disorder which occurs simultaneously in two people with a close relationship or
meaning: greater force. Refers to
superior/greater force, or to an unexpected or uncontrollable
meaning: playful,little girl.
Refers to an impish or playful girl/woman.
meaning: left, awkward. Tactless,
lacking social grace
meaning: type. Used mostly in art
and film - "I really like this genre..."
meaning: high sewing. High-class,
fancy (and expensive) clothing styles.
meaning: high cooking. High-class,
fancy (and expensive) cooking or food
meaning: out of combat. Out of
meaning: outside of work. An
appetizer. Oeuvre here refers to the main work (course), so hors d'oeuvre simply
means something besides the main course.
meaning: set idea. Fixation,
meaning: I don't know what. Used to
indicate a "certain something," as in "I really like Ann. She has a certain je
ne sais quoi that I find very appealing."
meaning: joy of living. The quality
in people who live life to the fullest
meaning: let it be. A policy of
d', maître d'hôtel
meaning: master of, master of hotel
. The former is more common in English, which is strange since it is incomplete:
"The 'master of' will show you to your table."
meaning: sickness of sea.
meaning: morning. In English,
refers to the day's first showing of a movie or play. Can also refer to a midday
romp with one's lover.
meaning: right word. Exactly the
right word or expression.
meaning: pen name. No longer used
meaning: born. Used in genealogy to
refer to a woman's maiden name: Anne Miller née (or nee)
meaning: new rich. Disparaging term
for someone who has recently come into money.
meaning: mashed paper. Used for
meaning: by excellence.
Quintessential, preeminent, the best of the best
meaning: small, short. It may sound
chic, but petit is simply the feminine French adjective
dessert, especially cake
meaning: piece of stamina. In
French, this originally referred to the main course - the test of your stomach's
stamina. In both languages, it now refers to an outstanding accomplishment or
the final part of something - a project, a meal,
meaning: foot on ground. A
temporary or secondary place of residence.
meaning: protected. Someone whose
training is sponsored by an influential person.
meaning: reason for being. Purpose,
justification for existing
meaning: go to. In French, this
refers to a date or an appointment (literally, it is the verb se rendre - to go
- in the imperative); in English we can use it as a noun or a verb (let's
rendez-vous at 8pm).
meaning: quick, accurate response.
The French repartie gives us the English "repartee," with the same meaning of a
swift, witty, and "right on" retort.
meaning: risked. Suggestive, overly
meaning: novel river. A long,
multi-volume novel which presents the history of several generations of a family
or community. In both French and English, saga tends to be used
meaning: red. The English refers to
a reddish cosmetic or metal/glass-polishing powder, and can be a noun or a
meaning: respond please. This
abbreviation stands for Répondez, s'il vous plaît, which means that "Please
RSVP" is redundant.
meaning: cold blood. The ability to
maintain one's composure.
meaning: without. Used mainly in
academia, although it's also seen in the font style "sans serif" => without
meaning: knowing how to do.
Synonymous with tact or social grace.
meaning: self saying. What one
claims about oneself; so-called, alleged
meaning: taken care of. 1.
Sophisticated, elegant, fashionable. 2. Well-groomed, polished, refined.
meaning: evening. In English,
refers to an elegant party.
meaning: suspicion. Used
figuratively like hint: There's just a soupçon of garlic in the
meaning: memory, keepsake. A
meaning: living picture. A scene
made up of silent, motionless actors
meaning: host table. 1. A table for
all guests to sit together . 2. A fixed-price meal with multiple
meaning: head to head. A private
talk or visit with another person
meaning: toilet. In French, this
refers both to the toilet itself and anything related to toiletries; thus the
expression "to do one's toilette" - brush hair, do makeup, etc. See eau de
meaning: touched. Originally used
in fencing, now equivalent to "you got me."
meaning: turn of strength.
