Magazine by Omar Villarreal and Marina Kirac ©
Number 117 November
5850 SHARERS are reading this issue of SHARE
Thousands of candles can be lighted from a
single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never
decreases by being SHARED
How many SHARERS? A rather bizarre question for a Saturday evening. Would
you like to know the exact figure? Well, we would like to know,
But let us start from the very beginning: SHARE is a
Yahoo! Group. What does that mean? It means that Yahoo! administers the list (to
be more exact the list of e-mails) and sends you the messages. SHARE started as
a Group run from our home PC on 29th October 1999 and was
administered like that with me, Marina and our two sons sending the mails
manually for a year and nine months. On 16th June 2001 SHARE became a
Yahoo! Group. It is, to date, the largest Yahoo! Group in the field of Education
and Teaching followed closely only by KinderKorner, an American Group (about a
thousand subscribers short of our figure). All these details can be found at :
Now fortnightly, as far as we know, Yahoo!
“cleanses” our mailing list deleting all those no longer
existing e-mail addresses and also those hard bounce cases. This explains why we
have been publishing a figure of 6850 in our lat two issues when our number of
subscribers today is 3830. What happens is that in the cleansing process, a
number of e-mail addresses are deleted and in some cases, as for example in the
case of bounces, they are re-entered once the message stops to bounce and is
So, 5830 is the exact figure. Well, no. As
you probably know, SHARE is distributed in Perú and Chile by two official
non-profit organizations (one linked to the British Council and the other to the
Chilean University system) and we do not know how many people receive SHARE
through those channels. Plus the very many people that receive SHARE through
other SHARERS. Not long ago, a colleague in Bahía Blanca wrote to us for our
anniversary and confessed that she was not on SHARE official list because SHARE
was forwarded to her by a friend in Buenos Aires. She also made it crystal
clear that she wanted things to remain like this because this arrangement
prompted her friend to write a few lines every time he forwarded an issue of
SHARE. We might not know exantly how many we are but, could
we ask for more?
Omar and Marina
afraid of exams?
Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.
“Inglés abre Puertas”: Por un Chile Bilingüe.
Whole Language wasn´t the problem.
5.- News from the
6.- First Forum on Educating for
Vocabulary Development Discussion Group.
Jornada: El Traductor frente a los adelantos
Giving the finger.
de Verano en Lingüística Formal.
On-line Dictionaries for free.
12.- Is it possible to enjoy
1.- WHO´S AFRAID OF EXAMS?
Our dear SHARER and friend
Douglas Andrew Town has sent us this article about exam stress and its possible
remedies. Most befitting the present season at school and college and like all
of Douglas´s articles: a most welcomed contribution.
Coping with exam
Most people feel
anxious before examinations and a moderate level of anxiety can benefit exam
performance. In small doses, anxiety is a reminder that a current activity or an
impending event requires our attention; indeed, in families where anxiety is
systematically repressed, the consequences can be catastrophic (e.g. prison,
serious accidents, bankruptcy). However, too much anxiety reduces performance
and may lead to health problems. As test anxiety is manifested in different ways
– not always at a conscious level - the first problem for teachers, parents or
students is to recognise when excessive anxiety exists.
indicators show when concern about exams may be excessive. The first is that
worry seems to appear suddenly – on waking up in the morning, or when somebody
or something reminds you about an exam. The second is a history of difficulty
before and/or during exams in one or more of the following
(1) Loss of
sleep and/or appetite; (2) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea (3) Skin rashes; (4) Neck
ache, headache and/or muscular tension; (5) Feeling hot and sweaty - or cold and
clammy (6) Racing heart/palpitations, shaking, sensations of panic, dizziness,
hyperventilation (4) Increased craving for alcohol, tobacco or caffeine.
(1) Worrying about exams - even months ahead, nightmares or
unpleasant daydreams about previous exams. (2) Self-critical ideas, feeling
inferior to other people. (3) Shorter concentration span and more memory
problems than usual (i.e. a 25% reduction or more in normal efficiency).
and social behaviour
“down” and/or despair. (2) Withdrawing, inability to talk to people as much as
usual. (3) Avoidance of study/classes, procrastinating.
of excessive anxiety
There are many
reasons why some adults and children are more prone to exam stress than others.
These include physiological differences in the central nervous system,
sensitivity to real or imagined criticism, over-generalising from past
experiences (learned helplessness) and the presence of other life stressors.
Research shows that parents who are themselves anxious or have an authoritarian
parenting style (criticising and making demands while offering little practical
or verbal help) tend to have anxious children.
At the cognitive
level, Ellis, the founder of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT), has
shown that anxiety is typically “fed” by one or more of the following
Demands (Musts, Absolutes, Shoulds):
I must be perfect and never make mistakes.
(It’s Awful, Terrible, Horrible!):
It is awful when teachers / classmates criticize
Frustration Tolerance (I can’t stand it!):
I can’t stand studying for hours.
/ Other Rating (I’m / he / she is bad, worthless):
If I get a low grade, it means I am a terrible student and therefore a
that test anxiety can be reduced if these negative thoughts are replaced by
constructive thoughts. One important approach to reducing anxiety is, therefore,
to challenge negative beliefs and some effective techniques for doing this are
offered below. Another important skill is relaxation. But changing negative ways
of thinking for positive ones and learning to relax are, of course, useless
unless we prepare for exams. So, the approach offered here combines specific
strategies for reducing anxiety with strategies for strengthening revision and
however, that because of the interactive nature of biology, beliefs and the
social environment, a combination of medical and psychological treatment is
sometimes necessary in severe cases of chronic anxiety. You should NEVER give
children medication or take medication yourself unless prescribed by a physician
and you should NOT attempt psychotherapy unless you have training in
Ways to reduce exam
are drawn from a number of psychological and therapeutic perspectives, including
family systems theory, REBT, cognitive-behavioural therapy and neuro- linguistic
programming that I have found helpful in working with students over the years. A
short bibliography is provided at the end of this article, but I have refrained
– for once – from writing an ‘academic’ article with page
Social and environmental strategies
information and help from teachers
This may sound
like obvious advice but many students – especially teenagers - have no idea what
to revise, and how their exams will be assessed. Parents should encourage
children to approach teachers on their own, rather than rushing in to help, as
taking responsibility is an antidote to ‘learned helplessness’. Similarly,
parents who are teachers should resist the natural urge to coach their children
at home unless their children ask them for help. I taught the children of nearly
all the teachers in a small town in Spain over a period of 25 years and I found
again and again that when the parent/teacher roles became confused at home or at
school, children were unhappy and their performance
Asking for help
benefiting ‘auditory’ and ‘social’ learners, this is also a useful strategy for
perfectionists. Intelligent but unpopular students, especially girls in their
early teens, often base their self-esteem on getting high grades; however, this
tends to make them more unpopular and so more insecure. Genuinely asking
another classmate for some sort of help (and responding positively!) can win
friends and reduce ‘competition anxiety’. (Note: discuss this strategy with your
child without trying to push him/her into it).
support from the ‘extended family’
(and adults) are unable to concentrate at home. Studying at (say) a
grandparent’s house may mean fewer distractions and – in some cases, discipline
or emotional support that is missing at home.
from another perspective
This is a
reframing strategy invented by Bandler that parents or teachers can use, and
which I learnt from Brigitte Laemmle, a German family therapist. You say (to
your child or pupil) in a light-hearted way: "Let's imagine I have to replace
you for a day and that one of my jobs is to go to the exam and feel anxious for
you. What do I tell myself in order to have felt really anxious?" Wait for a
full reply and then ask, "How should I say this – in a normal tone of voice?” or
“Should I imagine this in black and white?” (whichever is appropriate) The final
question is: “What can I do if this doesn’t work?”
because the student describes the process as if it belongs to somebody else and
so recognises: (1) causing the anxiety him/herself; and (2) choosing to do so;
and (3) that mental audio / video tapes can be edited, they can also be switched
Separate the places where
you (or your children) study from the places where you (or they) relax. Even if
you study and relax in one room, it is possible to keep books, notes, etc. in a
'work place' and distractions in the 'relaxation areas'. Creating a physical
separation of this kind will help you to do the same mentally. Don't study in or
on your bed – keep bed for relaxation and sleep.
Health and daily routine
and regularly. Breakfast should account for 25% of the daily calorie intake.
Schools generally programme the heaviest workload between 10am and 12pm when
most people’s concentration peaks; but without a proper breakfast the body has
to draw on glucose stored in the liver, causing fatigue and irritability at this
‘peak’ time. Sugar will help you concentrate if taken while you study (and also
during the exam!) but can produce the opposite effect if taken a few hours
beforehand. Avoid drinking a lot of coffee or other drinks containing caffeine
if these make you feel agitated and prevent you from sleeping.
Regular exercise (e.g. brisk walking) will boost your
energy, clear your mind and reduce stress. This was the most frequent advice I
gave to my hard-working Asian post-graduate students in Britain – and it rarely
Relaxing for at
least an hour before going to bed by doing something you enjoy - together with
regular bedtimes and waking times – helps to establish good sleep patterns.
However, if you do not sleep well for a few nights, don’t despair: lack of sleep
mainly affects vigilance on routine tasks (e.g. driving a motor vehicle) and
mood (i.e. irritability) rather than comprehension.
Make a weekly
timetable for yourself, starting with everything you need to do: meals, sleep,
classes, shopping, etc. Then allocate time for revision and time for relaxing
and enjoying yourself. Spread revision over several weeks rather than cramming
at the last moment and don’t fill up every hour of every day: plans need to be
flexible and should allow plenty of time for the unexpected. If in doubt, ask
your teacher for help with your revision plan (see ‘Asking for information
and help from teachers’ above)
Find out if you
are a ‘lark’ or an ‘owl’ – a morning or an evening person - and establish a
routine so that you study when you are most awake. Start each revision session
with easier/more interesting subjects and rewards yourself when you achieve
breaks (e.g. 10 minutes each hour) will help you concentrate for longer. Do NOT
listen to the radio, watch TV or read during this time, as these activities
interfere with learning.
Relaxation and visualising
comfortably in an upright position (or lie on your bed before going to
2. Tense, and
then relax, different muscle groups, one at a time. Start with your feet, and
then move up your body to your neck and face.
3. With your
eyes closed, breathe slowly and deeply, focusing your attention on the rhythm of
your breathing. Each time you breath in, mentally say “concentrate”. Each time
you breath out, say, “relax”.
4. Try to relax
your whole body. Check the neck and shoulders and relax them,
5. Imagine you
are lying in a quiet, enjoyable place (e.g. on a beach).
6. Talk to
When you are
completely relaxed, visualize yourself taking all the steps toward your goal.
Imagine yourself concentrating as you study, making notes and then testing
yourself. Then imagine yourself in the exam, first planning your answer and then
writing effortlessly about the same subject as before. Say to yourself at each
stage (in your first language, if you like): “ I am in control!”
Finally, visualize yourself handing in the completed exam paper, saying
confidently: “I did it!”
calmly and realistically the worst possible thing that can happen if you (or the
other person) get a low grade
Make a list of
solutions for anxiety that family and friends might suggest. Ask yourself how
you feel if this person suggested such a solution and how you would feel if it
came from someone else. (Rationale: some people get stuck in rebellion against
authority figures and reject any advice that comes from them – good or
rehearsing some of these “I” statements when you are
Preferences (wishes, wants, desires):
I would prefer to not make mistakes, but they are part of life. Einstein was not
the ‘best’ student in his class at school…
Badness (I can accept it but not like it):
I don’t like it when I don’t get the top grade but it is not the end of the
Frustration Tolerance (I don’t like it, but I can stand
I don’t like exams but I can certainly tolerate them. In fact, they help me
Globally Rating Self or Others (I — and others — are fallible human
I am more than my marks at school/college. I can accept myself as a fallible
Before and during
1. If possible, try to do a mock exam in
the prescribed time.