Something which takes a great deal of strength or skill to
meaning: trick the eye. A painting
style which uses perspective to trick the eye into thinking it is real. In
French, trompe l'oeil can also refer in general to artifice and
meaning: face to face. In French,
vis-à-vis must be followed by the preposition de. Used in English to mean
"compared to" or "in relation with": His feelings vis-à-vis my ideas are
meaning: flight of the wind. In
both French and English, a vol-au-vent is a very light pastry shell filled with
meat or fish with sauce.
has also given English scores of words in the domains of ballet and cooking. The
literal meanings of the French words are (in
terms: barre (bar), chaîné (chained), chassé (chased), développé (developed),
effacé (shaded), pas de deux (two step), pirouette (turn), plié (bent), relevé
terms: blanch (from blanchir => to bleach), sauté (fried over high heat),
fondue (melted), purée (crushed), flambée
2004 About, Inc.
3.- ON THE NATURE AND ROLE OF
Our dear SHARER
Ana Maria Rozzi de Bergel has sent us this new article she has written. No doubt
an invaluable contribution to the field of oral narrative.
The nature and role of
of English have long known the value of stories for developing their learners'
language alongside their imagination, creativity and social skills. The value of
narrative goes far beyond that, however, and the narrative theories of
psychology define it as the inescapable frame of human experience.
can be trained to think in geometrical shapes, patterns of sounds, poetry,
movement, colour combinations, spatial relations and syntactic matrixes, what
predominates or fundamentally constitutes our consciousness is the understanding
of self and world in story. Not only the textual messages we produce, but our
lives gain meaning only through narrative-motivated texts, coherent stories with
a beginning, middle and end, as a series of sequential events with
comprehensible references, governed by a logic, enacted by agents and structured
by a discourse with a point of view. (Bruner,
Bruner's narrativity theory, narration provides a nexus between the social
environment and the personal world of intentions, wishes and hopes. It is a
useful metaphor to explain human psychology, with man as an agent and recipient
of culture. People create their vision of the world and their place in it
through narration. In narration there has to be an actor, an objective, a
scenario and a means of communication. We are all generators of imaginary
worlds, like the authors of novels, plays, short stories, biographies or
born into a world which has a past, events in progress and other people who came
here before us and already have a system of social rules, cultural conventions,
a legal system and, above all, a language. To find a place in this environment,
man has to link his individuality to the canonical reality. This is done through
intentional, objective-oriented behaviour. He is like a stand-in replacing a
sick actor in a play with an experienced cast. Children learn the stories of
their communities, its laws, history, myths and conventions while at the same
time building a personal history and carving a niche for themselves within their
society. They use their games to rehearse, apprehend and analyse the behaviour
and conflicts of the adult world.
within the social environment that human beings can produce, construct and interpret
meanings, but it is also this social environment and its culture that restrict
these interpretations, by allowing only those which are culturally coherent.
Societies generate popular psychology, a set of beliefs for organising the
individuals' world by attributing reactions and mental states to fellow human
beings and guiding their actions by these predictions. This generates a system
of interactions and transactions which is not conceptual but narrative, like a
plot that develops in a film.
narrative form of thinking differs from the paradigmatic form in that the latter
seeks to verify and explain the empiric reality by identifying causes of
phenomena, making hypotheses and stating principles, while the former places
human experience in time and space. Both forms coexist and we use them according
to need. The paradigmatic modality is context-free because it is a set of
abstract concepts, but the narrative modality is context-bound. It always needs
agents, time, place and circumstances.
Creations of imaginary, fantastic worlds occur when
interaction and scenarios depart from socially accepted conventions. We will
never question why the doorman says "Have a good day" to us in the morning, but
if this happens in the evening we will start wondering why he has done this.
Human beings can also purposefully depart from accepted courses of interaction
to generate fantasy, humour, irony or simply to achieve their goals in the
intricate network of social transactions, particularly in what concerns ulterior
motifs or hidden intentions. To move within this domain, it is necessary to have
a good command of "tactic deceit", the capability to lie creatively, not in
order to cheat or harm other people but in order to create imaginary worlds by
using our fantasy and creativity. The impossibility to handle tactic deceit or
creative lying is a serious limitation in interpersonal relationships because it
restricts interaction to the concrete, literal level. This is almost never
sufficient and does not allow the person to enjoy or even interpret humour,
figurative meanings, symbols or to make abstract generalisations from concrete
Narration explains, in relation to memory, the distortion
of facts which are usually tinged by popular psychology or the narrators'
emotions and impressions. Actually, when remembering an event, we may well
recall first the emotion we felt than the event itself. Narration establishes
this link between the inner world and the objective, outer world. To a great
extend, the principles of emotional memory, so widely used in acting, are based
on this idea, as they hold that in order to recreate reality and act
convincingly, what performers have to reconstruct is their feelings in similar
situations. The actions themselves will arise spontaneously.(Strasberg,
Narrative theories of psychology, then, define man as a
biological being, placed in a particular culture, at a particular moment in
history, interacting with peers to acquire their culture in order to achieve
personal aims within this environment. They take various elements into account:
inventiveness, perception of reality, feelings, emotions, intentions, reasoning
and they explain the behaviour of a complex social being: Man, who is
context-bound. These theories also acknowledge the role of language as the
instrument for this construction of culture and reality and as the medium to
apprehend the cultural tools, but
also as a limiting and conditioning element. The language of a culture provides
the syntax and lexis for the construction of meaning and each person can create
meanings only within this framework. Whorf's hypothesis on the conditioning role
of language (1966) is still a valid point of discussion, stating that cultures
grow and develop in accordance with the possibilities of the languages they
speak. According to Whorf, language influences culture and not
Narrative theories in psychology refer to narration or
stories with clear dramatic characteristics:
are sequential. Events are arranged chronologically, following the development
of the story. However, the story as
a whole confers meaning to each scene or event, in such a way that we will not
be able to understand the whole without following the development of the parts
and we will not be able to understand each part if we have not understood the
the fundamental role assigned to language, it is interesting to analyse another
type of sequencing: the anaphoric, cataphoric and exophoric references of
narrative discourse and the way in which the parts of a text are linked by
rhetorical devices, showing cause-effect, instrument-product, etc., usually
called propositional relationships or logical sequences. At another level, there
will be parts of the text we will identify as "introduction", "development" or
"conclusion", for example. These are cultural concepts and we share the norms
for their comprehension. If a piece of a text is identifiable as an introduction
and it appears in the middle of a story, the reader will begin to create
scenarios for the explanation of this breach of accepted rules. This also
relates to the intention of the creator of this discourse and how he handles his
messages to achieve his aims. He may purposefully decide to go against the
conventions. In that case, we will need to adjust our comprehension to the new
conventions in order to analyse the text. In discourse analysis, it is necessary
to understand the text as a whole and relate it to its authors, actors and
context in order to analyse its
can be real or imaginary. Since reality is also constructed in our minds, we
cannot claim that a story is real because it may have references to concrete
events or the empirical reality. The report of an event will never be completely
objective. Within these limitations, we can define as "real" a story which may
occur in the extra-linguistic world. Something that might happen to real people,
in the real world.
a story without these characteristics may also be believable if it states clear
conventions and all its elements respect them. Cinderella is not a real story
but it is believable within the conventions of a fairy tale. If the crystal
slipper fitted one of the stepsisters and she married the prince, we would
reject the story, because in fairy tales the good are always rewarded and the
bad always lose.
Narration is interesting not as a copy of reality but as
its metaphorical representation. It is evident that stories have a life of their
own, a mission to accomplish, and that art does not seek to chronicle life or
imitate it. Art is based on the idea of plot, as opposed to the idea of
chronicle. A good story does not limit itself to the narration of events but
tries to tell them in an interesting, shocking or funny way. This is one of the
main characteristics of art: to adapt reality to the agent's requirements for
impact or for conveying meaning, within socially accepted conventions. Now and
again, agents appear who change these conventions but to be understood, they
inevitably have to gain social recognition.