2. Take a lucky
charm or object (e.g. a pen) that you studied with. This is not “magic” or
“superstition”: behaviourism teaches us that places and objects help to jog
memory. Ideally, you should study in the room where you are going to take the
exam; but a lucky object will do.
3. Do the
relaxation and visualisation exercise just before starting the exam. By then, a
couple of minutes will be enough to calm you down and help you
4. Read the
questions carefully and answer the easy ones first. Underline keywords in the
questions and plan your answer. Research shows that high achievers spend more
time analysing questions than low achievers.
5. Keep an eye
on your time. If your mind goes blank, skip the question and come back to it
6. Eat a sweet
(for the sugar as well as the comfort!).
7. Don’t panic
if students hand in their papers before you do. There is no reward for finishing
is partly fear of the unknown. When I ran a language school in Spain, I used to
have a teacher from another school come to give my students mock orals for
Cambridge exams (it is no good doing this with teachers that the students
know!) I found that students that
were panicky during the mock exam were much more confident “on the day”.
I wish everybody
facing exams the success that they deserve!
A.T. et al. (1985). Anxiety Disorders and Phobias: A Cognitive Perspective.
Basic Books, New York.
Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy.
New York: Lyle Stuart.
Laemmle, B. (1996). Ratgeberzeit. Südwestrundfunk (video in
Laemmle, B. (1996 - 2001). Laemmle
(videos in German)
Laemmle, B. (1999). Lämmle
live: Psycho-logisch! 10 Grundfragen aus Therapie und Lebenshilfe.
Carl-Auer-Systeme Verlag, Heidelberg Auer Verlag. 4. Auflage (in
Douglas Andrew Town
has a BSc in Psychology and an MA in English Language Teaching as well as a
postgraduate Diploma in English and Spanish translation and worked for many
years as an educational consultant and ESP teacher in Spain. He has also taught
EAP at Manchester University and Essex University and is currently a lecturer at
the University of Belgrano. firstname.lastname@example.org
AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION
Our dear SHARER Camila Callegari
from Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires wants to SHARE this article with all of
A Global Perspective on
Bilingualism and Bilingual Education
By Richard Tucker
number of languages spoken throughout the world is estimated to be 6,000
(Grimes, 1992). Although a small number of languages, including Arabic, Bengali,
English, French, Hindi, Malay, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish serve
as important link languages or languages of wider communication around the
world, these are very often spoken as second, third, fourth, or later-acquired
languages. Fewer than 25% of the world's approximately 200 countries recognize
two or more official languages, with a mere handful recognizing more than two
(e.g., India, Luxembourg, Nigeria). However, despite these conservative
government policies, available data indicate that there are many more bilingual
or multilingual individuals in the world than there are monolingual. In
addition, there are many more children throughout the world who have been and
continue to be educated through a second or a later-acquired language, at least
for some portion of their formal education, than there are children educated
exclusively via the first language. In many parts of the world, bilingualism or
multilingualism and innovative approaches to education that involve the use of
two or more languages constitute the normal everyday experience (see, e.g.,
Dutcher, 1994; World Bank, 1995). The results from published, longitudinal, and
critical research undertaken in varied settings throughout the world indicate
clearly that the development of multiple language proficiency is possible, and
indeed that it is viewed as desirable by educators, policy makers, and parents
in many countries.
Languages in Education
The use of multiple
languages in education may be attributed to numerous factors, such as the
linguistic heterogeneity of a country or region, specific social or religious
attitudes, or the desire to promote national identity. In addition, innovative
language education programs are often implemented to promote proficiency in
international language(s) of wider communication together with proficiency in
national and regional languages. In Eritrea, for instance, an educated person
will likely have had some portion of their schooling in Tigrigna and Arabic and
English, and will have developed proficiency in reading all these languages,
which are written using three different scripts (Ge'ez, Arabic, and Roman). In
Papua New Guinea, a country with a population of approximately 3 million,
linguists have described more than 870 languages (Summer Institute of
Linguistics, 1995). Here it is common for a child to grow up speaking one local
indigenous language at home, to speak another in the market place, to add Tok
Pisin to her repertoire as a lingua franca, and to learn English if she
continues her schooling. Analogous situations recur in many parts of the world
in countries where multilingualism predominates and in which children are
exposed to numerous languages as they move from their homes out into surrounding
communities and eventually through the formal education system.
on the use of the first and second languages in
review of research on the use of first and second languages in education,
carried out for the World Bank (Dutcher, 1994), examined three different types
of countries: (1) those with no (or few) mother tongue speakers of the language
of wider communication (e.g., Haiti, Nigeria, the Philippines); (2) those with
some mother tongue speakers of the language of wider communication (e.g.,
Guatemala); and (3) those with many mother tongue speakers of the language of
wider communication (e.g., Canada, New Zealand, the United States). Several
conclusions can be drawn from this study:
in school depends upon the child's mastery of cognitive/academic language, which
is very different from the social language used at home.
development of cognitive/academic language requires time (4 to 7 years of formal
most easily develop literacy skills in a familiar language.
most easily develop cognitive skills and master content material when they are
taught in a familiar language.
language skills, once developed, and content subject material, once acquired,
transfer readily from one language to another.
best predictor of cognitive/academic language development in a second language
is the level of development of cognitive/academic language proficiency in the
learn a second language in different ways depending upon their culture and their
the goal is to help the student ultimately develop the highest possible degree
of content mastery and second language proficiency, time spent instructing the
child in a familiar language is a wise investment.