are the voices of their narrators, be they inside or outside the story. There is
always a human being sending messages to another, a reader or listener, with
whom he interacts. Modern linguistics acknowledges the interactive nature of
reading and listening comprehension. There is an ongoing dialogue between the
author and the recipient of the text. If the messages we receive in this
interaction are within those we expected , that is, if the narrator's agenda
agrees with ours, we will accept the story. We can even do this with our
autobiography, as we may prefer approximations to the story to the actual story,
which may not meet our expectations.
construction of reality and the world, Man needs to connect to the so-called
real stories in his culture: myths, legends, traditions, as well as to develop
his imagination to create a place of his own within his society. There is room
in our life for cultural adaptation and fictional creations, and our world is a
combination of both.
are dramatic. The traditionally accepted components of a story are its
characters, the scenarios or situations, the action, the outcome, the instrument
and the problem. However, we can only perceive the dramatic nature of stories if
we explore the concept of dramatic action. A string of well-connected events,
placed sequentially in time and set in space, does not constitute dramatic
action, which is defined by
interplay of roles.
presence of a conflict.
interaction and negotiations carried out by the characters with their personal
agendas, in this shared scenario, to achieve their goals. (Di Pietro,
dramatic action in Cinderella is not that everybody goes to the ball, she does
not, the fairy godmother helps her, the prince falls in love with her and they
finally get married. It is the interplay of the persecutor-rescuer-victim roles,
in a triangle which rotates several times in the story. The persecutory
step-sisters end up as victims, but Cinderella rescues them, giving up her
previous victim's role. (Karpman, 1968) In the scenarios, each character has a
different agenda and the conflict evolves around Cinderella's plight and the
need to restore justice. Each character, besides, is seeking a different goal
and this fuels interaction.
have a value as symbols, metaphors or emblems. Stories go beyond the textual
level, to send conceptual and metaphorical messages. They are often used to
convey moral or didactic teachings, and sometimes their hidden messages permeate
the narrative level even in spite of their authors. Cinderella contains a
message: "Do not do anything to solve your problems. Do not take your life in
your hands. Wait until a miraculous solution appears". Many children may have
taken this message as the leit motif of their lives
capability for drawing these metaphorical, conceptual messages from stories is
the tool to build up abstract knowledge and then apply it to new, concrete
contexts. Those who apprehend the idea that Hamlet is the tragedy of the
irresolute man have access to conceptual, abstract thinking. They can draw a
general principle from the events
in one particular context. This will enable them to recognise this
problem in others, by observing their concrete behaviour. People who do not
conceptualise will remain at the anecdotal level and acknowledge that somebody
behaves "like Hamlet", only if the person is in the situation of having to
avenge his father's death or has seen his father's ghost. The story and its
context will be but one thing.
capability for abstract conceptualisation enables people to differentiate
between facts or events and the concepts they represent. Without a perception of
these concepts, we would be in the situation of the student in "The Lesson", by
Eugene Ionesco (1961). As she had
found it impossible to grasp the concept of multiplication, she had studied by
heart "all the possible results of all the possible
Stories are instances of language use and their success depends on their value
as literary productions. The so-called "language awareness" does not merely
refer to our capability for producing sounds, words and sentences with literal
meanings but also to the capability for finding hidden meanings, metaphors,
concepts, aesthetic uses of language. It represents the extent to which we value
language, trusting it as a means for interaction, negotiation and the
construction of meaning. The higher our language awareness, the better equipped
we will be for accessing culture and knowledge, as we will have a better
instrument for interacting with the cultural medium.
born narrators, but our narrative skills are not innate. They develop with
J. (1991) The Narrative Construction of Reality. Criticial Inquiry, 18(1):1-21.
Boston, Massachussets, USA.
Pietro, Robert (1989) Strategic Interaction, Oxford:
Ionesco, E. (1961) La lección. Buenos Aires:
S. (1968). Fairy Tales and Script Drama Analysis. Transactional Analysis
Bulletin, vol. 7, no. 26, pp. 39-43.
McCarthy, M. (1997) Discourse Analysis for Language
Teachers, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Strasberg, L. (Ed.1980) Un sueño de pasión. Buenos Aires:
S., in Fishman, J.A. (1966) The Whorfian Hypothesis, The Edinburgh Course in
Applied Linguistics, Vol. 1, Section 4, pp 114 -126, Oxford, UK: Oxford
copyright 2004 by Ana Maria Rozzi de Bergel.
4.- HOW TO MEMORIZE A
dear SHARER Graciela Vinocour from Neuquen wants to SHARE these tips with all of
memory has become a vestigial organ like the appendix? The battle over
writ/spoke, poem working on page or stage, rages. Let's breathe hot oxygen on
the conflagration with this,
memorize because you have to. Poem you are reading makes you stop dead, you hear
the voice of the poet meld with your thought-process, the poem was written
especially for you...
You have to make this poem your own. You Have to Memorize
the poem over, slowly, to yourself and aloud.
to understand the mystery of why it works for you using the same words that pass
by unremarkably every day.
to understand the poem by understanding the poem inside the poem, to understand
the mystery by letting the mystery retain its
and say the poem over, slowly, aloud.
Understand the poem by knowing every word's meaning: etymological
shirk the architecture: the form, the look of the poem on the page,
off the line breaks themselves, into the abyss, cutting the shape of the page
around the poem. The poem contains its opposite.
and say the poem over, slowly, aloud. Feel its shape in your lungs, your heart,
an index card, cover everything but the first line of the poem. Read it. Look
away, see the line in air, and say it. Look back. Repeat until you've "got
Uncover the second line. Learn it as you did the first line, but also add second
line to first, until you've got the two.
it's on to three. Always repeat the first line on down, till the whole poem
the poem now internalized, you are freed to perform it. This is to find the
voice(s) of the poem, to find yourself there, and the poet, and to relate to the
Memorizing balances by heart and by rote. Think about this. Step-by-step you
learn't by heart.
the Duchess says in Alice in Wonderland, "Take care of the sense and the sounds
will take care of themselves
Copyright,2003 by Margy Snyder & Bob Holman
5.- SECOND REGIONAL CONFERENCE IN
SHARER Graciela Castelli has sent us some information about this forthcoming
Following the success of our 1st Regional Conference for
the Teaching of English, and considering the favourable feedback that was
received from the participants, we are pleased to announce the 2nd Regional
Conference for the Teaching of English
Materials Development: Adoption, Adaptation and
second event will once more gather renowned specialists like: Daniel J.
Susan Hillyard , Mary de la Vega, María Isabel Recamán,
Mariel Amez and Viviana Valenti.
will also be a Round table on editing teaching
to update your teaching practices and share with us your
18th and 19th June, 2004, at Centro Cultural Bernardino Rivadavia, at San Martín
1080, Plaza Montenegro, Rosario, Santa Fe.
6.- A TEACHER ON THE
Our dear SHARER Analía Kandel has sent us this
announcement. Analía is a well-known figure in the ELT scene in the city of
Buenos Aires. She is a graduate from Instituto del Profesorado “Joaquín
V.Gonzalez” and holds an M.A. in ELT from the University of Reading,UK.
Sólo unas líneas para
contarles que este próximo sábado 21/2 comenzaré una columna sobre "Idiomas,
Arte y Cultura" en el programa "Bureau de Arte" que se emite por Radio Splendid
AM 990 los días sábados de 18 a 20 hs.
Mi columna será cada
aprox. 2 semanas y consistirá en entrevistas, informes, etc. acerca de temas
y eventos relacionados con los idiomas y el arte.
IN SANTO DOMINGO
Our dear SHARER
Amalia Donoso has sent us this information:
Conference for Teachers of English 2004: Reflective Teaching
Domingo (June 10-11) and Santiago (June 8-9), Dominican Republic
name: Mrs. Grisel Del Rosario
conference has been a tradition at the Dominico Americano for the last thirty
years. EFL teachers get together to participate in 4 plenaries and concurrent
sessions conducted by international and local
Organized by: Instituto Cultural Dominico Americano and
Centro Cultural Dominico Americano
for abstracts/proposals: 31 March 2004
the event website for latest details.)