Threads of successful programs
In the research
review conducted for the World Bank (Dutcher, 1994), the following common
threads were identified in successful programs that aimed to provide students
with multiple language proficiency and with access to academic content material.
of the mother tongue is encouraged to promote cognitive development and as a
basis for learning the second language.
and community support and involvement are essential.
are able to understand, speak, and use with a high level of proficiency the
language of instruction, whether it is their first or second language.
are well trained, have cultural competence and subject-matter knowledge, and
continually upgrade their training.
costs for innovative programs are approximately the same as they are for
traditional programs, although there may be additional one-time start-up costs.
benefit calculations can typically be estimated in terms of the cost savings to
the education system, improvements in years of schooling, and enhanced earning
potential for students with multiple language proficiency.
themes that appear critical for policy or planning discussions within the domain
of language education reform are discussed below.
the first language." Despite decades of sound educational research, there still
remains a belief in many quarters that when an additional language is introduced
into a curriculum, the child must go back and relearn the academic concepts
already mastered. Although there remains much to be learned about the contexts
and strategies that facilitate transfer across languages, the fact that such
transfer occurs should not be a topic of debate. The work of Hakuta (1986) and
his colleagues provides clear evidence that a child who acquires basic literacy
or numeracy concepts in one language can transfer these concepts and knowledge
easily to a second or third or other later-acquired languages. The literature
and our practical experience are replete with examples confirming the importance
of nurturing the child's mother tongue. Gonzalez (1998), in particular, writes
and speaks especially compellingly about the need to develop basic functions of
literacy, numeracy, and scientific discourse in the first language to the
fullest extent possible while facilitating transfer to the second language.
of models versus importation of cycles of discovery." Swain (1996) described the
need to "transfer" the stages and processes of evaluation, theory building,
generation of hypotheses, experimentation, and further evaluation that will help
to ensure the implementation of programs appropriate for the unique
sociocultural contexts in which they will operate. That is, she cautioned that
it is not a particular model of innovative language education (and, in
particular, a Western model) that should be transferred but rather a "cycle of
discovery" that should be transferred. Swain reminded us that the so-called
threshold levels of second language skills required for successful participation
in formal education may differ dramatically across content areas, and that a
majority of children face a language gap that must be bridged when they move
from learning the target language to using the target language as a medium of
instruction. Many policy makers have characterized bilingual education as a high
risk undertaking, by which they mean that it is necessary to attend to a complex
set of interacting educational, sociolinguistic, economic, and political
issues warranting further attention
Based upon a review
of available literature, four areas have been identified that appear to deserve
additional attention. These include (1) sociolinguistic research throughout the
world; (2) a more thorough examination of the concept and parameters of
transfer; (3) materials development, reproduction, and distribution in the truly
less commonly spoken languages (e.g., the majority of the African languages
spoken in Namibia); and (4) development of a cadre of trained teachers who are
proficient speakers of these languages. Despite several decades of extensive
sociolinguistic fieldwork in many areas, there remains much to be done to
describe the language situation in many parts of the world. Many of the world's
languages have yet to be written, codified, or elaborated. Furthermore, there
are no materials available for initial literacy training or for advanced
education; nor are there teachers who have been trained to teach via many of the
world's languages. These are all issues that have been identified as crucial by
the World Bank (1995) in a recent report of priorities and strategies for
enhancing educational development in the 21st century. They are issues that must
be dealt with effectively before systemic reform that will encourage
multilingual proficiency can be widely implemented.
Questions to address regarding multilingual education in
evidence from research conducted over the last three decades at sites around the
world demonstrates conclusively that cognitive, social, personal, and economic
benefits accrue to the individual who has an opportunity to develop a high
degree of bilingual proficiency when compared with a monolingual counterpart.
Below are a number of important questions to be addressed whenever parents,
educators, and administrators discuss the prospects of multilingual education
for their communities.
What are the explicit or implicit goals for formal education in the region?
Is there general satisfaction throughout the region with the level of
educational attainment by all participants (both those who terminate their
education relatively early and those who wish to go on to tertiary studies)?
Is the region relatively homogeneous or is it heterogeneous linguistically and
culturally, and how would bilingual education complement the linguistic and
cultural characteristics of the community?
Does the region have an explicit or implicit policy with respect to the role of
language in education, and how would bilingual education fit or not fit with
this existing policy? Is this policy based upon tradition or the result of
language (education) planning?
What priorities are accorded to goals such as the development of broadly based
permanent functional literacy, the value of education for those who may
permanently interrupt their schooling at an early age, and the power of language
to foster national identity and cohesiveness?
Are the language(s) selected for instruction written, codified, standardized,
Is there a well developed curriculum for the various levels/stages of formal
education--that is, a framework that specifies fairly explicitly a set of
language, content, cognitive, and affective objectives that are then tied to or
illustrated by exemplary techniques, activities, and supported by written
Are sufficient core and reference materials available for teachers and students
in the language(s) of instruction? If not, are there trained individuals
available who can prepare such materials?
Is there a sufficient number of trained and experienced teachers who are fluent
speakers of the language(s) of instruction and who are trained to teach via that
N., in collaboration with Tucker, G.R. (1994). "The use of first and second
languages in education: A review of educational experience." Washington, DC:
World Bank, East Asia and the Pacific Region, Country Department III.
Gonzalez, A. (1998). Teaching in two or more languages in the Philippine
context. In J. Cenoz & F. Genesee (Eds.), "Beyond bilingualism:
Multilingualism and multilingual education" (pp. 192-205). Clevedon, England:
(1992). "Ethnologue: Languages of the world." Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of
K. (1986). "Mirror of language: The debate on bilingualism." New York: Basic
Institute of Linguistics. (1995). "A survey of vernacular education programming
at the provincial level within Papua New Guinea." Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea:
M. (1996). Discovering successful second language teaching strategies and
practices: From program evaluation to classroom experimentation. "Journal of
Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 17," 89-104.