8.- SIMPOSIO INTERNACIONAL DE
Primer Simposio Internacional de Bilingüismo y Educación
Bilingüe en Latinoamerica
1, 2 y 3 de abril de 2004
BilingLatAm es el primer simposio internacional que reúne a
especialistas dedicados al estudio del bilingüismo y la educación bilingüe en
Este simposio se llevará a cabo los días 1, 2 y 3 abril de
2004 en ESSARP (Educadores Asociados del Río de la Plata) y en la Universidad de
San Andrés en Buenos Aires.
El propósito del encuentro es promover el intercambio de
conocimientos en los campos de la investigación y del aprendizaje acerca del
bilingüismo y la educación bilingüe entre aquellos que trabajan en contextos de
mayorías o minorías lingüísticas en América Latina.
El Comité Académico cuenta con la participación de Jason
Beech (Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina); Ofelia García (Columbia
University, E.E.U.U.); Fred Genesee (Mc Gill University, Canadá); Christine
Hélot (Institute Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres, Francia); Nancy
Hornberger (University of Pennsylvania, E.E.U.U), Estela Klett (Universidad de
Buenos Aires, Argentina); Ricardo Otheguy (City University of New York,
E.E.U.U.); Alicia Tissera (Universidad Nacional de Salta,
Los trabajos aceptados, que superan los 60, incluyen
investigaciones en el área de la sociolingüística, estudios de comunidades
bilingües y migraciones, política e ideología de la lengua, language shift,
erosión lingüística, desarrollo en la educación bilingüe, niños bilingües,
estudios sociolingüísticos y gramaticales de codeswitching, procesamiento de
discursos bilingües, estudios sobre la adquisición bilingüe, entre otros. Se han
presentado también estudios de casos acerca de educación bilingüe y aprendizaje
en el aula.
Los participantes en el Simposio provienen de distintas
partes del mundo, como ser Argentina, Armenia, Brasil, Canadá, Colombia, España,
E.E.U.U., Francia, México, Namibia, Perú, Reino Unido, Suecia y Uruguay. Los
estudios abarcan un amplio espectro de lenguas incluyendo el español, el
francés, el inglés, diversas lenguas indígenas de América Latina y las lenguas
BilingLatAm ofrecerá también Plenarios Abiertos para todos
aquellos interesados en Bilingüismo y Educación Bilingüe en América Latina.
Entre los plenaristas confirmados se encuentran: Fred Genesee (Mc Gill
University, Canada) que dictará un plenario denominado Bilingual Acquisition:
Exploring the Limits of the Language Faculty y Christine Hélot (Institute
Universitaire de Formation des Maîtres, France) cuyo plenario se titula Moving
Away From A Monolingual Habitus: The Notion Of Bilingualism In The Provision For
Language Education In France.
El Primer Simposio Internacional de Bilinguismo y Educacion
Bilingüe en Latinoamérica propiciará el encuentro de especialistas que
compartirán los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en el área, así
como también una oportunidad de divulgación de los conocimientos en el área para
la comunidad en su conjunto.
Informes: ESSARP Centre - Esmeralda 672 piso 7 Tel: +(54
9.- CONGRESO SOBRE EDUCACIÓN, LENGUAJE Y
Internacional Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad
Tensiones Educativas en América
Institución organizadora: Instituto para el Estudio de la
Educación, el Lenguaje y la Sociedad
Departamento de Ciencias de la
Departamento de Educación General Básica, Primer Ciclo y
Departamento de Nivel
Facultad de Ciencias Humanas, Universidad Nacional de La
Jueves 1 al sábado 3 de Julio de
El Congreso se propone propiciar el encuentro de docentes e
investigadores con la finalidad de construir redes de apoyo e intercambio para
favorecer el análisis crítico de la educación, el lenguaje y la sociedad en el
La investigación sobre Educación, Lenguaje y Sociedad. Abordajes
Formación Docente: Problemáticas políticas, pedagógicas y
3. El sujeto del
aprendizaje: perspectivas teóricas y prácticas
educativas en las últimas décadas
instituciones educativas: actores y prácticas en contextos
problemas teóricos y desafíos de la práctica
7. La situación
educativa actual: aportes históricos y
8. Sociedad, Estado
exclusión y diversidad en la educación
Avances de los estudios lingüísticos y sus implicaciones
Prácticas y propuestas alternativas de
Educación y trabajo: relaciones posibles
La educación a distancia: problemas y
La organización de las áreas procura trascender criterios
meramente disciplinarios, incluyendo articulaciones y enfoques
interdisciplinarios. Por esta
razón, los trabajos serán clasificados de acuerdo con el área temática en la que
esté puesto el énfasis de la investigación.
Conferencias plenarias / Mesas Redondas / Presentación de
Presentación de libros y material educativo y
Se invita a proponer ponencias que aborden las temáticas
propuestas en las
áreas temáticas mencionadas.
Las ponencias serán organizadas en mesas de trabajo, cada uno de las
cuales estará a cargo de un Coordinador encargado de definir la línea temática
preestablecida y de organizar el programa general y detallado de la
La fecha límite de admisión de propuestas de ponencias es el 31 de marzo
de 2004. Todas las ponencias serán evaluadas por un comité científico integrado
para tal fin.
Fecha límite para la presentación de ponencias: 31 de Marzo
Evaluación de ponencias recibidas: 1 al 30 de abril de 2004
Notificación a ponentes: a partir del 14 de mayo de
Participantes y cuotas de
$50 hasta el 31 de marzo de
$70 desde el 1 de abril al 2 de mayo de
$90 desde el 3 de mayo a julio de
Países latinoamericanos: u$s
Países europeos y EEUU: u$s
Países latinoamericanos: u$s
Países europeos y EEUU: u$s
Estudiantes argentinos asistentes: inscripción
Estudiantes extranjeros asistentes: u$s
YES IS BACK
Our dear SHARER Charlie Lopez has sent us this
Now on Multicanal
hosted by Charlie
The first and only
TV programme for students and teachers of English is on the air
Multicanal – Canal
Multicanal – Canal
Multicanal – Canal
Multicanal – Canal
Multicanal – Canal 15
Multicanal – Canal 15
Multicanal – Canal
Multicanal – Canal
Multicanal – Canal
11- CURSO DE INTERPRETACIÓN
SHARERS at McDonough announce:
Curso de Interpretación
El programa de los cursos que McDonough ha diseñado apunta
a que cada alumno desarrolle las técnicas y la práctica de la interpretación,
trabajando en cabinas individuales con los más modernos equipos de
interpretación simultánea disponibles en el mercado. Muchos graduados de
universidades o de cursos de interpretación simultánea buscan nuestros cursos
como un posgrado de actualización y exposición laboral.
Práctica de interpretación simultánea de las últimas
conferencias del mercado
Los temas más actuales del mercado: Telecomunicaciones,
networking, electricidad, management, ingeniería, delitos cibernéticos, entre
Seguimiento individualizado del alumno
Carga horaria de 3,5 horas semanales
Grabación autónoma y centralizada
Laboratorio de 11 Cabinas de interpretación
Consolas de audio y micrófonos profesionales
Sistema de proyección de transparencias y Proyección de
Equipos de sonido infrarrojos para conferencias
Micrófonos inalámbricos UHF
los cursos se tomarán los exámenes de ingreso. Las vacantes son limitadas ya que
hay sólo 11 cabinas por curso. Para mayor información: www.mcdonoughsrl.com.