Bank. (1995). "Priorities and strategies for education." Washington, DC: The
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
© 2003 by Tucker, G. Richard
“INGLÉS ABRE PUERTAS”: POR UN CHILE BILINGÜE
The following is a reproduction of the
article published in the newspaper “La Estrella” de Chile Año XXVII - Nro. 10.025
- Sábado 13 de septiembre de 2003. It addresses the issue of making Chile a
bilingual country through the programme “Inglés abre puertas” recently launched
by the Chilean Ministry of Education.
actor esencial para Chile bilingüe
expertos coinciden en un punto: Chile no será un país bilingüe a menos que tenga
profesores de inglés con un buen manejo de la comunicación oral, en todos los
niveles de enseñanza.
desafío es enorme y todos los cambios necesarios en la formación de maestro y en
las metodologías de aula podrían tomar 5 años, en las predicciones más
optimistas o hasta 20, en las más realistas.
creen los especialistas en la enseñanza del inglés Andrew Sheehan, del proyecto
Inglés Abre Puertas del Ministerio de Educación; y Omar Villarreal, de la
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional de Argentina; como también el director del
Consejo Británico en Chile, John Knagg.
ellos participaron en el VIII Congreso Internacional de Profesores de Inglés,
organizado por el Departamento de Idiomas Extranjeros de la Universidad de
Tarapacá (UTA) y que concluyó ayer.
comentó que lo vital para el proyecto es la capacitación de los actuales
maestros y la reforma en las programas de estudio universitarios, con un mayor
énfasis en metodologías y el inglés.
que hay que crear estándares mínimos de manejo del idioma para profesores y
egresados de educación básica y media.
esto, enfatizó que la enseñanza no puede estar dirigida a clases de 45 alumnos.
Por lo mismo, dijo que los cursos deben ser divididos en dos grupos, para
impartir la asignatura dentro de la jornada completa.
mirada dentro del Ministerio de Educación, todos estos cambios podrían durar
entre 5 y 10 años como mínimo.
parte, Knagg aseguró que el Consejo Británico ayudará en esta tarea, a través
del fomento de redes profesores que abarquen todo el país, para intercambio de
experiencias, capacitación y motivación.
tiene que buscar más profesores de inglés que hablen el idioma bien, porque sin
eso no puede haber alumnos bilingües", comentó.
que esta meta es necesaria para que los profesionales chilenos tengan
herramientas para trabajar en el extranjero y para enfrentar los desafíos
económicos de la globalización.
mirada más crítica tiene Villarreal. Afirmó que el proyecto de masificación de
la enseñanza del Inglés* en Argentina, iniciado en 1995, no fructificó por la
falta de profesores de inglés titulados.
llamado al gobierno chileno a no apresurarse a contratar asesorías externas, ya
que cada pueblo debe enfrentar desde su propia cultura el proceso. Dijo que no
tomar en cuenta a los recursos humanos locales fue otra causa del fracaso
que debe haber un fortalecimiento de la formación superior de inglés en
regiones, de modo que haya infraestructura y materiales educativos
personal, un proyecto como este no puede ser desarrollado en 5 años. Para que
una población sea bilingüe, no pueden pasar menos de 20 años",
En el original el periodista transcribió “bilingüalización”. Un programa que a
diferencia del Chileno, nunca existió en Argentina
2003 by La Estrella de Arica
4.- WHOLE LANGUAGE WASN´T
Our dear SHARER Stephen Krashen has sent
us this copy of the letter he wrote to the editor of the Los Angeles
language wasn't the problem, phonics wasn't the solution
When California's fourth graders did poorly on the national NAEP
reading test in 1992, the experts blamed whole language. Dr. Jeff McQuillan
disagreed, pointing out that scores were low before "whole language" was
introduced, and presented strong evidence that the real cause was a lack of
access to books: California had (and still has) the worst school library system
in the country.
Whole language has been purged from California, replaced
with "systematic, intensive phonics." This year, California fourth and
eighth-graders "exhibited no significant progress in their reading skills
despite billions of dollars spent on new phonics textbooks and smaller class
sizes" (State's Math Scores Leap, November 14). Rather than conclude that whole
language never was the problem, some observers now blame "California's large
population of recent immigrants." But the percentage of English learners in
school has increased only slightly since 1992 (from 21% to 25%), not enough to
seriously impact test scores. There is another explanation. California's move to
a heavy phonics approach didn't work. It is time to consider McQuillan's
suggestion: Make sure children have access to books by investing in
Emeritus Professor of Education,
LA Times story at: http://www.latimes.com/la-me-scores14nov14,1,7562751.story
FROM THE BRITISH COUNCIL
dear SHARER Mary Godward from the British Council Argentina has sent us this
announcement of some of their plans for 2004:
science, innovation, literature, art and DNA are all part of our projects in
2004. Read on and find out what we are planning for next year.
Words on Words 2004 and Magic Pencil Exhibition
third edition of Words on Words focuses on literature for children and
teenagers. Simultaneously we will be running the Magic Pencil Exhibition. All
the events planned for teachers and pupils bring together the work of British
writers, illustrators and storytellers.
Magic Pencil Exhibition
exhibition was originally shown at the British Library in London and includes
the work of thirteen contemporary British illustrators for children, including
well known names such as Quentin Blake, Michael Foreman, Tony Ross, Laura Child,
etc. Copies of sixty of these illustrations will be shown in Buenos Aires,
together with a collection of books to be enjoyed by everyone visiting the
on Words 2004: from March to September - events to remember!
will be launching a very busy Words on Words 2004 at Colegio El Manantial in
Villa Dolores, Córdoba, with the Imagine Exhibition. From that point on,
there will be many events in which you can participate. These are some of
exhibition, enjoyed by both children and adults, was originally shown at the
Manchester Art Gallery in the United Kingdom. We have now been able to get
framed copies of 23 of these illustrations produced by Barefoot Books in the UK.
It is a perfect introduction to one of the themes we will be focusing on this
year: illustrating books for children. This beautiful exhibition will be
available for schools and institutes to borrow, each for a one-week period
between March and August 2004. The exhibition can be loaned with a collection of
books from which the illustrations were taken and a set of suggested activities
to use in class with children.
also be used very effectively with older pupils to focus on the artistic aspects
of illustrating books.
school hosting the exhibition will receive a framed copy of one of the prints as
a way of thanking you for your support!
you would like to borrow this exhibition, please contact Tessie Fernández,
(Information Assistant), at the British Council
(email@example.com) as soon as possible so we can reserve
it for you. If possible, let us know about any date
courses and teaching materials
in previous years, we will be running pre-event courses and publishing teaching
materials. The courses will be focusing around these
writers visiting us in September. Ian Mcmillan has already confirmed his
presence. Further details on him are available at
A writer for teenagers will also be visiting us but we can't give any names
until we have a definite confirmation. Illustrating books for
soon as we have exact dates and venues for all of these, we will let you know.
September we will be running a 'mega-programme' of events for pupils and
on contemporary writing for children and teenagers
books for children
workshops for teachers
Magic Pencil exhibition
by one of the Magic Pencil illustrators
Magic Pencil film programme for children
there will be many more activities! We do appreciate your feedback, so if any of
you are particularly interested in any of these topics or would like to make any
suggestions, please feel free to contact us firstname.lastname@example.org
Score a goal in the classroom
project is based on a poster exhibition produced in the United Kingdom on
football. The photographs are excellent and very eye-catching. Each institution
interested in hosting the exhibition can have it for one week between March and
August 2004 and we'll deliver it with display boards and lights.
also includes a 40-page publication on teaching English through football. This
is already available so if you'd like to plan in good time we can mail you a
copy now. We also have a limited number of football souvenirs from the UK which
you can use as prizes if your project includes a competition.
you would like to participate, please contact Tessie Fernández, Information
Assistant, at the British Council email@example.com as soon as possible so she can book the
exhibition for you.
exhibition highlights how innovative ideas make their way into our everyday
lives. It is a free-standing exhibition in five panels (each panel occupies a
floor surface of 3.00 by 1.00 m) focusing on a different area of innovation, eg
innovation in knowledge, innovation in science, etc. Further information
and photographs of this exhibition are available at
you are interested in hosting this exhibition for a week between March and July
2004, we can send you the brochure and the full text of the panels in English.
The text on the panels of the exhibition is in Spanish.
June we will be hosting an exhibition on DNA and developments since the
discovery of the double helix by Watson and Crick in 1953. Together with the
exhibition, we will be running a programme of talks and workshops about DNA and
Science & ELT for teachers and pupils. We have also invited an outstanding
British scientist to visit us and give talks.
let the science teachers at your school know about this interesting possibility.
If your institution is particularly interested in the teaching of English-medium
science, please let us know (firstname.lastname@example.org) so we can
keep you informed on all the 2004 events .
you need any further details on any of these activities, do please contact us
and we'll give you as much information as is available at this early stage.
6.- FIRST FORUM ON
EDUCATING FOR PEACE
dear friend and SHARER Susan Hillyard has got an announcement to make on behalf
of Wellspring School:
Forum on Educating for Peace –
Viso, Argentina - April 16 and 17, 2004
in the post 9/11 world is proving a challenge for us all but even more so for
educators, be they parents, teachers, discipline masters, heads, social workers,
pyschologists, materials writers, designers and others who deal,
particularly, with adolescents.
forum is open to all who would like to share, ask questions, contribute ideas
and generally open up the debate on how we can work together to educate for
peace, and change.
are welcomed for seminars, forums, panels of up to 4 speakers, and workshops on
subjects related to educating for
peace in the widest sense.
forum may cover such topics
Undertaking Community Service
Personal and Social Development
Philosophy for Children
Language of Non-Violence
Managing Human Resources
Communication and Negotiation Skills.
any other topic suggested
Call for Papers is open to all professionals. To submit a proposal, please find
the Call for Papers Proposal Form
at http://www.wellspring.edu.ar/ .
The deadline for abstracts is December 12th 2003 16.00 hs.
selection committee is made up of
Susana Obiglio, MA,
Nieves Garcia Querol
abstracts will be reviewed.
selections will be asked to submit a video or audio of their work to ensure
suitable presentation skills.
Relate clearly to the overall theme
questioning/ creative/critical in nature
Show depth and breadth of study and research or
clearly organised and interesting
interactive based on soud theory ( written papers, read aloud are not
Include a bibliography
will be 90 minutes long (60 minutes presentation plus 30 minutes for discussion ). As this is a
forum it is essential that the topics are kept open and the discussion period is
aim is to keep this forum quite small and select. We want to set up a forum of
serious educators who are interested in change from within not superficial
marketing programmes which have no long term, lasting results. The maximim
number of participants will be restricted to 150. There will be a number of keynote
speeches in the auditorium and
workshops, both in English and Spanish, made up of small groups to facilitate
Wellspring School, Las Camelias
3883, Del Viso, B1669KAM.
- Tel Fax:
02320-470448 / 473069. Contact
us at email@example.com
7.- VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
dear SHARER Will
McCulloch from Liverpool has sent us this message to SHARE with all of you.
This is just a quick message
to let you know about a new "Vocabulary Development Strategies Discussion
Group" that I hope you (and colleagues) might like to join.
is an open area to discuss Word Surfing.
http://www.wordsurfing.co.uk or anything else connected to helping students
with their vocabulary development and overall language learning
By the way, I will be visiting South America for
some months next year and would like to hear from any teachers who are
interested in the WS project - and writing to me in Spanish - I need the
Very best wishes
Will McCulloch <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Liverpool, UK, - Wednesday, November
05, 2003 at 16:32:06 (ART)
TRADUCTOR FRENTE A LOS AVANCES TECNOLÓGICOS
and Training Services announces:
de Perfeccionamiento y Actualización para Traductores de Inglés :
Traductor frente a los avances tecnológicos (2da.