El Centro de capacitación McDonough está ubicado en
Sarmiento 983, piso 11, Capital.
e inscripción 2003Tel/fax: 4325-3101 (Líneas Rotativas)
12- A MESSAGE FROM
Our dear SHARER Alicia Rey from Resistencia, Chaco has sent
us this message:
been a SHARER for quite a long time and I thought that perhaps you would like to
let our colleagues know about this offer I am introducing, which is
certainly an alternative regarding English language practice material for
been teaching English for sixteen years
in Resistencia and have run
my own place (English Studio) since 2000, focusing on ELT assisted by PCs,
multimedia material and Internet.
I've been too much involved with
ELT soft and the use of the Internet in ELT for about nine years so I might say I do have quite a
hands-on experience in the subject - which I would like to share with colleagues. During the Academic Year, sometimes
I find it quite difficult as I have
to be "at the chalk face" all the
time . So this is -I believe- the
right time to contact you and introduce myself to the Online Group that you
manage so successfully ( your membership
number is incredible! )-Congratulations on that
we can keep in touch
Manager – English Studio
13- TRADUCTORADO PÚBLICO EN LOMAS DE
Our dear SHARER
Claudio Cané has got an announcement to make:
Universidad del Museo Social
Traductorado Público (2
Para Profesores de Inglés egresados de instituciones
terciarias o universitarias
Para egresados de instituciones terciarias o universitarias
con título afín (Traductores Técnicos o Literarios, Intérpretes,
Sede UMSA en Zona Sur: Instituto Superior Modelo
Macmillan invites you and your colleagues to take part in
the following courses.
events are free of charge but enrolment is essential as seats are limited.
Certificates of attendance will be given out at the end of
SAN JUSTO (Pcia de Buenos
Wednesday, 11 March
- 17:00hs to
Venue: Colegio Santa Rosa de Lima Tomas J. Villegas 2471, San
Papillón Tel.: 4651-6767
Teaching Pre-Teens and Teens: Planning for effective
Come and Meet ¨Top Teens¨
want your teenagers "to think in English" rather than "to think about
want to give your students a sound grammatical foundation? At the same time, do
you want to move away from purely grammatical exercises and to get your students
to communicate? Do you want your students to deal with real world characters in
real life situations?
talk, Omar will present his model for teaching teenagers and his latest series
for 11 + students : TOP TEENS published by Macmillan.
Stay Tuned to Your Secondary Students´ Needs
occasions there seems to be a sort of bad connection between our pedagogical
aims and what our secondary students want to hear and talk about in class.
Macmillan course for secondary students that offers unconventional and
innovative ways to connect!.
SAN JUSTO (Pcia de Buenos
20 March - 10:00hs to
Venue: Escuela Integral Jorge Luis Borges Vicente López 1786, San
Pre-Teens and Teens: Planning for effective learning.
Meet ¨Top Teens¨
Tuned to Your Secondary Students´ Needs
en Ciencias de la Educación (UCALP) Licenciado en Tecnología Educativa
(FRA-UTN). Lecturer in the Area of Applied Linguistics at Universidad
Tecnológica Nacional and ISFD Nro 41 de la Pcia de Buenos Aires. Lecturer in
Didactics of ESP at Licenciatura en
Inglés Universidad Católica de La Plata. He has lectured extensively in all
Argentinian provinces as well as in Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Perú. He is the
author and co-author of more than 20 textbooks, among them: "Polimodal English",
"Resource Files", "Grammar Explorer" and "Top Teens" published by
has vast experience in teaching teenagers both at private and state secondary
schools. Since 1990, she has been a Macmillan Academic Consultant. As part of
her interests and abilities, Martha has given advice to the editorial department
of Macmillan Publishers S.A. and has also worked freelance for many of its local
We would like to finish this issue of SHARE with this
message that our dear SHARER Dr Alicia Ramasco sent us and that so clearly
reflects the spirit that both Marina and I have chosen to live our lives by.
St.Teresa of Avila ( 16th century
HAVE A WONDERFUL WEEK!
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this electronic magazine are also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse
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For more information about the characteristics and readership of SHARE visit:
VISIT OUR WEBSITE : http://www.ShareEducation.com.ar There you can read all past issues of SHARE in the
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