de diciembre de 2003 - Buenos Aires, Argentina
bien esta Era de Nuevas Tecnologías nos plantea inconvenientes, es innegable que
el conocimiento de las herramientas informáticas redunda
en nuestro beneficio, ya que conocerlas y aplicarlas
correctamente ayuda a:
realizar un trabajo
de edición más eficiente y en menor tiempo,
acceder a información
actualizada sobre los temas más diversos,
facilitar la búsqueda
de posibles oportunidades laborales en el mercado nacional e
Públicos, científico técnicos, intérpretes, estudiantes avanzados de la carrera
Internet y el Mercado Internacional (material
mostrar diversas herramientas, sitios útiles, programas de TAC y de
capacitación y facilitar la búsqueda de nuevos mercados
y dónde realizar las búsquedas avanzadas – Buscadores
- Sitios con información útil – Directorios – Portales - Sitios
para profesores y estudiantes - Sitios de consulta profesional especializada -
Sitios de referencia - Sitios para traductores e intérpretes –
Corpuses - Bases de datos terminológicos – Diccionarios - Foros
de discusión – Glosarios - Instituciones relacionadas con la profesión -
Revistas y boletines electrónicos gratuitos - Textos
para buscar siglas, convertir medidas, descargar programas antivirus y
herramientas para la traducción de archivos especiales
a la internacionalización de sitios Web
internacionalización de sitios Web - Qué
debo saber antes de traducir un sitio Web
G11N - I18N - L10N -
importancia del buen diseño de la página Web - Nociones
de programación HTML
traductor y su relación con el cliente y el desarrollador -
trabajar, negociar y crear - Manejo de datos - Fechas, hora,
medidas, monedas, etc.: el manejo de los formatos - Imágenes, colores,
textos - Pautas a tener en cuenta - Idiomas, aspectos
culturales - Nuestra función como comunicadores
R. Dal Dosso:
Traductor Público en idioma Inglés (UADE); carrera de Administración de
Empresas (por finalizar); Investigador de los recursos de Internet aplicados a
la traducción; Freelancer especializado en Negocios, Comercio
Internacional e Informática. Responsable de la cátedra de Inglés Técnico
para las carreras de Analista y Programador de Sistemas y de Administración de
Empresas en instituciones de nivel superior. Dicta cursos de
Inglés para Comercio Internacional y seminarios de Comercio Exterior para
Traductores. Miembro de la Asociación Argentina de Teletrabajo y de
distintas listas de discusión: Apuntes, Atiba, El Lenguaraz, Proz,
Uacinos. Ha asistido al First Seminar in American Business and
Law, National-Louis University, Chicago, USA y al Seminario Intensivo
de Comercio Exterior, University of Miami, Miami, USA., 1999. Ha
participado como expositor en Seminarios y Jornadas presentando temas
de Comercio Exterior y Herramientas de Internet.
Informática Aplicada a la Traducción
exponer la necesidad de incorporar nuevas herramientas para complementar y
mejorar nuestra labor como traductores. Informar a los participantes sobre las
herramientas disponibles aplicándolas a dos casos de
traducción y mostrar cómo funcionan.
específicas para la traducción (Diccionarios electrónicos, memorias de
traducción, gestores de glosarios, etc.)
comunicación (internet, correo electrónico, transferencia de archivos, etc.)
edición de archivos y formatos (Adobe Acrobat, Omnipage, Word avanzado)
Cómo elegir la
herramienta idónea para cada tarea de traducción y un primer acercamiento al uso
de cada una.
vez inscriptos, los participantes recibirán dos textos cortos para su
traducción y una serie de preguntas que deberán responder describiendo las
herramientas informáticas utilizadas en la realización del trabajo. Durante la
Jornada se analizarán los dos casos mencionados y las dificultades que
presentaron. El expositor mostrará su metodología, las herramientas utilizadas y
los criterios aplicados en la elección de cada una de ellas. Además,
se proporcionarán alternativas económicas o gratuitas para cada
técnico, científico y literario de inglés egresado del ENSLV “John F. Kennedy”.
Forma parte del Estudio Rosenfeld, para el que traduce guiones televisivos de
Telefé al inglés. Tradujo películas y guiones televisivos al castellano para
distintas firmas extranjeras. Trabaja ocasionalmente con el Estudio gráfico
Kaboom de La Plata como traductor para la creación de comics, además de
revisor de guiones en ambos idiomas. Es Webmaster del sitio Web de la
AATI y dictó recientemente un curso de herramientas informáticas orientado
a traductores. Actualmente trabaja para dos firmas extranjeras, SDL
International y QDS solutions, como traductor y corrector. A través de ellas, y
mediante el uso de tres memorias de traducción distintas, participó en proyectos
de marketing, manuales, computación, software, hardware, información y
tecnología, localización de software y video juegos para compañías tales como
Kodak, Toyota, Symantec y Microsoft.
y Horario: 6
de Diciembre de 10 a 18.30 hs.
Cambremon - Suipacha 30, Buenos Aires, Argentina
general: hasta el 26/11 : $ 75.- hasta el 03/12 $ 88
c /descuento para participantes de cursos y jornadas
el 26/11 : $ 65.- hasta el 03/12 $ 75
materiales y refrigerio - Se
entregará certificado de asistencia.
grupales (4 o más personas) - Cierre de inscripción: 3 de diciembre
de pago: El pago podrá efectuarse en efectivo, mediante depósito o transferencia
bancaria o cheque para Traductores de Argentina. Favor solicitar datos.
Consultar forma de pago para Traductores de Uruguay y otros países limítrofes.
Para abonar en efectivo en esta oficina, se ruega acordar horario previamente.
Our dear SHARER Ana Vieyra Urquiza has sent us this
contribution. Says she, “I don't sent things out like this
very often, but this one really surprised me, so I trimmed 19 headers off the
top, and here we go” Indeed, here it goes.
Before the Battle of Agincourt in
1415, the French, anticipating victory over the English, proposed to cut off
the middle finger of all captured
English soldiers. Without the middle finger it would be impossible to
draw the renowned English longbow
and therefore they would be incapable of fighting in the future.
This famous weapon was made of the
native English Yew tree, and the
act of drawing the longbow was known as "plucking the yew" (or "pluck yew").
Much to the bewilderment of the French, the English
won a major upset and began mocking
the French by waving their middle fingers at the defeated French, saying, "See,
we can still pluck yew! "PLUCK YEW!" Since 'pluck yew' is rather difficult to
difficult consonant cluster at the beginning has
gradually changed to a labiodental
fricative 'F', and thus the words often used in conjunction with the one-finger-salute!
It is also because of the pheasant feathers on the arrows
used with the longbow that the
symbolic gesture is known as "giving the bird."
And yew thought yew knew
Isn't history more fun when you
know something about it?
ESCUELA DE VERANO EN LINGÜISTICA FORMAL
dear SHARERS from Encuentro de Gramática Generativa email@example.com
reenviando información acerca de la primera Escuela de Verano en Lingüística
Formal de América del Sur (EVELIN) que se realizará en la Universidad de
Campinas (Brasil), entre los días 12 y 18 de enero de 2004.
más información pueden consultar su página web
http://web.mit.edu/kaitire/www/evelin2004/, o escribir a
organizando a Primeira Escola de Verao em Ling:uistica Formal da America do Sul
(EVELIN), a ser realizada entre os dias 12 e 18 de janeiro de 2004 na Unicamp. A ideia da Escola eh oferecer anualmente
cursos nas diversas areas da linguistica formal (Sintaxe, Semantica, Fonologia,
Morfologia, Psicolinguistica), ministrados por docentes com reconhecimento internacional, a custos
acessiveis a um maior numero de alunos da America do Sul. Objetivamos tambem
criar um ambiente estimulante onde
todos os que tenham interesse na lingu:istica formal, sem importar o grau de
conhecimento, possam trocar experiencias na area, uma vez que para os cursos introdutorios nao eh
preciso ter conhecimento previo do assunto.
primeira edi,cao da Escola sera na Unicamp, mas objetivamos levar esse projeto
para outros centros universitarios sul americanos. Ate o momento estao
programados 8 cursos (introdutorios e avan,cados) em Sintaxe, Semantica,
Fonologia, Morfologia e Metodos de Trabalho de Campo, sendo que outros cursos
poderao ser oferecidos segundo a procura. Os docentes convidados para a EVELIN
2004 sao os seguintes:
Bhatt (UTexas): http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~bhatt/
David Embick (UPENN):
Ferreira (MIT): nao tem pagina
Richards (MIT): http://web.mit.edu/norvin/www/home.html
Cristina Schmitt (MSU):
Cheryl Zoll (MIT):
final da Escola de Verao, nos dias 17 e 18 de janeiro de 2004, havera um
workshop destinado aa apresentacao de trabalhos em ling:uistica formal. Havera
selecao de trabalhos, e o pagamento das inscricoes so sera efetuado mediante
aceite de apresentacao de trabalho.
se trata de um evento que pretende ser acessivel a todos os interessados, as
taxas de inscricao foram fixadas em torno de R$20,00 para o workshop e R$30,00
para a Escola de Verao; serao oferecidos alojamento e refeic,oes a baixo custo
(nao mais do que R$20 por dia), e um numero limitado de bolsas-viagem aaqueles
alunos que nao possam contar com auxilio de suas instituic,oes de
a organiza,cao de tal evento precisamos ter uma ideia do numero de pessoas que
estaremos recebendo na Unicamp durante essa calorosa semana de janeiro de 2004.
Por isso, perguntamos o seu interesse em participar desse evento e quantas
pessoas do seu departamento estariam interessadas em participar da Escola, do
Workshop ou de ambos, e solicitamos
que as inscric,oes sejam feitas na pagina da EVELIN na mayor brevidade possivel
no seguinte endere,co:
tambem que essa mensagem seja repassada a outras pessoas que possam se
interessar pela Escola. Mais informa,coes tambem podem ser encontradas no endere,co acima.
organizadora do Evelin -
961 ON-LINE DICTIONARIES FOR FREE
dear SHARER Iliana Graziano,Directora American Forum, has sent us the latest
issue of her newsletter. Among many other interesting articles ,we found this
tip that we wanted to SHARE with all of you:
Para todos aquellos que
trabajan con el idioma inglés y busquen ampliar su vocabulario, recomendamos el
En el mismo, se encuentran listados 961
diccionarios dentro de las siguientes áreas: General, Art, Business, Computing,
Medicine, Miscellaneous, Religion, Science, Slang, Sports, Tech,
Al solicitar la definición de una palabra,
la misma aparecerá definida en todos los diccionarios correspondientes y de
acuerdo al que se elija, se encontrarán ejemplos, pronunciación e información
12- IS IT POSSIBLE TO
ENJOY LEARNING ENGLISH?
very pleased to publish this announcement Laura has sent us. We know many of
you, dear SHARERS will join us in wishing her every possible success with this
Laura Szmuch announces the publication of
her book: "Aprendiendo inglés y disfrutando el proceso". It is in Spanish, as it
is mainly written for students or people who would like to learn English,
but have not made up their minds to start yet. It is conversational in
style, and it is packed with NLP techniques (though there is no jargon) to help
students to get to know themselves better, take advantage of their learning
styles, organise their study time and schedule more efficiently, tap into their
internal resources, boost motivation and encourage reflection during the
For further information, contact Laura at: firstname.lastname@example.org
dear SHARER Lucas Tsolakian sends us all this invitation:
ENGLISH- Effective Learning
written and directed by Lucas R.
November 29th - 4 & 6:30 PM
Tickets $6.- In
Club Alemán Theatre" -
J.B. Alberdi 1865 -
We finish this
issue of SHARE with part of a message and a beautiful poem that a dear SHARER
Mariana Mussetta from Villa Maria has sent us. In thanking Mariana for her
message and poem , we wish to thank all our dear SHARERS who send us their
contributions week after week and to all the other SHARERS, who we can almost
see there reading and caring very actively and passionately in silence.
have just read your latest SHARE issue and you guys get better and better every
day!! What you do is really great. You really feel you are connected to the
almost 6,000 people that receive this newsletter.
de Julio 222.- 5900 Villa María.
that what you live for?
that's what you hope for.
what if you stand on your very dream
dream no more since it's there
thinking and longing for old times
dreams were just dreams
isn't the hoping what we enjoy the most?
the expecting what we now boast of?
their sweetness comes from their root
not from their flowers.
the apparent impossibility
which they are varnished
at you face to face?
you will hold its hand
help you pursue another one.
Omar and Marina.
is distributed free of charge. All announcements in this electronic magazine are
also absolutely free of charge. We do not endorse any of the services announced
or the views expressed by the contributors. For more information about the
characteristics and readership of SHARE visit: http://www.groups.yahoo.com/group/ShareMagazine
OUR WEBSITE : http://www.ShareEducation.com.ar
There you can read all past issues of SHARE in the section SHARE ARCHIVES.